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[PRIMATE-ABBATS OF HY, A.D. 563-849.]

18. SUIBNE, A.D. 765–772. [Ann. Ult. a. 765, Suibne Abbas Iae in Hiberniam venit (where either Suibne is a mistake for Sleibne, or else the latter resigned in A.D. 765, or perhaps Suibne was elected coadjutor- abbat before his predecessor's death); ib. a. 772, Mors Suibne Abbas Iae.]

19. BREASAL MAC REGENI, A.D. 772-801. [Ann. Ult. a. 801, Bresal mac Regeni Abbas Iae anno principatus sui 31 dormivit. See also above, p. 117.]

20. CONACHTACH, A.D. 801, 802; "scriba selectissimus et Abbas Iae." See Ann. IV. Mag. a. 797.

21. CEALLACH, A.D. 802-814. [Ann. Ult. a. 814, Ceallach Abbas Iae finita constructione templi Cenindsa (Kells) reliquit principatum. He died in A.D. 815. See Ann. Clonmacn., IV. Mag.]

22. DIARMIT, A.D. 814-831 x 849. [Ann. Ult. a. 814, Diarmicius alumpnus Daigri pro eo (Ceallach) ordinatus est. He is mentioned also ib. a. 829, 831, and in IV. Mag. a. 816; but his death is not recorded, and A.D. 849 Indrecht is abbat. Blaithmaic's martyrdom happened. A.D. 825.]

23. INDRECHT or INNRECHTACH, (before) A.D. 849-854. [Ann. Ult. a. 849, Inrechtach Abbat of Hy goes to Ireland; Ann. Innisf. a. 854, he is "martyred" on his way to Rome by the Saxons.]

[Notices of subsequent abbats of Hy, no longer however primates of Scotland, and commonly styled coarbs, and that of other (Irish) abbeys (as Armagh, Kells, Kildare, Raphoe, &c.) in conjunction with Hy, occur regularly until A.D. 1099, and again after an interval of some half a century, down to A.D. 1203, at which date the last entry occurs respecting Hy in the Irish annals: see Reeves's Adamnan, pp. 407-413.]

This list is mainly abridged from Dr. Reeves's Add. Notes to Adamnan, on the Chronicles of Hy, pp. 370 sq.

b In addition to the settlements mentioned above on p. 107, there is a list of dedications to S. Columba in Dr. Reeves's Adamn., pp. 289-298, indicating missionary Columbite settlements, but not necessarily (and in some cases certainly not) cotemporary with S. Columba himself. They run completely round the coast (including the islands), from Largs and Bute, west, north, and east, to Forfarshire, and thence inland west to the Lennox. 1. In Scotia, where they are most numerous, they extend from Bute and Cantyre, through most of the islands (Islay, Oronsay, Colonsay, Mull, Canna, Tiree, S. Kilda, Skye and the islets on its coast, N. and S. Uist, Benbecula, Bernera,

Lewis); and one, Columbkill, on the northern skirts of the mainland Dalriada, at the head of Loch Arkeg: to which may be added Kilmacolm, and Largs in Renfrew, just south of the Clyde, in Strathclyde. Of these, S. Columba himself certainly occupied Skye (which was divided with him subsequently by S. Maelrubha: see Adamn., V. S. Col., I. 33, II. 26, and Reeves ad loc.) and Tiree; and probably most of the islands named. 2. In Pictland, beginning with Sanday and Hoy in the Orkneys, they are dotted along the coast at intervals, from a place near Tongue in Sutherland, Dirlet in Caithness, Clyne on the east coast of Sutherland, three or four places in Inverness-shire, Banff, and Nairn, to Lonmay (and the abbey of Deer) in the N. E. of Aberdeenshire, three places on the Don, and rather more in Forfar

[PRIMATE-ABBATS OF HY, A.D. 565-849.]

shire and Perth, including Dunkeld (which however was almost certainly not dedicated to S. Columba until about A.D. 850), and lastly Drymen in the Lennox. Two outlying dedications-Kirkcolm in Wigton, and S. Columba in Caerlaverock at the mouth of the Nith in Dumfries-belong probably to Irish influence there, of 9th or 10th centuries. Other Irish saints of the same period visited Scotland, but without permanently settling there: e. g. S. Finbar of Cork, patron saint of Dornoch; S. Brendan; the two S. Fillans; S. Ronan,

connected with the island of Rona; S. Flannan; (apparently) S. Cainnech; &c. (see Reeves, Adamn., App. to Pref. p. lxxiv.).

