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A.D. 1119 (see below under Scottish Church), who affirms, that prior to the Archiepiscopate of Thomas II. of York (A.D. 1109 x 1114) Glasgow had had no Bishop pene præter memoriam," and that York had never had Glasgow as a suffragan see excepto hoc Normannorum tempore," while all older Glasgow Bishops, when there were any, down to Norman times, were Britons, who sought consecration either in Wales or Ireland: 2. the Inquisitio Davidis, which asserts that Kentegern had had "plures successores," but implies that this line of Bishops had died out with the Church itself of the land, and that Earl David (A.D. 1107-1124) was the first to restore it. Yet neither of these is absolutely inconsistent with the supposition of one or more suffragans of York, fifty years earlier, living mainly in York diocese, and probably not recognized in Glasgow. Compare also the like recourse at the same period by the Welsh Church

of Llandaff to Archbishop Kinsi: see above, vol. I. pp. 292, 293. The claim of York over Glasgow, as distinct from the general claim of the English Church over the Scottish, rested upon no other grounds than the insufficient ones of the actual and long-continued subjection to York, 1. of all English Cumbria (either as part of Lindisfarne or Durham until about A.D. 1100 or 1101, or, after that date, as part of York itself), 2. of the Anglian see of Galloway. For the general claim, either of the English Church, or of Canterbury as against York or vice versa, over all Scotland, see below, under the Scottish Church. The history of Bishop Michael, A.D. 1109 × 1114 (see below), which seems to rest on stronger evidence, carries with it a presumption in favour of the earlier suffragans also. And Archbishop Ralph is a witness who has to make out a case of his own.

A.D. 1072. Council of Windsor. Compact between Lanfranc of Canterbury and Thomas I. of York, [giving to the latter the jurisdiction over the whole region from the boundaries of Lichfield diocese and the river Humber northwards, " usque ad extremos Scotia fines" (W., I. 324, 325), and to which Bishop Foderoch of S. Andrew's is said to have consented on the part of Malcolm and Margaret of Scotland. See below, under the Scottish Church.]

A.D. 1089. Nunnery founded at Armethwaite in Cumberland, by William Rufus".

a Charter in Dugd. Mon., III. 271.

A.D. 1100 x 1107. English Cumbria (together with Hexhamshire) and Teviotdale taken from the Diocese of Durham, the former assigned to York, the latter falling to Glasgow a.

MONACH. DUN. De Episc. Dun.-[Ranulphus Episcopus Dunelmensis] suæ dioceseos appenditia, sc. Carleol et Teviettedale, revocare nequibat; quæ, illo exulante, cum Ecclesia non haberet defensorem, ad suas [dioceses] quidam Episcoporum applicaverant. [ap. Wharton, A. S., I. 708; and Twysd. 61.]

BREVIAR. CHRON. HEXHAM.-Orta dissentione inter Henricum Regem Angliæ Primum et Ranulphum Dunelmensem Episcopum, dictus Rex dictum Episcopum Ecclesia Haugustaldensi cum regione


pertinenti privavit et contulit Episcopatui Eboracensi. [ap. Raine, Mem. of Hexham, vol. I. p. 220.]

"Anno 1113 Henricus Rex. Ranulpho Dunelmensi Episcopo infensus, villam et Ecclesiam Hagustaldensem ab Ecclesia Dunelmensi abripuit, et Thomæ Archiepiscopo Eboracensi contulit, una cum jurisdictione integri Cumbria comitatus, qui ad sedem Hagustaldensem olim pertinuit. Pars tamen diœcesis Hagustaldensis, h. e. quæ intra Northumbria comitatum sita erat, penes Dunelmensem remansit et adhuc remanet. Reliqua partim Archiepiscopo Ebor. partim Episcopo Glascuensi ab anno 1113 ad 1135 subdita, Episcopatui Carleolensi anno 1135 fundato assignata est" (Hist. Episc. Dun. in Wharton, A. S., I. 699). This statement requires a few slight corrections. All Cumbria was never within the see of Hexham, only that part of what is now Cumberland which lies east from Wetherall, on the Eden above Carlisle, up to the boundaries of Northumberland. And the Hexhamshire which was within the present county of Northumberland was given over to York, but certainly not all Hexham diocese.

