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[CANONS OF ADAMNAN.]

illicitum, "quanto magis, quæ manducant hominem. Foetus tamen. eorum observandi sunt. Linquite 15 quos mogitum inmunditia non polluit.

C. 8.

Gallinæ carnem hominis vel sanguinem ejus gustantes multum immundæ sunt et ova earum immunda sunt, pulli tamen observandi 1o

sunt.

C. 9.

Puteus in quo invenitur morticinum sive hominis sive canis sive animalis cujuslibet, primo evacuandus est, et humus ejus, quia aqua putei madefecerat, foras proicienda, et mundus est.

C. 10.

Intinctum a vacca sana conscientia sumendum; ut si quis enim intinctione vaccæ excommunicemus et 18 vitulo promulgenti1 gustatum lac non respuimus 20; sed tamen propter infirmas fratrum conscientias, non propter inmunditias, coquendum est, et tunc ab omnibus 22 suscipiendum est.

21

24

C. II.

Intinctum vero suibus 23 coquendum est et immundis hominibus tribuendum est. Sues namque munda et immunda commedunt', vaccæ vero nonnisi herbis et arborum frondibus pascuntur.

C. 12.

Intinctum vero a corvo nulla coctione mundari potest propter nostram conscientiam dubiam. Quis enim nostrum scit, quas inlicitas carnes prius comederat, quam intinxerit'?

25

C. 13.

Intinctum 26. 'a mustella' nec sine coctione nec post coctionem nullo modo suscipiendum est.

C. 14.

In aquis suffocata non manducanda sunt, unde Dominus carnem cum sanguine manducari prohibuit. In carne enim animalis suffocati

17

14 Quanto... polluit, and all C. 8, and all that follows, down to C. 19, om. c, Mart., who have instead, for C. 8, as follows-Equus aut pecus si percusserit hominem in agro civitatis suæ, dimidium unciæ reddet pro eo homini cujus sanguis effusus est. Si percusserit homo animal in agro suo, non redditur pro eo. 15 licite, edd. 16 conservandi, edd. ut quid enim intinctionem, edd. præmulgenti, edd. respuemus, edd. namque commedent m. e. i., a.

18

et a, edd.

21

25/

om. edd. 22 hominibus, edd. quam nostram lac i., edd.

23

26/

19

24/

a suibus, edd.
a duella vel aquila, edd.

20

[CANONS OF ADAMNAN.]

in aquis sanguis coagulatus perdurat. Hoc Dominus prohibet, non quod in illis temporibus homines crudam carnem manducarent, quia non esset dulcior, sed quia carnem suffocatam et morticinam manducassent. Et Lex metrica ratione scriptura" dicit: Carnem morticinam non manducetis.

C. 15.

Prædarum pecora 28 a Christianis sive per commercia sive per donationes non sunt 29 sumenda; quod enim reprobat, ut quid miles Christi suscipiet: elimosinam namque 31 invasit prædonis fletus' extinguit.

C. 16.

De meretrice conjuge sic idem interpretatus est, quia meretrix erit decusso proprii mariti jugo et secundi mariti inito vel tertii, cujus maritus illa vivente alteram non suscipiet, quia nescimus illam auctoritatem, quam legimus in quæstionibus Romanorum, utrum idoneis an falsis testibus &c., ornatam fuisse.

C. 17.

Carnem a bestiis commessam immundam esse idem confirmat, non tamen morticinam, quia sanguis illius carnis illicitæ effusus est per bestias.

33

C. 18.

Lethali vero morsu tantum captum pecus nec in totum mortificatum a peccatoribus et a bestialibus hominibus comedendum, abscissa tamen parte et canibus data, quam bestia dentibus intinxerit. Aptum namque sibi videtur, ut carnem bestiis administratam humanæ bestiæ commederent$4.

C. 19.

85

Simili modo prohibet medullas ossium cervorum manducari, quos lupi commederant 36.

C. 20.

Similiter cervos, quorum sanguinem quamvis "per venas' cernimus fluxisse per fracta in pedicis crura, vetat manducari, morticinam esse adfirmans 38, eo quod non fluxerat sanguis superior, qui custos et sedes animæ erat, sed coagulatus est intra carnem'; quia licet extremitas sanguinis per extremum quodlibet membrum sit effusa, sanguis tamen

39

27 scripta, edd.

31/

p. f. invassi, B, edd.

35

medant, edd.

28 pecunia, edd.
32 juncta, edd.

29

33

30 Deus, add edd.

34

com

est, edd. tin, B; tamen, edd. non licet, add. c, which begins here again at "medullas." In the Irish and Welsh canons, which are also contained in MS. B, is a chapter entitled Item Adompnanus, coinciding with Chapter 19 of this series, from "medullas" onwards, and Chapter 20. It is also in c. 36 commederunt, edd. 37/ parvulum, c, Mart. 38 confirmans carnem, c, Mart.

39/

om. A; quamlibet for quia licet, Mart.

VOL. II.

I

[CANONS OF ADAMNAN.]

