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[POPE PASCHAL II. DECLARES SCOTLAND SUBJECT TO THE SEE OF YORK.]

A.D. 1101. Pope Paschal II. to the Bishops of Scotland, Suffragans of York.

PASCHALIS EPISCOPUS SERVUS SERVORUM DEI, venerabilibus fratribus Eborac. Metropolis suffraganeis per Scotiam, salutem et Apostolicam benedictionem. Noscat dilectio vestra venerabilem fratrem nostrum Gerarduma Herefordensem quondam Episcopum in Eborac. metropolim per omnipotentis Dei gratiam nos promovisse; cui ex Apostolice sedis liberalitate palleum privilegiumque concessimus. Unde mandamus precipientes, ut ei deinceps tanquam vestro Archiepiscopo debitam obedientiam exhibeatis. [Reg. Alb. Ebor., P. I. fol. 50; and in Dugd., VI., P. III. p. 1187, no. liv.]

a Translated to the see of York on the Epiphany, A.D. 1101. There had been no Bishop at S. Andrew's since A.D. 1093, when Fothadh II. died. Nor was there any diocesan Bishop at all in Scotland in A.D. 1101 (unless possibly in Dunkeld and Moray), although there may perhaps have been one in Glasgow.

But both Eadmer (see below, p. 171) and the Addit. ad A. S. C. (p. 387, ed. Thorpe) speak of "Scottorum Episcopi," in reference to York consecrations, respectively at A.D. 1108 and at A.D. 1079. And doubtless there were many Bishops there not diocesan.

A.D. 1101 X 1108 (prob. 1101). Roger Bishop of the Orkneys consecrated at Yorka.

STUBBS, Actt. Pontiff. Ebor.-Ipse [Gerardus Arch. Ebor.] etiam Rogerum Rodolfi successorem Orcadensium ordinavit Episcopum, accepta ab eo prius professione, quæ sic incipit, Ego Rogerus Orchadensis Ecclesiæ sanctæ nunc ordinandus Episcopus, &c. [Twysd. 1710.]

a "Fuit Vilhelmus primus Orcadum Episcopus annos sexaginta sex" (Vita S. Magni). And this William died A.D. 1168 (Ann. Isl.). With him, and therefore (if these dates can be trusted) A.D. 1102, begins a line of Northman diocesan Bishops of Orkney, apparently continuous (v. Torfæus, Hist. Orchad.), and lasting into the 15th century, and indeed as long as the Orkneys continued to belong to Norway.

The contemporary York Bishops, so long as they were continued, viz. the above-named Roger and the second Ralph (A.D. 1109 × 1114 to after 1144), were obviously not asked for, and not received, by the Earls and people of the Orkneys. Roger went there (see Anselm's letter to Haco, above given): Ralph II. apparently did not even do that.

A.D. 1102 (?). Anselm Archbishop of Canterbury to Haco Earl of the

Aid, and be

Orkneysa.

ANSELMUS GRATIA DEI ARCHIEPISCOPUS CANTUARIsubject to, the ENSIS, Haconi Comiti Orcadensium, salutem et benedicBishop that has tionem Dei. Audio quia propter indigentiam doctorum, been minus quam expedit, populus qui sub vestra potestate est, cognoscat et colat Christianam religionem. Sed gaudeo quia,

you.

sent

to

[RIVAL BISHOPS OF THE ORKNEYS.]

referente Episcopo quem nunc per gratiam Dei habetis, didici quia prudentia vestra libenter suscipit verbum Dei, et consilium quod pertinet ad salutem. Hac igitur fiducia mitto strenuitati vestræ litteras monitionis meæ, quatenus se studiose committat prædicationi et doctrinæ ejusdem Episcopi; et quantum in vobis est studeatis ut populus vester hoc ipsum faciat. Nihil enim facere potestis unde magis remissionem peccatorum et vitæ æternæ gloriam adipisci valeatis, quam si populum vestrum ad cultum Christianæ religionis, monendo, et quibuscunque modis potestis, vobiscum attrahatis. Quod efficaciter, Deo dante, implere poteritis, si, quemadmodum supra dixi vobis, vos devota et sancta humilitate et pura voluntate Episcopo vestro subditis. Si vos consilio nostro et exhortationi, Deo inspirante, acquiescere volueritis, oro Deum omnipotentem, ut ipsa vos et totum populum vestrum Sua gratia dirigat et protegat, et Suam benedictionem et absolutionem et orationes humilitatis meæ ex corde vobis mando. Omnipotens Deus sic vos faciat vivere in hoc sæculo, ut in futuro jungamini beato angelorum consortio. Amen. [Epist. IV. 92: also, from MS. Cott. Claud. A. XI. 1576, in Stevenson's notes to the Scala Chronica, pp. 234, 235.]

a The Bishop on whose behalf this letter was sent, was almost certainly Roger, consecrated between A.D. 1101 and A.D. 1108. And as Anselm was in exile A.D. 1103-1106, and the letter was written shortly after Roger's consecration although after the receipt of letters from him from the Orkneys, the time before the exile seems a slightly more likely date for

it than the time after. Haco died A.D. 1110 according to Johnstone's dates, Antiq. CeltoScand.