The Ann. Tigb. must be corrected as respects the mention of Whitsunday. The evidence given by Dr. Reeves (as above) fixes the day and year to June 9, A.D. 597, which was not Whitsunday, but Trinity Sunday.

d For Adamnan's life and writings, and the churches dedicated to him, see Dr. Reeves's Pref. to Adamnan's V. S. Columbæ.

APPENDIX E.

LIVES EXIST OF THE FOLLOWING SAINTS CONNECTED WITH THE EARLY SCOTTISH (DALRIAD) OR PICTISH CHURCHES, PRIOR TO A.D. 850.

1. S. Servani (Serf), Episcopi (a Scottish disciple of S. Palladius, according to the Aberdeen Breviary-came from Alexandria according to the legend in Skene, who himself conjectures him to have come with Boniface in the 8th century): one printed by Skene, Chron. 412-420, from a MS. of Bishop Marsh at Dublin, V. 3, 4, 16: another legend, in Brev. Aberd. Pars Estiv. July 1, and in Actt. SS. July 1, vol. I. p. 57, 58. S. Irchard occurs as his cotemporary in the Aberdeen Breviary.

2. S. Ternani, confessoris et Episcopi (also a disciple of S. Palladius): in Brev. Aberd. Pars Estiv. June 12. See also the Liber de Arbuthnot, pp. lxxii. sq.

3. S. Boethii (Buitte, or Buti, Mac Bronaig=Bute of Monasterboice, commemorated Dec. 7), Presbyteri (an Irishman who went to Italy, returned thence, and preached among other countries in those of the Picts and of Dalriada, died the year of S. Columba's birth, sc. A.D. 520 Ann. Tigh., A.D. 519 in other Annals): extracts in Skene, Chron. 410, 411, from MS. Bodl. Rawl. B. 505.

4. S. Columba, Presbyteri et Abbatis (of Hy, A.D. 563–597): one, auct. Cuminio Abb. Hyens., A.D. 657 × 669, in Mabillon, Actt. SS. Ben. Sæc. I., I. 342, ed. Venet.; Actt. SS. June 9, vol. II. p. 185; Colgan, II. 325; Pinkerton, VV. Antiq. SS. Scot., &c.; another, auct. Adamnano Abb. Hyens., A.D. 679 x 704, in Canisius, Antiq. Lectt., I. 678, ed. Basnage; Messingham, Florileg. Insul. SS. seu VV. et Actt. SS. Hibern. p. 141; Surius, June 9, II. 144, ed. 1617; Colgan, 336-372; Actt. SS. June 9, vol. II. p. 197; Pinkerton as above; and, finally, edited by Dr. Reeves, with notes, &c., Dubl. 1857. See also Capgrave, N. L. A. 62. Other lives, of later date, with various Appendices, are in Colgan, pp. 321, 389-492.

5. S. Baitheni, Abbatis (of Hy, A.D. 597-600): in Actt. SS. June 9, vol. II. p. 237: see Hardy's Descr. Catal., I. 178.

6. S. Aidani, Episcopi (of Lindisfarne, A.D. 635-651, sent thither from Hy) in various forms, founded upon Bada, one printed in Capgrave, N. L. A. 4, the others in MS. See Hardy, ib., 246, 247.

[LIVES OF SCOTTISH SAINTS.]

7. S. Finani, Episcopi (of Lindisfarne, A.D. 651-661, also sent from Hy): from the Brev. Aberd. and Bæda, in Actt. SS. Feb. 17, vol. III. p. 21. See also Colgan, I. 357; and Hardy, as above, 259.

