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A.D. 943. Constantine, son of Aodh, King of Alban, becomes Abbat of the Keledei of S. Andrew's.

CHRON. PICT. [Constantinus] in senectute decrepitus baculum cepit et Domino servivit: et regnum mandavit Mael filio Domnail. [Skene, Chron. 9.]

CHRON. OF SCOTS AND PICTS.-Constantine mak Edha XL. annis regnavit et dimisso regno sponte Deo in habitu religionis abbas factus est in Keldeorum Sancte Andree, quinque annis servivit ibi et mortuus est et sepultus. [Id., ib. 151; and similarly in later Chronicles, ib. 174, 178, 205, 288, 301, 305.]

ANN. ULTON., in an. 952.-Custantin mac Aeda Ri Albain


So this, which is a 13th century Chronicle, and similarly all the later Chronicles: but the oldest Pictish Chron. (Skene, 10) makes Constantine die "in X. ejus [Malcolmi] anno sub

corona penitenti in senectute bona." He was buried at S. Andrew's instead of Hy, contrary to custom (Chron. Pict.).

Before A.D. 955. The Keledei of Lochleven make over the island (theirs since A.D. 842) to the Bishop of S. Andrew's.

REGIST. PRIOR. S. ANDR.-Brude filius Dergard, qui ultimus Regum Pictorum secundum antiquas tradiciones fuisse recolitura, contulit insulam Lochleuine Deo omnipotenti et Sancto Servano et Keledeis heremitis ibidem commorantibus et Deo servientibus et servituris in illa insula. Et prefati Keledei dederunt locum cellule Episcopo Sancti Andree sub tali forma: quod Episcopus exhiberet eis victum et uestitum. Et ne ignoretur quis contulit Episcopo locum ibi, Ronanus monachus et abbas, vir admirande sanctitatis, primo concessit precariob locum ibi Episcopo, scilicet Fothath filio Brenc, qui nunc et tunc per totam Scociam fuit celebris et satis commendabilis uite. Prefatus Episcopus dedit benediccionem suam plenarie omnibus hiis qui observarent conuencionem istam et amiciciam initam inter Episcopum et Keledeos, et uersa vice dedit malediccionem suam omnibus Episcopis qui infirmarent et reuocarent prefatam conuencionem. [p. 113.]

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A.D. 963. ANN. IV. MAG., in an.-Fothadh mac Brain scriba et Episcopus Insularum Albæ.

a Fothadh, "primus Episcopus Scottorum," and successor to Cellach, was expelled by King Indulf, and died eight years afterwards, according to the Suppl. to Fordun. He was expelled therefore about the date of Indulf's accession, A.D. 955. According to the Legend of S. Andrew (c. A.D. 1279), inserted in the Reg. S. Andr. (Skene, Chron. 190, 191), Robert (A.D. 1122) “in Episcopum Scotorum electus fuit: sic quippe, ab antiquo, Episcopi Sancti Andreæ dicti sunt, et in scriptis tam antiquis quam modernis inveniuntur dicti Summi Archiepiscopi sive Summi Episcopi Scotorum . . . . Sic et nunc quoque in vulgari et communi locutione Escop Alban, id est, Episcopi Albania, appellantur. Sic et dicti sunt, et dicuntur per excellentiam ab universis Scotorum Episcopis, qui a locis quibus præsunt appellantur." The title in Ann. Tigh. and IV. Mag. a. 1055 is "Epscob Alban;" in Ann. Ult. a. 1093 (of Fothadh), "Ardepscob Alban." And the natural translation of this, from the end of the 10th century, would be "Episcopus Scottorum." Fothadh, accordingly, is called "in Scotis summus Episcopus,"

in the inscription upon the silver cover of his Gospels (Skene, Chron. 190). And the title lasted into the 12th century. Simeon Dunelm. in one passage so calls Turgot (in Twysd. 237), A.D. 1109. So does also Turgot's own Profession (in Stubbs, ap. Twysd. 1713), if it can be trusted. The letter of Nicolas to Eadmer speaks of the " præsul S. Andreæ," at the same period, as called "summus pontifex Scotia." Robert, Bishop A.D. 1122 (Reg. of S. Andr. in Skene, 190), Ernald, Bishop A.D. 1158 or 1160 (Reg. Prior. S. Andr. 126, 127, 128), and Richard, Bishop A.D. 1163 (ib. 12), are still styled, or style themselves, "Episcopus Scottorum." But on the other hand the title of Bishop of S. Andrew's is given to Turgot, not only by Simeon Dunelm. repeatedly, but by King Alexander (Eadmer, Hist. Nov., V.); and to Eadmer by Archbishop Anselm (ib. IV.); and Bishops Robert and Ernald so call themselves (Reg. P. S. A. 124, 128); and naturally, after the complete establishment of the other local Bishoprics, it became the proper title, from the 12th century onwards. The Archbishopric dates from Aug. 17, A.D. 1472.