A.D. 1135 should be 1132 or 1133. Lastly, what really happened, plainly was, that Hexhamshire (and indeed the whole northern district) being absolutely devastated by William the Conqueror, Thomas I. of York (A.D. 1070-1100) took possession of it, and no doubt of Cumbria also, as a sort of waif and stray; and that Henry I. confirmed that possession to Thomas II. (A.D. 1109-1113). See Raine, Mem. of Hexham, vol. I. p. 220, App. p. viii., and Pref. pp. xlvii. lvi. Glasgow is found in possession of Teviotdale, and indeed of all Roxburghshire south of the Tweed, at the revival of that see by David A.D. 1107-1124, thus bringing down Durham to nearly its later northern boundary. And Glasgow of course also claimed Cumbria." Jedburgh was still subject to Durham A.D. 1093 (Sim. Dun., Hist Eccl. Dun., IV. 8, and De Gest. Reg. Angl., Twysd. 204). Flambard was in exile A.D. 1100-1107. Wharton must have taken his date of A.D. 1113 from that of the end of Thomas's Episcopate.

A.D. 1101. Pope Paschal II. to the Suffragans of York, enjoining obedience to Gerard Archbishop of that See.

[See below, under the Scottish Church. ]

A.D. 1101 X 1112. Benedictine cell (to S. Mary's of York) founded at Wetheralla.

On the Eden in Cumberland, by Ranulph de Meschines (Dugd. Mon., III. 581).

A.D. 1102. A British Bishop, apparently of Strathclyde, gives refuge to S. Magnus".

a See above, in vol. I. p. 303. The story goes to prove the existence of British Bishops in Strathclyde (which the context proves to be meant by" Britannia"), between Magsuem and John (above mentioned), and Michael, in

A.D. 1109 X 1114; possibly genuine British Bishops, who had nothing at all to do with York. The Inquisitio Davidis can hardly be relied upon as conclusively negativing such a supposition.

A.D. 1102. Augustinian Canons established at Carlisle by Henry I.a

FORDUN, Scotickron., V. 39.— Henricus [I.] persuasione et consilio ipsius Reginæ [Matildis] anno MCII. constituit Canonicos Regulares in Kaerleil.


A grant by Henry I. to the Canons of S. Mary of Carlisle is in Dugdale, Mon., VI. i. 144, witnessed by (among others) William

Bishop of Winchester and Bernard 'Bishop of S. David's, and dated therefore A.D. 1116 X 1128.

A.D. 1109 × 1114. A Bishop of Glasgow consecrated by Archbishop Thomas II. of York a.

STUBBS, Act. Pontif. Ebor.-Iste Thomas sanctum virum Michaelem, quem David Comes, postea Rex Scotia, Glasguensis Ecclesiæ Episcopum statuit et ipsi Thomæ ordinandum transmisit, eidem Ecclesiæ Episcopum consecravit; qui Eboracensi Ecclesiæ et Archiepiscopo Thomæ suisque successoribus canonicam obedientiam profitendo scriptam tradidit, quæ sic incipit, Ego Michael Glesguensis Ecclesiæ, etc. Hic aliquamdiu cum Archiepiscopo conversatus, in diocesi nostra [sc. Ebor.] jussu Archiepiscopi ecclesias dedicavit et in ecclesia de Morlond ordines fecit. In qua felici fine ad Deum migrans sepultus requiescit. [Twysd. 1713.]

