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[INSCRIBED AND OTHER CHRISTIAN MONUMENTS IN SCOTLAND.]

(i) Ross-shire: stones of a like character, in one locality, viz. the western or southern shores respectively of the Moray and Dornoch Firths, at—

i.

Rosemarkie, south of the Cromarty Firth, a cross in

two pieces, and fragments (ib., I. 105-107).

ii. Nigg, north of the Cromarty Firth (ib., I. 28, 29),
representing the consecration of the Holy Eu-
charist.

iii. Shandwick, close to Nigg, a freestone obelisk with
cross, magnificently carved (ib., I. 26, 27).

iv. Hilton in Cadboll, close to Shandwick, a stone
with ornaments of a Saxon character, but no cross
(ib., I. 25).

V.

Tarbet, a fragment beautifully carved (ib., I. 30).

vi. Edderton (ib., I. 31, II. 129).

(k) Sutherlandshire, only two like stones—

i.

ii.

[blocks in formation]

At Golspie, north coast of Dornoch Firth, near the Ross-shire cluster (ib., I. 34), with Oghams.

At Farr, in the centre of the north coast, near Tongue (ib., I. 35). (1) Caithness-shire, also only two specimens, at—

i.

ii.

Ulbster, east coast a little south of Wick, with symbols (ib., I. 40).

Halkirk, northwards, some way up the Thurso Water, an elaborate crossed stone (ib., II. 79).

In addition to the above, rude crosses are found, inscribed within several caves, mostly on the shores of Fife, frequented no doubt by hermits in early times (Stuart, ib., Append. XIII. to Preface).

C. Inscribed and other Christian Monuments among the Scots of Dalriada. A.D. 700-1000 (?).

I. The inscribed monuments of early date are very few.

i. In Hy, a stone with an incised cross, and OR AR ANMIN EOGAIN (= a prayer for the soul of Eogain-Stuart, Sculpt. Stones of Scotl., II. 65.)

ii. In the same island, another, with OR DO MAIL FATARIC (=a prayer for Maelpatrick—Stuart, ib., II. p. 31): referred by Dr. Reeves to Maelpatrick O'Banan, Bishop of Conner and Dalaradia, ob. A.D. 1174; but Mr. Stuart assigns an earlier date to both this and the preceding example. The name is a very common one.

[INSCRIBED AND OTHER CHRISTIAN MONUMENTS IN SCOTLAND.]

There are several other inscribed and very beautiful slabs and crosses, both in Hy and in the neighbouring islands, as e. g. Oronsay, but of a date much posterior to these and to the period with which we are here concerned, and running down to the 16th century.

II. Uninscribed monuments occur frequently in the islands and in Kintyre (besides many of later date), viz.:

1. In the Islands.

Argyllshire.

i. Hy, two crossed stones, of Irish type, one called S. Martin's, another with a plain cross in Reilig Oran of the character of the Irish crosses ascribed by Dr. Petrie to the 9th century, and two early fragments (Stuart, ib., II., plates 40, 41, 44-46, and p. 65). ii. Islay, fragments of carved pillar stones at Kilarrow and at Keils, two crossed stones at Kilchoman, and two elaborately carved stones with crosses of Irish type but probably 10th or 11th century at Kildalton (ib., plates 35-37, 53).

iii. Eilanmore, W. coast of South Knapdale, Kintyre; a carved pillar, once a cross with limbs, and a stone with a plain lined cross incised (ib., plates 100, 103).

iv. Tiree, a carved crossed stone at Kirkapoll (with Crucifixion) which looks of later date, and a very old carved stone with cross of more ancient appearance than those in Hy, besides many other fragments of the early Hy type (ib., plates 48, 52).

Inverness-shire.

V. Canna, a beautiful cross with limbs (ib., plates 50, 51).

vi. Harris (in the Hebrides), a stone with a plain lined cross incised (ib., plate 103).

Buteshire.

vii. Bute, a fragment at S. Calmag, Rothsay, fragments of an interlaced cross at Rothsay Castle, and three round-headed crosses of a Cornish type at S. Blane's, Kingarth (ib., plates 56, 72, 73).

viii. Cumbrae, at Millport, fragments of ten crosses like those at S. Blane's (ib., plate 74).

ix. Arran, at Kilbride, a primitive stone with cross like those in Cornwall (ib., plate 122).