A.D. 965. A lay (Keledean) Abbat at Dunkeld.

ANN. ULT., in an.-Cath ettir fhiru Alban imoneitir ubi multi occisi sunt im Dounchadh .i. Ab. Duincaillenn [Battle between the men of Alban among themselves, when many were slain about Duncan Abbat of Dunkeld].

A.D. 966-1011. ANN. IV. MAG., in an. 964. Finghin angcoire J Epscob la, deicc [Finghin anchorite and Bishop of Hy died].— ANN. ULT., in an. 978. Fiachra Aircinneach a la quievit.—IB., in an. 980. Mugron Comharba Coluimcilleb ittir Erenn Albain [in Erin and Alba] vitam felicem finivit.—IB., in an. 986. I Columcille do arcain do Danaraibh aidhci n-otlac coromarbhsat in Apaidh y XV viros do Sruithibh na Cille [Hy of Columbkill plundered by the Danes on the night of the Nativity, and the Abbat and XV men of the learned of the Church slain].-ANN. IV. MAG., in an. 985 [986]. Maolciarain Ua Maighre, comharba Colaim Chiller, du dhul i ndergmhartra las na Danaraibh i n-Ath Cliath [Maelciarain Ua Maighre, coarb of Columbcille, was cruelly murdered by the Danes of


Athcliath].-ANN. ULT., in an. 989. Dunchadh hua Robacan comhorba Coluimcille mortuus est. Dubdalethe comharba Patraicc do gabhail comharbain Columcille a Comhairle fer n-Erenn Albain [takes the corbeship of Columbcille by the advice of the men of Erin and Alba].—IB., in an. 1007. Muredach mac Cricain do deirgin comarbus Columcille ar Dia-Ferdomnach i comorbus Columcille con a comairle fer n-Erenn isin aenach sin [Muredach son of Crecan resigns the corbeship of Columcille for the service of God. Ferdomnach elected to the corbeship of Columcille by the advice of the men of Erin at that fair, viz. of Tailtan (so IV. Mag.)]-—IB., in an. 1011. Muredach hua Crican comorba Columcilla y fer leighinne Ardmacha J in Christo dormivit.

a The only mention of a Herenach of Hy (Reeves), i. e. of a lay warden of the Church lands, and commonly by this time hereditarily So. The IV. Mag. call him "Abbat."

b The IV. Mag. call him "Abbat, scribe, and Bishop, the most learned of the three divisions" (sc. Ireland, Man, and Alba).

e The Ann. Innisf. call him "Bishop of Hy."

d Dublin.

e i. e. Lector. The IV. Mag. call him "coarb of Columcille and Adamnan, a learned man, and Bishop, and Virgin, lector [ferleighind] of Armagh, and intended coarb of Patrick;" and add the day of his death, and that "he was buried with great honour and veneration in the great church of Armagh before the altar."

A.D. 967 x 971. CHRON. PICT.-Leot et Sluagadach exierunt ad Romam. [Skene, 10: in the reign of Culen.]

A.D. 970a. CHRON. PICT.-Maelbrigde Episcopus pausavit: Cellach filius Ferdalaig regnavit. [Skene, 10.]

The date is reckoned from Fordun and Wyntoun. Cellach is alleged (but only by

Fordun) to have been the first Scottish Bishop, "qui adivit Romam pro confirmatione."

A.D. 971 × 995. Foundation of Brechina by Kenneth son of Malcolm. CHRON. PICT.-Hic [Cinadius=Kenneth II.] est qui tribuit magnam civitatem Brechne Domino. [Skene, Chron. 10.]

a In King David's time certainly, and probably from its foundation, Keledean. See below in Appendix B. Dr. Petrie (Eccles.

Archit. of Ireland, p. 410) dates the wellknown round tower, not at this date, but in A.D. 1020.

A.D. 977. A Scottish Bishop named Beornhelma on the side of the Secular Clergy at the Council of Calne.

EADMER, V. S. Dunstan.-Illis autem huic vitæ subtractis, filii eorum, cupientes recuperare quæ perdiderant in parentibus suis,


Scotiam miserunt, et inde quemdam prægrandis ut fama ferebat eloquentiæ virum, Bernelmum nomine, magno conductum pretio in tuitionem suæ causæ contra Dunstanum adduxerunt. Conglobati ergo sub uno clericorum filii Regem atque Dunstanum apud villam quæ dicitur Kalne in quodam cœnaculo consistentes reperiunt, et armati rhetore illo qui suæ victoriæ spes maxima erat, antiquæ calumniæ coram eis jurgia promunt. [Angl. S., II. 220.]—So also, before Eadmer, OSBERN., V. S. Dunstan. [ib. 112].

a Possibly an Irishman, but the Saxon name takes us rather to southern Scotland. Keledean sympathies with secular canons may perhaps have had something to do with the question (so Grub, I. 231).

b Sc. the "Clerici" of Winchester at the council of Winchester, A.D. 975. But it was

hardly the "filii," after a lapse of only two
years. The commonly received history, how-
ever, of Dunstan's proceedings against the
secular clerks, rests in its details upon very
questionable evidence.
⚫ Edgar.