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crassior et solidior, in quo anima sederat, intra carnem coagulatus manet. Itaque quodsi non crasa ulneris' inlissi" sedem animæ turbaverit, non est effusio sanguinis, sed tantum extremæ partis offensio, ita ut qui eam carnem commederit, sciat carnem cum sanguine commedisse, "cum Dominus hoc prohibuit", "non carnis equoctio', sed sanguinis effusio dederat". Et hoc prædictum intelligi" et de pecoribus quæ post abscissam vel tantum scissam 48 aurem in extrema infirmitate mortua sunt. Adipem tantum et pelles in usus varios habebimus.

49 Finiunt hæc judicia'.

40/ causa vulneris, ed. Mart. 41 illæsi, ed. 42 laverit, edd. 49 itaque et, c, Mart. 44/ cum enim prohibuit, Mart.; cum enim D. p., c; cum autem Dominus prohibuit, edd.

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47 debet, add. Mart.

A.D. 704. Sept. 23. Death of Adamnan.

ANN. TIGH., in an.a—Adamnanus LXXVII. anno etatis sue in nonas kalendis Octobris Abbas Ie

pausat.-See also the Ann. Ulton.

and the Ann. IV. Mag. in an. 703. [And see below, p. 135.]

a The Ann. Petav. quoted by Lappenberg (Angl.-Sax. Kings, I. xxxvi. n., Eng. tr.), give A.D. 705 as the date of Adamnan's death. But Bede specifies that it was before the next Easter came round after his vain

attempt to convert the monks of Hy; and the best Annalists give September, and 704, as the date. See, at length, Reeves' Adamnan, App. to Pref. p. lvii.

A.D. 710 (?). Letter of Ceolfrid to Nectan Mac Derili King of the Picts, and consequent adoption by the Picts of the Roman Easter and tonsurea. Also the introduction of stone churches, &c.

a See below, in vol. III. 285–295. The Picts henceforth took S. Peter as their patron Saint

(Bæd, V. 21), as e. g. at Invergowrie, Restennet, Aberdour, &c., all connected with S. Boniface.

A.D. 712. A Bishop at Hy.

ANN. TIGH., in an.-Ceode Episcopus Iea pausat.—So also Ann. Ulton., in an. (Coeddi).

A.D. 716-718. The Monks of Hy accept the Roman Easter and tonsure; but apparently lose for a time the supremacy over the Pictish Church east of Drumalban, which (perhaps) passes to Abernethyb.

ANN. TIGH., in an. 716. Pasca in Eo civitate commotatur.IB., in an. 717. Expulsio familiæ le trans Dorsum Britannie a Nectono Rege.—IB., in an. 718. Tonsura corona super familiam Iea datur. So also Ann. Ulton.,

in ann.

[ROMAN EASTER AND TONSURE ACCEPTED BY PICTS AND SCOTS.]

BÆD., H. E., III. 4.-Tunc [A.D. 715] veniente ad eos reverentissimo et sanctissimo patre et sacerdote Ecgbercto, de natione Anglorum, qui in Hibernia diutius exulaverat pro Christo, eratque et doctissimus in Scripturis et longæ vitæ perfectione eximius, correcti sunt per eum et ad verum canonicumque Pascha diem translati; quem tamen et antea non semper in luna quarta decima cum Judæis, ut quidam rebantur, sed in die quidem Dominica, alia tamen quam decebat hebdomada celebrabant. Sciebant enim, ut Christiani, Resurrectionem Dominicam quæ prima sabbati facta est prima sabbati semper esse celebrandam: sed ut barbari et rustici, quando eadem prima sabbati quæ nunc Dominica dies cognominatur veniret, minime didicerant. Verum quia gratia caritatis fervere non omiserunt, et hujus quoque rei notitiam ad perfectum percipere meruerunt, juxta promissum Apostoli dicentis: "Et si quid aliter sapitis, et hoc quoque vobis Deus revelabit."V. 22. Nec multo post illi quoque qui insulam Hii incolebant monachi Scottica nationis, cum his quæ sibi erant subdita monasteriis, ad ritum Paschæ ac tonsuræ canonicum Domino procurante perducti sunt. Siquidem anno ab Incarnatione Domini septingentesimo sextodecimo,... cum venisset ad eos de Hibernia Deo amabilis et cum omni honorificentia nominandus pater ac sacerdos Ecgberct,. honorifice ab eis et multo cum gaudio susceptus est. Qui quoniam et doctor suavissimus, et eorum quæ agenda docebat erat exsecutor devotissimus, libenter auditus ab universis, immutavit piis ac sedulis exhortationibus inveteratam illam traditionem parentum eorum, de quibus Apostolicum illum licet proferre sermonem, quod æmulationem Dei habebant sed non secundum scientiam; catholicoque illos atque Apostolico more celebrationem, ut diximus, præcipuæ solemnitatis sub figura coronæ perpetis agere perdocuit. .... Susceperunt autem Hiienses monachi, docente Ecgbercto, ritus vivendi Catholicos sub abbate Duunchado, post annos circiter octoginta ex quo ad prædicationem gentis Anglorum Aidanum miserant antistitem. [M. H. B. 176, 177, 281.]

