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a Printed also in Stevenson's notes to the

Scalachronica, pp. 241, 242. See an account of it in Reeves, Culdees, p. 32. It is given here as supplying the only evidence to the Keledean character of several of the institutions mentioned in it. But it seems to refer to "a state of things anterior to its own date" (Reeves); it is obviously very incomplete, even as a list of foundations of what may be called King David's era; and, except in the case of Bishoprics, it omits all mention of monasteries of Irish date and type, as e. g. Deer and Turriff. There seem also to be mistakes in it. E. g. in respect to Roxburgh, where was a Franciscan monastery from about A.D. 1235; and Jedburgh, which belonged to

Augustinian Canons; and Perth, where was a Dominican monastery, founded A.D. 1231, but no nunnery. See Spotiswood (Religious Houses, &c.). The founders' names, and the dates, have been added in []. All of them, with one exception, and setting aside the three cases which appear to be errors, fall within the period between Malcolm Canmore and William the Lion, A.D. 1070-1178.

b The S. is followed, here and throughout, by an unintelligible mark of abbreviation. The writer evidently intended to add, but in most cases did not know, the name of the Saint to whom each monastery was dedicated. A letter is erased in each of these places.



1. S. Adriani (= Odran, according to Skene), Episcopi et Martyris (founder of a monastery in the island of May off the coast of Fife; called Bishop of S. Andrew's; martyred with his companions, Stolbrand, Geodianus, Caius, &c. by the Danes c. A.D. 870); from Brev. Aberdon. in Actt. SS. March 4, I. 326-328; Capgrave, N. L. A. 1: and see Stuart's Records of the Priory of the Isle of May, Edinb. 1868.

2. S. Cadroë, Abbatis (of Metz, but previously Prior of Walciodorus [Wassor in Lorraine]; son of Faiteach a Scotchman of royal lineage; preached in Scotland during the reign of Constantine son of Aodh [A.D. 900-943], before he went abroad; the only [Albanian] Scottish missionary on the Continent recorded; ob. c. A.D. 978): one, auct. anon., in Colgan, I. 494; another, auct. Reimanno sive Ousmanno, a contemporary monk of Gorz, in Mabill. Actt. SS. Ben. Sac. V., VII. 482; Actt. SS. March 6, I. 474-481; and fragments in Pertz, Mon. Germ. Hist., VI. 483, 484.

3. S. Kennocha, Virginis (ob. A.D. 1007); from Brev. Aberdon., in Actt. SS. March 13, II. 338.

4. S. Margareta, Reginæ (ob. A.D. 1093); one by Ailred of Rievaulx (ob. A.D. 1166), abridged in Surius, June 10, II. 167 sq., ed. 1617; and Pinkerton, VV. SS. Scot. 371 sq.: another by Theodoric, confessor to the Queen, commonly but questionably assigned to Turgot afterwards Bishop of S. Andrew's (see Pref. to Hinde's ed. of Sim. Dunelm.), in Pinkerton, il, 301 sq.; Actt. SS. June 10, II. 328-340; Appendix to Hinde's Sim. Dunelm., I. 234-254. See also Capgrave, N. L. A. 225.

5. S. Magni, Comitis (of the Orkneys, martyred there A.D. 1106 [?]), in Pinkerton, VV. SS. Scot. 385 sq.: also from Brev. Aberdon., in Actt. SS. April 16, II. 439-441.

6. S. Davidis, Regis [A.D. 1124-1153], Eulogium (ex Ailred. Riev. Geneal. Reg. Angl., Twysd. 347 sq.), in Pinkerton, VV. SS. Scot., 439 sq. 7. S. Wallhevi (or Waltheni or Wallen), Abbatis (of Melrose, chosen Bishop of S. Andrew's A.D. 1159 [sc. on the death of Bishop Robert,


A.D. 1158 Chron. S. Crucis, A.D. 1159 Chron. de Mailros], but refused to accept the office; ob. A.D. 1159), auct. Jordano vel Joscelino Monacho Furnesiensi, in Actt. SS. Aug. 3, I. 241. See also Capgrave, N. L.