REG. MAGN. ALB. Ebor.-Thomas] iste Michaelem hominem sanctum Glesguensi ecclesiæ ordinavit Episcopum, qui Eboracensi Ecclesiæ et T. Archiepiscopo et successoribus suis canonicam obedientiam profitendo scriptam tradidit. Hic aliquamdiu cum Archiepiscopo conversatus jussu illius in diœcesi nostra ecclesias dedicavit, et ordines fecit in ecclesia de Morlund, in qua felici fine ad Deum migrans sepultus requiescit. Hujus antecessores Magsuem et Johannem Kinsinus Ebor. Archiepiscopus Episcopos consecravit, sicut a viris veracibus accepimus, qui se hoc vidisse testabantur; sed propter hostilem impugnationem et desolationem et barbariem terræ diu Ecclesia sine pastore fuit, donec David Comes, postea Rex Scotia, prædictum Michaelem Episcopum constituit, [et] T. Archiepiscopo consecrandum transmisit.

a In A.D. 1109 Alexander of Scotland consented to the consecration of Turgot of S. Andrew's by the same Archbishop Thomas, rights of both Churches being reserved. There is nothing improbable, therefore, in David (Earl of Cumbria A.D. 1107-1124) seeking consecration for a Glasgow Bishop from Thomas at that same time; although probably neither he nor Alexander would have allowed such a step after Turgot's death in A.D. 1115. And the Inquisitio Davidis, which speaks of no earlier nomination by David than that of John (see below), is not conclusive evidence against a York Bishop

whom in all likelihood the change of circum-
stances, and possibly or probably an early death,
precluded from coming to Glasgow as Bishop
at all.
That John and Michael were not the
same person, seems proved by the facts,
1. that John was consecrated by Pope Paschal
with the consent of Thurstin of York, Michael
by Archbishop Thomas of York: 2. that John
lived in Glasgow diocese when he was not
running away (he was at York however in
A.D. 1128), Michael always in diocese of
York: 3. that John died in A.D. 1147 and
was buried at Jedburgh, while Michael died
and was buried in some year unknown at Mor-


land in Westmoreland (Stubbs, etc. as above). Ralph of Canterbury also testifies, that Thomas“ quemdam Britonem Glasguensi Ecclesiæ ordinavit Episcopum" (Ad Calixt. Papam: see below in its place). The parallel efforts of York to keep up York lines of Bishops in the Orkneys and at Whitherne, lend probability both to each other and to the like efforts in the

case of Glasgow. No doubt Michael merely acted as suffragan to York in English Cumbria, after the parallel fashion of York Orkney Bishops. English Cumbria was in Norman hands more or less from A.D. 1092 to 1136, and belonged to York (instead of Durham) from at least A.D. 1107.

A.D. 1109 x 1114. Claim of York over Glasgow and of Durham to Teviotdale still maintained.

CARTUL. III. PRIOR. ET CONV. DUNELM, a-Prohibitio T. Archiepiscopi Ebor. clericis de Tevydall que est de Diocesi Dunelmensi.-HENRICUS DEI GRATIA EBORACENSIS ARCHIEPISCOPUS Algaro clerico salutem. Ipse tibi ore ad os prohibui, cum per te crisma et oleum ad Glasguensem Ecclesiam misi, ne crisma vel oleum illud dares in parrochiam Dunelmensis Episcopi; tu vero illud contra defensionem meam in Tevegecedale dedisti, de qua Ecclesiam Dunelmensem saisitam inveni. Mando igitur tibi et Episcopali auctoritate prohibeo, et omnibus presbyteris de Tevegecedale, ne de crismate et oleo aliquod ministerium amodo faciatis, nisi per octo dies tantum postquam breve istud videritis, ut interim requirere possitis crisma a Dunelmensi Ecclesia, quæ vobis illud dare solita est. Quodsi post illos octo dies de crismate quod misi aliquam Christianitatem facere præsumpseritis, a Divino officio vos suspendo [do]nec diratiocinatum sit ad quam Ecclesiam pertineat. Valete. [p. 248 a.]

a Henry Murdac was Archbishop of York from Dec. 7, A.D. 1147, to Oct. 14, A.D. 1153; but the above is from a 15th century copy, and the initial T. in the rubric is almost certainly correct; and stands probably for Thomas II., A.D. 1109 x 1114: inasmuch as 1. Glasgow cer

tainly did not submit to York A.D. 1148-1153; and 2. Teviotdale had been lost by Durham and occupied by Glasgow since A.D. 1101 X 1107, the Durham claim being no doubt maintained for a few years later, but not more.