8. S. Adomnani or Adamnani, Abbatis (of Hy, A.D. 679-704; see above, p. 135) an Irish Life, of which an extract is in Skene, Chron. 408, 409, from MS. Brussels No. 5101-4. See also Actt. SS. Sept. 23, vol. VI. p. 642; Mabillon, Actt., SS. Ben. Sac. III., IV. 452, ed. Venet. ; and Hardy, as above, 388.

9. S. Bonifacii, Episcopi (preached among the Picts in the time of Nectan about the beginning of the 8th century [see above, p. 116, note a], but his legend, which makes him Pope after Gregory the Great, and also end as Bishop of Rosemarkie, dates his death about the earlier half of the 7th century: probably he was in reality an Irishman, viz. S. Cuiritin or Queretinus [Reeves, Culdees, p. 45]): in Brev. Aberd. Pars Hyem. Prop. SS. fol. lxx., printed also in Skene, Chron. 421-423. See also Actt. SS. March 16, vol. II. p. 449.

10. S. Blaithmaici, Martyris et Abbatis (of Hy, but not abbat, probably president or prior under the joint Abbat of Kells and Hy, martyred A.D. 825 by the Danes, Ann. Ult.): auct. Walafrid. Strabon. Abb. Augiensi (i. e. of the Irish abbey of Reichenau, beginning of 9th century), in hexameter verse; in Colgan, I. 128; Messingham, Florileg., &c., pp. 399-402; Canisius, Lectt. Antiq., II. ii. 201; Actt. SS. Jan. 19, vol. II. p. 236; Mabillon, Actt. SS. Ben. Sæc. III., IV. 439; Pinkerton, Vitæ, &c. 459; and see Hardy, as above, 497.

11. S. Reguli (Rule), Episcopi (a Greek from Patras, brought S. Andrew's relics to Pictland, where he preached the Gospel; in the 4th century according to his legend, but probably in the 8th century if at all: see above, p. 117; and Joseph Robertson, in Quarterly Review, LXXXV. p. 110: Dr. Reeves [Culdees, p. 34] identifies him conjecturally with S. Riaghail of Muic-inis in Ireland): Historia Beati Reguli et Fundationis Eccles. S. Andreæ, from the Reg. of S. Andrew's, in App. VII. to Pinkerton's Enquiry, pp. 456 sq. Also, Qualiter Acciderit quod Memoria S. Andrea Apostoli amplius in Regione Pictorum, quæ nunc Scotia dicitur, quam in cæteris Regionibus sit, &c., in Pinkerton, ib., App. XII. pp. 496 sq., and Ussher, De Antiq. Brit. Eccl., VI. 187-190. See also Actt. SS. Oct. 17, vol. VIII. pp. 175-180; and Skene, Chron. 138, 183, 375.

12. S. Indrechti, Martyris et Abbatis (of Hy, A.D. [before] 849-854, went to Ireland with S. Columba's relics A.D. 849 [Ann. Ult.], martyred by Saxons on his way to Rome A.D. 854 [Ann. Innisf.]): legend written by W. Malm., still in MS., abridged in Capgrave, N. L. A. 188; and Actt. SS. Feb. 5, vol. I. p. 689; which misdates the martyrdom as in the time of

[LIVES OF SCOTTISH SAINTS.]

Ina of Wessex and therefore about A.D. 689, and locates it near Glastonbury, and makes Indrecht merely the son of an Irish King, and also to have been returning from Rome, but which probably is meant to refer to the Abbat of Hy. See also Hardy, as above, 338.

To these are to be added the legends in the Brev. Aberdon., as e. g. of S. Baldred of East Lothian (7th century), S. Cainnech (Albanice Kenneth, who belongs rather to Ireland), S. Constantine (of Cornwall; see above in vol. I. pp. 120, 157), S. Drostan (Actt. SS. July 11, vol. III. pp. 198-200), S. Fergus, S. Kessog, S. Modanus (Actt. SS. Feb. 4, vol. I. p. 498), S. Molocus or Molonacus (Moluoc, or Lughaidh, of Lismore in Argyll, ob. A.D. 592), &c. A full list of Scottish Saints will be found in Bishop Forbes's Kalendars of Scottish Saints. The great majority of those whose names occur in connection with Scotland, belong rather to Ireland, both by their birth and by their principal labours.

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