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[BISHOP OF THE ORKNEYS CONSECRATED AT YORK.]

A.D. 1073. Ralph I. Bishop of the Orkneys consecrated at Tork by Thomas Archbishop of York.

1. A.D. 1073. Thomas I. Archbishop of York to Lanfranc Archbishop of

Send two of

your suffragans

Orkneys at

Canterbury.

Piissimo et sanctissimo Cantuariorum Archiepiscopo, totius to assist me in quoque Britanniæ summo pastori, Lanfranco, THOMAS, fidelis consecrating a suus, et nisi præsumptuosum sanctitati suæ videatur, Bishop of the EBORACENSIS ECCLESIÆ ARCHIEPISCOPUS, cœli portas Petri York, March 3. vice justis et injustis juste aperire et claudere. Ecce, pater sanctissime, filius tuus ad te clamat; sed magis, filia, Eboracensis videlicet Ecclesia, ad eam, cui dispositione Divina præsides, Ecclesiam, tanquam ad maternum recurrens sinum, pie postulat, ut ex abundantia maternarum deliciarum reparetur inopia suarum se deserentium, immo longe et inter barbaras nationes positarum virium. Siquidem venit ad nos quidam clericus, quem misit Paulus Comes cum literis sigillatis de Orchadum partibus, significans in eis Episcopatum suæ terræ eidem clerico se concessisse. Ac ille antecessorum tuorum ordine custodito postulat a nobis Episcopum se consecrari. Cui, quod juste petit, injuste denegare non possumus. Precamur ergo, nobis duos Episcopos dirigat Paternitas vestra, quorum fulti orationibus et auxilio tantæ rei sacramentum canonice compleamus. Illa autem procul arceatur suspicio, quam nuperrime nobis noster frater et co-Episcopus subintulit Remigius, me scilicet inposterum quæsiturum Dorcacestrensis vel Wigornensis Episcopi hac de causa subjectionem dico enim coram Deo me nunquam hoc facturum. Si placet igitur sanctitati vestræ, ut juxta petitionem nostram nobis. facere dignemini, locum Eboracum, tempus 5 nonas Martias, nobis immutabiliter constituimus, et vobis significamus. Ergo vivas et valeas et spiritualibus incrementis usque quaque proficias. [W., I. 362, from MS. Cott. Vesp. E. IV. fol. 204 b.]

a The second of the letters here given is dated in MS. Cott. Vesp. E. 4 (used by Wilkins) as in A.D. 1073, Indict. XI., which would be the right indiction, and in which year also the 3rd March, the day specified in the first of the letters, fell on a Sunday. The Addit. to the

A. S. C. give the "seventh year" of Lanfranc, which (the question relating to March 3) would be A.D. 1077; in which year March 3 was not a Sunday, and the indiction would be wrong. Consequently Wilkins is probably right in dating the transaction in A.D. 1073.

[BISHOP OF THE ORKNEYS CONSECRATED AT YORK.]

2. A.D. 1073. Lanfranc Archbishop of Canterbury to Wulstan Bishop of Worcester and Peter Bishop of Chester.

Go to York to assist

LANFRANCUS GRATIA DEI SANCTE DOROBERNENSIS Arch- ECCLESIÆ ARCHIEPISCOPUS, venerabilibus fratribus Wlstano bishopsecrating Wigornensi et Petro Cestrensi Episcopis, salutem. Insinuavit a Bishop of the nobis venerabilis frater noster Thomas, Eboracensis

consecrating

Orkneys. Archiepiscopus, advenisse de Orchadum insulis ad se quendam clericum, quem in Episcopatum ipsius terræ, præcipiente et insinuante Paulo Comite, testatur esse electum. Et quia ex antiquo more sui juris est præfatarum insularum præsules consecrare, petit a me, ut mittam sibi de nostris suffraganeis duos, qui tantæ rei sacramentum cum eo valeant celebrare. Rogantes itaque præcipimus, et præcipientes rogamus, quatenus, omni excusatione summota, illuc eatis, ut ex nostro præcepto secum quod justum est in tanto rei mysterio compleatis. Non enim decet, ut qui sacrandus in hanc terram venit, et cum omni humilitate sacrari se postulat, inopia adjutorum a tanto regno non sacratus abscedat. Terminum hujus consecrationis lator vobis præsentium indicabit. Et ne forte soliciti sitis, putantes quod vel ipsi vel successores ejus hac occasione super Ecclesias vestras jus prælationis quandoque conentur arripere, literas quas ipse mihi transmisit, fraternitati vestræ, solicitudinem de futuro gerens, curavi transmittere. Quas, et has, quas vobis transmitto, in archivis Ecclesiarum vestrarum ob memoriam futurorum servatum iri præcipio. [W., I. 362, from MS. Cott. Vesp. E. IV. fol. 204 a.]