A. 293.

[There is also a legend of S. Dutbac of Ross, in Brev. Aberdon, and in Actt. SS. March 8, I. 799, 800, who is commonly placed in the 13th century, but is conjecturally identified by Dr. Reeves (Adamn. V. S. Col., Add. Notes, p. 401) with Dubhtach Albanach, ob. A.D. 1065 (see above, p. 154): and an article De S. Colmoco seu Colmo, Episcopo in Scotia, ob. A.D. 1000, in Actt. SS. June 6, I. 761.]



Christian inscriptions in the Isle of Man are wholly Runic and of Norwegian date and origin, although abounding, says Professor Munch, in "grammatical errors," which arise no doubt from a strong admixture of Celtic elements, while "perhaps one half of the names occurring in them" are not Norwegian but Gaelic.

The following list is from Professor Munch's notes to his edition of the Chron. Mannia (Christiania, 1860, pp. xx-xxiv.); the first two, marked A, being of a different character, and "perhaps even of a different period," from those marked B. The transliteration, and the translation, are those of Professor Munch, aided by Messrs. Cumming and Worsaae.

A. I. On a cross at Kirk Michael :

MAL LUMCUN RAISTI CRVS PANA EFTER MAL MVRV FVSTRA SINA TOTER TVFCALS OS AþISL ATI [= Mallumkun erexit crucem hanc post Malmuram educatricem suam, filiam Dugaldi, quam Adislus habuit (i. e. in matrimonio)].

A. 2. On a fragment of a cross at Kirk Onchan :

* * ITRA ES LAIFA FUSTRA CVрAN SVN ILAN [the first two words unintelligible; the third, LAIFA, probably the accusative case of LEIFI, a proper name; the last four words educatorem bonum, filium malum].

B. I. On a cross at Ballaugh:


PORLIBR PIVTVLB SVNR RAIST CRVS paNA AIFTIR VB SVN SIN [Thorleifus Thjodulfi (Thiostulfi) filius erexit crucem hanc post Ubbonem (Ulfum) filium suum].

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VTR RISTI CRVS paNa AFT FRACA FAPVR SIN IN PVRBIAVRN * * * [= Ottarus (Gautus) erexit crucem hanc post Franconem patrem suum, sed Thorbjornus

* *

* ].


B. 3. On a second cross at Kirk Michael :

MAIL BRICTI SVNR APACANS SMIP RAISTI CRVS PANA FVR SALV SINA SIN BRVCVIN CAVT CIRPI PANa AVC ALA IMAVN [=Mælbrigidus filius Athacani fabri erexit crucem hanc pro anima sua (peccatricea); Gautus fecit hanc (sc. crucem) et omnes in Mannia]. This word is purely conjectural.

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*** PANA AF VFAIC FAVрVR SIN IN CAVTR CIRPI SVNR BIARNAR CVBCVLI [= (omitting the last word, as inexplicable) hanc (sc. crucem) post Ufeigum patrem suum, sed Gautus fecit, filius Björnonis * * ].

B. 5. On a fourth cross at Kirk Michael :

* CRVS PAN AFTIR, and separately,


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* CRIMS INS Grimi nigri].

B. 6. On a fifth cross at Kirk Michael :—

* Svangus erexit crucem hanc post Romundum *

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* NT

* ].

B. 7. On a sixth cross at Kirk Michael:IVALFIR SVNR PVRVLFS EINS RAVPA RISTI CRVS PANA AFT FRIPV MVPVR SINa [=Joalfus filius Thorulfi Rufi erexit crucem hanc post Fridam matrem suam].

A second inscription, too faintly scratched to be deciphered, is at the foot of this cross.

B. 8. On a second cross at Kirk Braddan :—

* R ASCITIL VILTI I TRICV AIPSOARA SIIN [= * quem Ascatillus decepit in treuga, consacramentalem suum].

B. 9. On a cross at Kirk Andreas :

SANTVLF EIN EVARTI RAISTI CRVS paNA AFTIR ARIN BIAVRC CVINV SINA [= Sandulfus niger erexit crucem hanc post Arinbjargam uxorem suam].

B. 10. On a cross at Tynwald Hill :—


* *


INAIRVIR RAIST RVNAR PAER AFTIR [=Inairvir (a proper name, but incompletely written) sculpsit literas hasce post

* * *


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