A Bishop of the Orkneys in connection with York is mentioned by Eadmer (as quoted on p. 171) in reference to A.D. 1108 or 1109, but without naming him.

A.D. 1104. SIM. DUN., Hist. Contin. in an." Corpus Sancti Cuthberti Episcopi, ob quorundam incredulitatem abbatum, pontificante Rannulfo Episcopo, ostensum est; et a Radulfo Sagiensi abbate, postmodum Hrofensi Episcopo" et deinde Cantuariensi Archiepiscopo, "et a fratribus Dunelmensis Ecclesiæ, certo indicio incorruptum inventum est," et ita flexilibus artubus, ut magis dormienti quam mortuo similis videretur, "præsente Alexandro Comite, postea Scottorum Rege," et multis aliis, post annos depositionis suæ CCCC. et XVIIJ., et V. menses, et XIJ. dies, qui est annus quintus Henrici Regis, et Episcopatus Ranulfi sextus. [ed. Hinde, pp. 105, 106.]

a The words marked as quotations are from Flor. Wig. Hoveden also (I. 162) repeats them from Sim. Dun., and a little more fully; in that he adds, before "certo indicio," the

words "cum capite Sancti Oswaldi Regis et Martyris, Sanctique Bedæ, multorumque sanctorum reliquiis."

[ARCHBISHOP ANSELM TO ALEXANDER KING OF THE SCOTS.] A.D. 1107. CHRON. OF PICTS AND SCOTS.-Edgar Dunedina et sepultus in Dumferline.

This and Queen Margaret's death in Edinburgh Castle A.D. 1093, seem the earliest

[Skene, 175.]

....

mortuus in

mention of Dunedin in connection with Scottish royalty.

A.D. 1107. Alexander King of the Scots to Anselm Archbishop of Canterbury: [asking his prayers for his brother Edgar: v. Anselm's letter printed below.]

A

Edgar, Alexander's brother and predecessor, died January 8, A.D. 1107 (Sim. Dun., Twysd. 230).

A.D. 1107. Anselm Archbishop of Canterbury to Alexander

Congratulates

accession.

King of the Scots.

Alexandro gratia Dei Scotorum Regi, ANSELMUS SERVUS him on his ECCLESIÆ CANTUARIENSIS, salutem, et fideles orationes, et benedictionem Dei, et suam, quantum valet. Gratias agimus Deo, et gaudemus ego et tota congregatio Ecclesiæ Christi Cantuariensis, quia Deus vos in regnum paternum hæreditario jure post fratrem vestrum sublimavit, et quia vos moribus dignis regno decoravit. Pro fratre vestro, qui sancte vivendo meruit ut de hac vita bono fine misericordia Dei transiret, sicut pro dilecto dilectore nostro, secundum petitionem vestram, oramus et orabimus ut Deus animæ illius gloriæ Suæ cum electis Suis gaudium æternum tribuat, et æternam beatitudinem concedat. Scio quia celsitudo vestra meum amat et desiderat consilium. In primis igitur oro Deum ut Ipse vos Sancti Sui Spiritus gratia sic dirigat, et in omnibus actibus vestris consilium attribuat, ut ad regnum cœleste post hanc vitam vos perducat. Nostrum autem consilium est ut timorem Dei et bonos ac religiosos mores, quos in adolescentia et ab infantia cœpistis habere, Ipso adjuvante a Quo accepistis, studeatis tenere. Tunc enim bene Reges regnant cum secundum voluntatem Dei vivunt, et serviunt Ei in timore; et cum super seipsos regnant, nec se vitiis subjiciunt, sed illorum importunitatem constanti fortitudine superant. Non enim repugnant in Rege virtutum constantia et fortitudo regia. Quidam enim Reges, sicut David, et sancte vixerunt, et populum sibi commissum cum rigore justitiæ et pietatis mansuetudine, secundum quod res exigit, rexerunt. Sic vos exhibere ut mali vos timeant et boni vos diligant, et ut vita vestra semper Deo placeat, semper mens vestra vindictam malorum et præmium bonorum post hanc vitam memoria retineat. Omnipotens Deus vos et omnes actiones vestras

Protect

the

De

[CONSECRATION OF TURGOT TO S. ANDREW's.] nulli alii quam Suæ piæ dispositioni committat. brethren, whom fratribus nostris quos in Scotiam secundum voluntatem Anselm has sent fratris vestri, qui de labore hujus vitæ, sicut credimus, ad King Edgar's requiem transivit, misimus, benignitatem vestram rogare necesse non putavimus, quia bonam voluntatem vestram non ignoramus. [Epist. III. 132.]

to Scotland at

request.

A.D. 1107 x 1124. Foundation and endowment of a parish church in the parish of Edenham (near Kelso in Roxburghshire) by Thor the Long and King Edgar.