3. ADDIT. AD ANGLO-SAX. CHRON., in an. 1077.- Hoc quoque annoa misit ei [Lanfranco] litteras Thomas Archiepiscopus Eboracensis, in quibus rogavit ut sibi mitterentur duo Episcopi ad consecrandum clericum quendam, qui ei litteras de Horgadis insulis detulit ut ipsarum insularum Episcopus consecraretur. Cujus petitioni Lanfrancus annuens, mandavit Wlstano Wigorniensi et Petro Cestrensi Episcopis, ut Eboracam irent, et cum Thoma tantam rem complere satagerent. [p. 387, ed. Thorpe, from MS. CCCC. 173.]

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4. STUBBS, Actt. Pontiff. Ebor.-Orchadensium etiam electum Rcdolphum idem Archiepiscopus [Thomas I.] sacravit, facta, lecta, et tradita professione, quæ sic incipit, In aspectu Dei et hujus Ecclesiæ,

Ego Rudolphus, &c.
Bodl. MS. Digby 140a.]

[BISHOPS OF MAN AND THE ISLES.]
[Twysd. 1709.

a Paul Thorfinnson was Earl of the Orkneys A D. 1046-1099, according to Johnstone (Antiq. Celto-Scand. p. 294). The Orkney Bishops sent from Hamburgh from the middle of the 11th century were missionary Bishops"Nulli Episcopo certa sedes" (Adam. Brem.

And so also verbatim in

II. 16); and probably there was a vacancy in A.D. 1073, inasmuch as this first Ralph was sent for consecration by the Orkney Earl himself, and the line of Northman diocesan Bishops does not begin until about A.D. 1102 (see below, p. 167).

Before A.D. 1079a. Bishops of Man and the Isles.

CHRON. MANN.-Hi fuerunt Episcopi qui Episcopalem Cathedram in Mannia susceperunt a tempore Godredi Crouan et aliquanto tempore ante. Primus exstitit, antequam Godredus Crouan regnare cœpisset, Roolwer (Hrölfr) Episcopus, qui jacet apud ecclesiam Sancti Machuti. Multi quidem a tempore beati Patricii, qui primus fidem Catholicam prædicasse fertur Mannensibus, exstiterunt Episcopi; sed ab ipso sufficit Episcoporum memoriam inchoasse. Sufficit, dicimus; quod qui vel quales ante ipsum Episcopi exstiterunt, penitus ignoramus, quia nec scriptum invenimus nec certa relatione seniorum didicimus. Post Roolwer exstitit Willelmus Episcopus. Post Willelmum in diebus Godredi Crouan Hamondus, &c. [pp. 28, 29, ed. Munch.]

Godred's probable date is A.D. 10791095. And the Episcopates of Hrölfr and William probably take us back to the beginnings of Northman Christianity in Man and

the Isles. The dates however are uncertain; since Wimund (Hamondus) was not consecrated before A.D. 1109 (see below under that year).

A.D. 1093. SIM. DUN., Hist. Contin. in an.—Ecclesia nova Dunelmi est incepta tertio Idus Augusti feria quinta, Episcopo Willelmo et Malcholmo Rege Scottoruma et Turgoto Priore ponentibus primos in fundamento lapides. [I. 103, 104, ed. Hinde; see also Fordun, V. 25, from Turgot, ib. 261.]

This is regarded as doubtful by Mr. Hodgson Hinde (ad loc.), on the ground that Simeon does not mention it in his History of the Church of Durham. Malcolm's sons however were closely connected with Durham.

And his own English leanings make it probable that he himself was so as well. And the Chron. de Mailros, hardly however an independent witness, also (in an.) asserts the same fact.

A.D. 1093. ANN. ULT., in an.-Fothudha Ardepscob Albain in Christo quievit.

a The last Celtic Primate of the Scots.

[GRANTS OF SCOTTISH KINGS TO DURHAM AND TO COLDINGHAM.]

A.D. 1093 × 1107. Grant to the Keledei of Lochleven by Ethelred son of Malcolm and Margaret, " Abbas de Dunkellden, et insuper Comes de Fyf" (Reg. Prior. S. Andr. 115, 116).

A.D. 1094. Grant of Duncan King of Scotland to Durhama.

Carta Dunecani filij Regis Malcolomb, de Tyningham, Aldeham, Scuchale, Cnole, Hatherwyk, et seruicio de Brokesmuth, dat. Sancto Cuthberto cum

soca et saca.