A.D. 1113. Benedictine Abbey (order of Tyron) founded at Selkirk by Prince Davida (Cart. de Kalchou, PP. 3, 4; Sim. Dun. 236) in Glasgow diocese; but transferred A.D. 1128 to Kelso or Calchou opposite Roxburgh, and at that time in S. Andrew's diocese, the Tweed being then and there the boundary between the two (Sim. Dun, ib. ; Chron. de Mailros).

a Pope Innocent II. confirmed its privileges by a bull A.D. 1130 x 1143 (Cart. de Kalchou). Robert, Bishop of S. Andrew's A.D. 1128 x 1158, permitted it, although in his own

diocese, to seek ordination and chrism from any Bishop the monks pleased, whether in Scotland or in "Cumbria " (ib.) See Morton, Monastic Ann. of Teviotdale, pp. 77, 78.


A.D. 1117 (probably). Consecration of John to the See of Glasgow by Pope Paschal II. a

a See the Inquisitio Davidis, below; by which it appears that John was consecrated by Paschal, and therefore before January A.D. 1118. John died in A.D. 1147, and (if Fordun can be trusted) in the 28th year of his Episcopate: which (if it were exact) would bring his consecration down to A.D. 1119. He was also consecrated with Archbishop Thurstin's consent (see below, under A.D. 1125), who was elected to York August 25, A.D. 1114 (Hoveden, I. 169), although not consecrated to that see until October, A.D. 1119. And Stubbs, who is the authority for the statement about Thurstin, here quotes from the contemporary authority of Hugh the Chanter. Further, Turgot of S. Andrew's died in August, A.D. 1115. And it seems probable, that this see also was vacant when John was sent to the Pope for consecration. All this would seem to place John's consecration in (probably) A.D. 1117, which is the latest possible year for it. The Inquisitio Davidis (Earl of Cumbria A.D. 1107-1124) must have been taken sufficiently long after John's election to allow of his journey to Rome, his attempted journey to Jerusalem, his return to Glasgow, and his being fairly at work in that diocese. And inasmuch as it

evidently speaks of him as still at work there, it must have preceded by some little time John's first flight, and Calixtus' first efforts to force him to return to Glasgow. This limits the date of the Inquisitio to A.D. 1118x 1122; and makes the most likely date for it to be A.D. 1120 or 1121. The record of that Inquisitio appears from its terms to have been drawn up some time later than the enquiry itself; possibly when Glasgow cathedral was consecrated, and its Register formally commenced. These dates leave room for Michael (see above, p. 13): and allow John to have been at work two or three years in Glasgow as Bishop prior to the Inquisitio being made. Whether Michael died before David nominated John, or whether he was simply put on one side, there is no evidence to show. But the former was probably the case, inasmuch as the York Archbishops never alleged as an objection to John, that the see was full already. There are proofs of a double line of Bishops, a native line and a York line simultaneously, in the other similar cases, viz. in the Orkneys and at Candida Casa, at a later period. But those who recognized the one of these, did not also recognize the other.

A.D. 1118. The Augustinian Monastery of Jedburgh founded by

Prince David a.

a The date is from Wyntoun's Chron., lib. VII. c. 5. Daniel, the first recorded prior, signs a charter of King David to Coldingham August 16, A.D. 1139. And the priory must have grown into importance and become an

abbey by A.D. 1147, in which year Fordun (I. 301) dates its foundation (Morton, Monastic Hist. of Teviotdale, p. 4; Orig. Paroch. Scot., I. 368).

A.D. 1118. Pope Gelasius II. to John Bishop of Glasgow: [not preserved: see below, under A.D. 1125].

A.D. 1119. Ralph Archbishop of Canterbury to Pope Calixtus II.: [incidentally discussing the claims of York over the Scottish Church and over Glasgow: see below, under the Scottish Church].

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