A.D. 980. ANN. IV. MAG., in an. 979.—Amhlaoibh mac Siotriocca aird tigherna Gall Atha Cliatha, do dol co Hi dia oilithre a eicc innte iar pennaind 7 deighbheithaidhe [Amhlaeibh son of Sitric, chief lord of the foreigners of Athcliath, went to Hy on his pilgrimage; and he died there, after penance and a good life.]

This is the first evidence in the Irish annals to a Danish chief (as here, of Dublin) being a Christian (O'Donovan ad loc.).

A.D. 1003 × 1033. Grant of Malcolm II. to the Monastery of Deera. BOOK OF DEER.-Malcoloum mac Cinathá dorat cúit rííg íbbidbín acus inpett meic gobroíg acus dá dabég' uactaír rósábard [Maelcoluim son of Kenneth gave (the) King's share in Bidbin and in Pett meic gobroig, and two davochs of upper Rosabard]. [p. 93, ed. Stuart.]

a See Stuart's Book of Deer, Pref. li. b A davoch=416 Scottish acres or four ploughlands.

Memoranda follow in the same place of two (among many) grants to the same abbey: one by Malcolm son of Malbride, Mormaer of Moray (ob. A.D. 1029), the other by

Malsnechte (ob. A.D. 1085), son of Lulach (ob. A.D. 1058), which Lulach was son of Gruoch, who married Macbeth for a second husband, and brought to him also (apparently) the mormaerdom of Moray. Consequently Moray must have reached east of the Spey at this period.

A.D. 1018. CHRON. OF THE SCOTS.-Ipse [Malcolm II.] etiam multas oblationes tam ecclesiis quam clero ea diea distribuit. [Skene, 131.]

a Sc. the day of the battle of Carham; as a result of which Malcolm acquired the Lothians. The council of Perth (reckoned as a Scottish council by Innes) and the laws of Malcolm Mac Kenneth, found in Boethius, are spurious.

For the foundation of the see of Morthlach, wrongly (as it should seem) attributed to Malcolm II., see below under Malcolm III., A.D. 1063.


A.D. 1026. ANN. IV. MAG., in an.-Maolruanaidh Ua Maoldoraidh, tigherna Ceniuil Conaill, do dhol tar muir dia oilitre [Maelruanaidh o'Maeldoraidh, lord of Cinel Conaill, went over the sea on his pilgrimage, sc. to Hy].

A.D. 1028 x 1055. REG. PRIOR. S. ANDR.-Maldunus Episcopus Sancti Andree contulit ecclesiam de Marchinke [Markinch, near Lochleven] cum tota terra honorifice et devote Deo et Sancto Servano, et Keledeis de insula Louchleven, cum prefata libertate. [p. 116.]

A.D. 1034. ANN. ULT., in an.-Mac Nia hua Uchtan fer leighinn Cennanusa do bathadh ac tiachtain a h-Albain J culebadha Coluimcille tri minna do mhinnaib Patraic tricha fer impu [Macnia o'Uchtan, ferlegin or lector of Kells, drowned when coming from Alban, and the culebadha of Columcille, and three of the reliquaries of Patrick, and thirty men with him].

a i. e. the colobium or tunic. See a full account of it in the Add. Notes to Reeves's Adamnan, PP. 321-323.

A.D. 1039 × 1054. Grant by King Macbeth to the Keledei of Lochlevena.

REG. PRIOR. S. ANDR. Qualiter Machbet filius Finlach et Gruoch dederunt Sancto Servano Kyrkenes.-Machbet filius Finlach contulit pro suffragiis orationum, et Gruoch filia Bodhe, Rex et Regina Scotorum, Kyrkenes Deo omnipotenti et Keledeis prefate insule Lochleuine, cum suis finibus et terminis. Hii enim sunt fines et termini de Kyrkenes et villule que dicitur Pethmokanne: de loco Moneloccodhan usque ad amnem qui dicitur Leuine, et hoc in latitudine. Item a pubblica strata que ducit apud Hinhirkethy, usque ad Saxum Hibernensium, et hoc in longitudine. Et dicitur Saxum Hibernensium, quia Malcolmus Rex filius Duncani concessit eis salinagium quod Scotice dicitur Chonnane. Et uenerunt Hibernienses ad Kyrkenes ad domum cuiusdam uiri nomine Mochan, qui tunc fuit absens, et solummodo mulieres erant in domo, quas oppresserunt uiolenter Hibernienses, non tamen sine rubore et uerecundia. Rei etiam euentu ad aures prefati Mochan peruento, iter quam tocius domi festinauit, et inuenit ibi Hibernienses in eadem domo cum matre sua. Exhortacione

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