EGO DUNECANUS, FILIUS REGIS MALCOLUMB, CONSTANS HEREDITARIE REX SCOTIE, dedi in elemosina Sancto Cuthberto et suis seruitoribus Tiningeham, Aldeham, Scuchale, Cnolle, Hatheruuich, et de Broccesmuthe omne seruitium quod inde habuit Fodanus Episcopusb: et hec dedi in tali quietantia cum saca et soca, qualem unquam meliorem habuit Sanctus Cuthbertus ab illis de quibus tenet suas elemosinas. Et hoc dedi pro me ipso et pro anima patris mei et pro fratribus meis et pro uxore mea et pro infantibus meis. Et quoniam uolui quod istud donum stabile esset Sancto Cuthberto, feci quod fratres mei concesserunt. Qui autem istud uoluerit destruere, uel ministris Sancti Cuthberti aliquid inde auferre, maledictionem Dei et Sancti Cuthberti et meam habeat. Amen.

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A.D. 1097 or 1098. Foundation of the Priory of Coldingham as a cell of Durham by Edgar King of the Scotsa.

Carta Edgari de Suinton in dotem Ecclesie de Coldingham.

EADGAR REX SCOTTORUM, omnibus per regnum suum Scottis et Anglis, salutem. Sciatis me ad dedicationem uenisse ecclesie Sancte Marie apud Coldingaham, que quidem dedicatio ad Dei laudem et ad meum placitum grata omnibus et accepta honorabiliter est adimpleta. Et ego eidem ecclesie super altare obtuli in dotem et donaui uillam

[KING MAGNUS OF NORWAY CONQUERS HY.]

totam Swintun cum diuisis, sicut Liulf habuit; liberam et quietam inperpetuum habendam ab omni calumpnia, et ad uoluntatem monachorum Sancti Cuthberti disponendam; pro animabus patris et matris mee, et pro salute anime mee, et fratrum et sororum mearum. Donaui etiam monachis XXIIII. animalia ad restaurandam illam eandem terram. Et constitui eandem pacem in Coldingaham eundo et redeundo et ibidem manendo, que seruatur in Eiland et in Northāb. Insuper etiam statui hominibus in Coldingamscire, sicut ipsi elegerunt et in manu mea firmauerunt, ut unoquoque anno de unaquaque carruca dimidiam marcam argenti monachis persoluant.

Testibus Ælfw', Oter, et Thor Longus, et Ælfric pincerna, et Algaro presbitero, et Osberno presbitero, et Cnute Carl š., et Ogga, et Lesing, et Swein Ulfki š., et Ligulf de Bebbanburce, et Uhtred Eilaues sune, et Uuiæt hwite, et Tigerne. [Raine's North Durham, Append. p. 2.]

The Saxon nunnery that previously existed at Coldingham (Bæd. H. E., IV. 19, 25) had been destroyed by the Danes, and, like the Saxon Melrose, had ceased to exist. Other grants of King Edgar to Durham are given by Raine (ib.). Among the rest are the wellknown two, which speak of the kingdom of Scotland, as well as of Lothian, as held of William of England by Edgar. The later in date of the two is commonly affirmed to be a forgery. And Raine's arguments for the earlier fail to establish any distinction in its favour, as compared with the other. The important words are " Edgarus filius Malcolmi Regis Scottorum totam terram de Lodoneio et regnum Scotie dono domini mei Willelmi Anglo

rum Regis et paterna bereditate possidens, consilio prædicti domini Regis W. et fidelium meorum," in the first of the two: and in the second," Edgarus Dei gratia Rex Scottorum, &c., Sciatis nos ex licentia Willelmi Regis Anglie superioris domini regni Scotia." See also Anderson's Diplomata Scotia. The Pref. to the National MSS. of Scotland, Part I. pp. xiii-xx., holds the former of the two to be genuine, but simply to admit that Edgar holds Lothian of the English crown; which certainly is not the true extent of the words as they stand.

b Islandshire and Northumbria; see Raine's North Durbam.

A.D. 1097. SNORRO, in an.-Magnus Rex Norvegiæ a classem suam appulit ad insulam sanctam; ubi omnibus hominibus necnon omnium incolarum bonis pacem concessit et securitatem. Perhibent eum templum Columbæ minus aperuisse, ingressumque non esse Regem; sed obserata mox janua, edixisse ne quis adeo esset audax, ut in ædem istam sacram introiret: cui mandato postea obtemperatum fuit. [ap. Johnstone, Antiq. Celto-Scand. p. 252.]

a Hy would henceforth have been claimed as belonging to the see of Man and the Isles. While the Irish Columbite body would also still regard it as properly belonging to them. It ceased to be Norwegian, and became part of the dominion of Somerled, A.D. 1156 (Chron. Mann.). And in A.D. 1164 (see

below under that year) Irish Church people are found again in connection with it. For upwards of half a century from A.D. 1097, with the exception of the obit of an abbat A.D. 1099, it is not mentioned in the Irish Annals (Reeves, Adamn., Add. Notes, p. 410).

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