[INSCRIBED AND OTHER CHRISTIAN MONUMENTS IN SCOTLAND.]

2. On the mainland.

Mainland of Argyllshire.

i. Kintyre, at Kilchousland near Campbeltown, a fragment, and at Keils to the S. W. of North Knapdale, a beautiful cruciform pillar but apparently of later date (ib., plates 56 and 32); also at Keils two slabs, and some inscribed monuments of apparently 11th or 12th century (ib., plate 57).

ii. Kilmichael, in Glassary near Lochgilphead, two crossed stones (ib., plate 58), also an inscribed stone resembling those at Keils in Kintyre (ib., plate 57).

iii. Keils in Morven, N. coast of Sound of Mull, a cross with limbs, beautifully carved (ib., plate 49).

On none of these monuments are there any of the symbols so common in Pictland, but which occur nowhere else, save in one place in Galloway, and on a slab found on the Castle Hill, Edinburgh.

D. In Laodonia or Saxonia, i. e. in the district from the Border northward to the Firth of Forth, which was occupied by the Angles from A.D. 547 (?) onwards, but which became subject to the Scottish King either A.D. 971 × 975, or more probably A.D. 1018, and consequently also, at the same time, part of (what was ultimately held to be) the diocese of S. Andrew's, there are no monuments belonging to the Saxon period, and answering in character to the Northumberland and Durham monuments, except the fragments at Abercorn and Aberlady, above mentioned: unless we include, under this head, that at Coldingham co. Berwick, close to S. Abb's Head, figured in Stuart, Sculpt. Stones, p. 63, plate 110.

APPENDIX D.

ABBATS OF HY DURING THE PERIOD OF COLUMBITE PRIMACY a,

A.D. 563-849.

1. S. COLUMBA, A.D. 563–597 Þ. [Ann. Tigh. a. 595, Quies Columcille in nocte Dominica Penticosten V. Id. Juni anno peregrinationis sue XXXV., etatis vero LXXVII. So also Ann. Innisf., Ult. The Ann. Clonmacn. and IV. Mag. give the same day but a different year. correct year, see Reeves's Adamnan, pp. 309-312; 1. 67, n.c]

That A.D. 597 is the Lanigan, II. 247; Grub,

2. S. BAITHENUS, A.D. 597-600. [Ann. Tigh. a. 598, Quies Baethin Abbatis Ea anno LXVI. etatis sue. See however Ann. Ult.; Adamn., I. 2, 23, II. 46, III. 4; Ann. Clonm.; IV. Mag. in an. 595; and Grub, I. 70, n.]

3. LAISREAN or LASREN, A.D. 600-605. [Ann. Tigh. a. 605, Obitus Lasren Abbas Iea. So also Ann. Innisf., &c.]

4. FERGNA or VIRGNOUS, A.D. 605-623, a Briton [see above, vol. I. p. 122], miscalled a Bishop by IV. Mag. in an. 622. [Ann. Tigh. a. 621, Bass (= mors) Fergna Abbatis Hie. Ann. Innisf. and Ult. date this in 623.]

5. SEGHINE OF SEIGINE or SEGENIUS, A.D. 623-652. Obitus Seghine Abbas Iea, i. filii Fiachna. So also Adamn., I. 3, II. 4; and above, p. 108.]

[Ann. Tigh. a. 652, Ann. Ult.; and see

6. SUIBHNE, A.D. 652-657. [Ann. Tigh. a. 657, Quies Suibnii mac Cuirthre Abbatis Iea. So also Ann. Ult. Ann. Clonm. and IV. Mag. give another year.]

7. CUIMINE AILBHE or CUMMENIUS ALBUS, A.D. 657-669. [The first biographer of S. Columba: Ann. Tigh. a. 669, Obitus Cumaine Ailbe Abbatis Iea. So also Ann. Ult., Ann. IV. Mag., in an. 668.]

8. FAILBHE, A.D. 669-679. [See above, p. 109, under A.D. 692. Ann. Tigh. a. 679, Quies Failbe Abbatis Iea. So also Ann. Ult., and see Adamn., I. 3.]