• Bede's date of A.D. 715 has been explained as that of the year when the change was resolved upon, and A.D. 716 as that when it actually took effect. He merely mentions the change, and alludes indirectly to the rejection of Columbite supremacy by the Picts on occasion

of it.

b Bede, writing A.D. 731, states that the

monastery of Hy "in cunctis pene septentrionalium Scottorum [i. e. in Ireland] et omnium Pictorum monasteriis non parvo tempore arcem tenebat, regendisque eorum populis præerat" (H. E., III. 3); which implies certainly that Hy had in A.D. 731 lost at least in part that supremacy, as the Annalists affirm. That Abernethy succeeded to it, and that, in

[PROBABLE PICTISH PRIMACY OF ABERNETHY.]

Abernethy, "fuerunt tres electiones factæ, quando non fuit nisi unus solus Episcopus in Scotia," is asserted by Fordun (IV. 12). According to the Chron. Pict. (Skene, 6), "Necton Morbet filius Erip XXIIIJ. [annos] regnavit : tercio anno regni ejus Darlugdach Abbatissa Cilledara de Hibernia exulat pro Christo ad Britanniam secundo anno adventus sui immolavit Nectonius Aburnethige Deo et Sancte Brigide, presente Dairlugdach que cantavit alleluia super istam hostiam. Optulit igitur Nectonius magnus filius Wirp, Rex omnium provinciarum Pictorum, Apurnethige Sancte Brigide, usque ad diem judicii, cum suis finibus, que posite sunt a lapide in Apurfeirt usque ad lapidem juxta Cairfuill, id est, Lethfoss, et inde in altum usque ad Athan," &c. &c. It is certainly possible that this legend may really refer to the later Nectan, Mac Derili. There is also an entry in another, 13th cent., chronicle (Cbron. of Picts and Scots, Skene, 201), which (as does also a third chronicle, ib. 150), while it attributes the building of Abernethy to Garnald son of Donald, successor to Bruidi, about A.D. 583, implies

that it occupied the same position as Dunkeld did afterwards: -"Garnald edifia l'eglis de Abirnithin, CC. aunz, et XXV. aunz, et XI. moys, deuaunt qe l'eglis de Dunkeldin fust edifie du Roy Constentin Roy des Picis." The legend of S. Bonifacius (Brev. Aberdon. Prop. SS. pro temp. Hyem., and Skene, Chron. 421 sq.), which brings him with a large number of Roman clergy-Boniface indeed being confounded with the Popeto baptize a Pictish King Nectan, is also supposed to be a tradition of the influx of (so to say) Roman clergy, necessarily consequent upon the expulsion of the Columbite clergy by Nectan (Skene, Pref. to Chron.). But Boniface is only an alias of Bishop Cuiritin or Queretinus of Rosemarkie (Reeves, Culdees, 45), and was an Irishman. Nectan Mac Derili undoubtedly built a stone church in Pictland (Bæd. H. E., V. 21), but its locality is not stated by Bede, and while Wyntoun indicates Rosemarkie, the far more probable site of Restennet, near Dunnichen, is suggested by Bishop Forbes and Mr. Stuart.

A.D. 721. A Pictish Bishop of " Scotia" at a Council of Rome. CONC. ROM. SUB GREGORIO II. (subscriptt.)—Fergustus, Episcopus Scotia Pictus, huic constituto a nobis promulgato subscripsi. [Labb., VI. 1458; and above, p. 7.]

A.D. 723-791. ANN. TIGH. and ANN. ULT., in an. 723. Clericatus Selbaigh Regis Dalriada.-ANN. TIGH., in an. 724. Clericatus [Nechtain Regis Pictorum.-ANN. ULT., in an. 731. Clericatus Echdach filii Cuidini Regis Saxonum, et constringitur.-IB., in an. 770. Niall Frassach, Rex Hiberniæ, post septenne imperium, religiosus in Hyensi monasterio factus est (and IB., in an. 778, his death.— IB., in an. 782. Baculus Airtgaile mic Cathail Regis Connacie, et peregrinatio ejus in sequenti anno ad insolam Iae (and Iв., in an. 791, his death).

A.D. 727-778. Supremacy of Hy over Irish Columbite Monasteries. ANN. TIGH. and ULT., in an. 727. Adamnani reliquie transferuntur in Hiberniam, et lex renovatur.-ANN. ULT., in an. 730. Reversio reliquiarum Adomnani de Hibernia in mense Octobris.-ANN. TIGH. and ULT., in an. 754. Sleibine Abbas Iea in Hiberniam venit (and so, A.D. 753, Lex Columb-Cille per Domhnall Midhe [Domnall of Meath, King of Ireland], and A.D. 757, Lex Columcille la [i. e. per] Slebine, and A.D. 758, Reversio Slebine in Hiberniam).-—ANN. ULT., in an.

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