Domino meo karissimo Davidi Comiti, THOR OMNINO SUUS, salutem. Sciatis, domine mi, quod Eadgarus Rex frater uester dedit mihi Ednaham desertam, quam ego suo auxilio et mea pecunia inhabitaui, et ecclesiam a fundamentis fabricaui, quam frater uester Rex in honorem Sancti Cuthberti fecit dedicari, et una carucata terre eam dotauit. Hanc eandem ecclesiam, pro anima ejusdem domini mei Regis Eadgari, et patris et matris uestre, et pro salute uestra, et Regis Alexandri, et Mathildis Regine, Sancto predicto et Monachis eius dedi. Vnde uos precor, sicut dominum meum karissimum, ut pro animabus parentum uestrorum, et pro salute uiuorum, hanc donationem Sancto Cuthberto et Monachis sibi in perpetuo seruituris, concedatis. [National MSS. of Scotland, Part I. No. XIV. p. 11.]

A.D. 1107, June 20, Turgot Prior of Durham elected, and A.D. 1109, Aug. 1, consecrated, to the see of S. Andrew's by Thomas II. Archbishop of York, with reservation of the rights of both sees in respect to the question of the primacy of York over Scotland.

1. FLOR. WIG., in an.-Ipso eodem die (sc. in kalendis Augusti, die Dominica) Turgodum, Dunholmensem Priorem, ad Episcopatum Sancti Andreæ de Scottia, qui dicitur Cenrimunt, consecravit. [II. 60.]

II. SIM. DUN., Hist. Reg. Angl. in an. 1074.—Anno Episcopatus Ranulfi [of Durham, A.D. 1099] VIII., impetrante Alexandro Rege Scottorum, ab Henrico Rege Anglorum assumitur [Turgotus] ad Episcopatum Ecclesia Sancti Andreæ in Scotia: in qua est sedes primatis totius gentis Scottorum. Sed per annum et eo amplius dilata est ejus ordinatio propter dissensiones Eboracensis Ecclesiæ atque Ecclesiæ Sancti Andreæ Scotia. Illa namque ordinationem et subjectionem primatis Scottorum sibi ex quodam quasi jure exigit, ista

[CONSECRATION OF TURGOT TO 8. ANDREW's.]

vero e diverso affirmat ex nullo antiquitatis vel consuetudinis jure aliquid se debere. Sed ne diutius pastore [viduata] vacillaret Ecclesia, rogatus a Rege Scottorum Rex Henricus præcepit, ut Eboracensis Archiepiscopus Thomas junior hunc sine ulla subjectionis exactione consecraret, salva utriusque Ecclesiæ auctoritatea, ut postea, ubi et quando et a quibus ratio exigeretur, debitus finis controversiam utriusque partis dirimeret. Veniens ergo sic consecratus Scotiam, &c. [ed. Hinde, I. 96.]

ID., ib. in an. 1107.-Turgotus, Dunelmensis Ecclesiæ Prior, ad Episcopatum Scottorum eligitur. [1b. 106.]

ID., ib. in an. 1109.-Ipso eodem die [scil. 3 kal. Aug. die Dominica"] Turgotum Dunelmensem Priorem ad Episcopatum Sancti Andreæ de Scotia qui dicitur Cenrimunt [Thomas Eboracensis Archiepiscopus] consecravit. [Ib., Twysd. 232.]

a Stubbs, the York chronicler of the 14th century, alleges that Turgot professed subjection to York, and this without mention of any reservation. His statement also is verbatim that of the Digby MS. 140, which could not have been composed much later than the time of Simeon himself. But it is the statement in both cases of a partizan of York, and can scarcely outweigh the more probable assertion of Simeon in the text.

b Simeon (Twysd. 207, 237) reckons Turgot's episcopate as lasting precisely 8 years 2 months and 10 days, and dates his death, twice over, in A.D. 1115. Consequently he must have been elected as early as at least the

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III. EADMER, Hist. Nov. IV.-Inter hæc [A.D. 1108] electus est ab Alexandro Rege Scotia et clero et populo monachus quidam Dunelmensis, nomine Turgodus, ad Episcopatum Sancti Andreæ de Scotia. Cujus consecratio dum ultra quam expediret demoraretur, tum propterea quia Thomas Eboracensis Ecclesiæ antistes electus necdum fuerat consecratus, tum propter quædam alia quæ longum est enarrare, Ranulfus Dunelmensis Episcopus proposuit eundem electum in præsentia ipsius Thomæ apud Eboracam consecrare, associatis sibi Episcopis Scotia et Orcadarum insularum. Verum quia id præter consensum et auctoritatem Cantuariensis Episcopi rite fieri non posse sciebat, mandavit ei de negotio per militem quendam, et ut ejus consilio et concessione sacraretur, deprecatus est. scripsit ei epistolam hanc:

Ad quæ

ANSELMUS ARCHIEPISCOPUS CANTUARIÆ Ranulfo Episcopo Dunelmensi salutem. Mandastis mihi per quendam militem, Scollandum nomine,

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