9. ADAMNANUS or ADOMNANUS, also EDHENNANUS, ENDANANUS, ODAN DANUS, the Wise, A.D. 679-704. [Also EUNAN, ONAN, OUNAN, ANNAN, THEWNAN (St. Eunan), and called (erroneously) the first Bishop of Raphoe (Reeves,

=

[PRIMATE-ABBATS OF HY, A.D. 563-849.]

pp. 256, 257; Lanigan, III. 99, 100); Ann. Tigh. a. 704, Adamnanus LXVII. anno etatis sue in nonas kalendis Octobris Abbas Ie pausat. So also, but in an. 703, Ann. Innisf., Ult., IV. Mag.d; see however Lappenberg, Anglo-Sax. Kings, I. xxxvi. note, who argues for A.D. 705.]

10, 11, 12, 13, 14. Five (perhaps six) abbats, apparently displacing one another, owing to factions arising from the Easter dispute. [10. DUNCHADH, A.D. 707, principatum Iae tenuit (Ann. Tigh., Ult., see also Bad. H. E., III. 4 ; and above, pp. 115, 117), and the same Dunchadh, mac Cindfaeladh, Abbas Ie, obiit A.D. 717 (ib.): but 11. CONAIN OF CONAMHAIL, became abbat before A.D. 710; according to Dr. Reeves, in A.D. 704; for, A.D. 710, Conmael mac Abbatis Cillidara Iea pausat (Ann. Tigh.), and, same year, Conain mac Failbe Abbas Iae pausat (Ann. Ult.); also, in A.D. 712, Ceode Episcopus Iea pausat (Ann. Tigh.), who may perhaps have been abbat, but probably was only a Bishop residing in the abbey: and 12. DORBENE, A.D. 713, cathedram Jae obtinuit (Ann. Tigh., Ult.); and the same Dorbene, according to one entry in Ann. Tigh. (repeated by Ann. Ult.), V. mensibus peractis in primatu 5o kal. Novembris die Sabbati obiit, and according to another entry in the former annals, died A.D. 715, but the 28th October was a Saturday in A.D. 713, and not in A.D. 715-however, 13. FAILCHU or FAELCU, A.D. 716, cathedram Columbæ LXXXVII. etatis anno in IIII. kl. Septembris (Vo. kal., Ann. Ult.) die Sabbati suscepit (Ann. Tigh., Ult.), and Aug. 29, A.D. 716, was a Saturday; and, A.D. 724, the same Faelchu, in both cases styled Mac Doirbeni or Dorbene, dormivit (Ann. Tigh., Ult.) and yet, 14. FeidliMIDH, A.D. 722, principatum Iae tenet (Ann. Tigh., Ult.), and did not die until A.D. 759. It looks as if Dunchadh, A.D. 707-716, and Faelchu, A.D. 716-724, were the abbats of the new or reforming side; and Conain, (perhaps Ceode,) Dorbene, and Feidlimidh, were the nominees of the others. The primacy over the Picts was lost during the incumbency of Faelchu.]

:

15. KILLENE FODA, or CILLENIUS LONGUS, A.D. 724-726. [Ann. Tigh. a. 724, Cillenius Longus ei [Faelchu] in principatum Ie successit; and a. 726, Cillenius Longus abbas Ie pausat. So also Ann. IV. Mag. in an. 725.]

16. KILLENE DROICTEACH, or the Bridgemaker, A.D. 726-752. [Ann. Tigh. a. 752, Mors Cilline Droictigh ancorite Iea. So also Ann. Ult., IV. Mag. in an. 747, the latter calling him "Abb. Iae."]

(FAILBHE THE SECOND, A.D. 752-754, is inserted here by Ann. IV. Mag. But the earlier Ann. Innisf. make the name Sleibne, and Dr. Reeves omits him altogether, and puts Sleibne's succession A.D. 752.)

17. SLEIBNE or SLEBHINE, A.D. 752-767. [Ann. Ult. a. 767, Quies Sleibeni Iae. And see ib. a. 754, and Ann. Tigh. a. 754, 757, 758.]

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