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[SEPULCHRAL CHRISTIAN INSCRIPTIONS IN THE ISLE OF MAN.]

B. 11. On a cross at the Vicarage of Jurby

RV SVN IN aNAN RAITI FAIRPVR IAL *
ræ filium, sed aliam (crucem) erexit Fairthurus Jal *

B. 12. On a third cross at Kirk Braddan :—

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pvRLABR NEACI RISTI CRVS PaNA AFT FIAC SVN IN BRVPVR SVN IABRS [ = Thorlavus Neaki erexit crucem hanc post Fiac filium (suum) sed fratris filium Jabri].

B. 13. On a second cross at Kirk Onchan:

**

[= * * crucem 1. (6) Lower

(a) On the top, ** CRVS * * down,** ISVCRIST [= Jesu Christ.]. (c) Below on the right arm, pvRip RAIST RVNAR [= Thurida sculpsit literas]. (d) On the other side, below on the right arm, * * * SVNR RAISTI AFTIR SVN SINA MVRCIBLV [= (conjecturally) *** filius erexit (crucem) post uxorem suam Muriellam]. (e) Below, on the left arm, VCICAT ASVIR APICRIT AM *** Np [which is given up as unintelligible, and conjectured to be perhaps Gaelic].

PERIOD THE FOURTH.

YORK CLAIM OF SUPREMACY OVER THE SCOTTISH CHURCH: AND
FORMATION OF THE SCOTTISH DIOCESES. A.D. 1109-1188.

[A.D. 1109-1115. Failure, retirement, and death, of Turgot, the first English Bishop of S. Andrew's, consecrated at York.

Before A.D. 1115. Foundation of sees of Moray and Dunkeld.

A.D. 1115. Augustinian Canons at Scone.

A.D. 1119-1126. Thurstin Archbishop of York renews the claim to the metropolitanship of Scotland.

A.D. 1120-1122. Failure and retirement of Eadmer, sent from Canterbury to be Bishop of S. Andrew's.

A.D. 1124-1153. Foundation of the sees of Brechin and Dunblane. Period of the superseding of the Scottish (or Irish) monastic rules by the introduction of the various monastic orders of the Western Church.

A.D. 1125. Legatine Council of Roxburgh under John of Crema. See of Aberdeen probably founded.

A.D. 1128. Consecration of Robert an Englishman to the see of S. Andrew's, at York, but with all rights reserved.

Before A.D. 1130. Sees of Caithness and of Ross founded.

A.D. 1138. Legatine Council at Carlisle.

A.D. 1144. Commencement of the gradual suppression of Keledei, chiefly by converting them into Augustinian Canons.

A.D. 1154. Bull of Anastasius IV., subjecting the sees of the Nordreys and Sudreys (i. e. of the Orkneys, and of Man and the Isles) to Trondhjem, as against

both Bremen and York.

A.D. 1155. Claim of York over Scotland still maintained by Pope Adrian IV.

A.D. 1156. Hy again Irish, yet still claimed apparently by the see of Man (as, afterwards, by that of Argyll).

A.D. 1160. Ernald Bishop of S. Andrew's consecrated at S. Andrew's by the Papal

Legate.

A.D. 1164. Attempted legatine council under Roger of York at Norham.

A.D. 1165. Richard Bishop of S. Andrew's consecrated at S. Andrew's by Scottish

Bishops.

A.D. 1174. December, Treaty of Falaise.

A.D. 1175. Bulls of Pope Alexander III.; and Aug. 17, Conference at York.

[RETIREMENT AND DEATH OF TURGOT BISHOP OF S. ANDREW's.]

A.D. 1176. Jan. 25. Council of Northampton. The Legate Vivian's Council of

Edinburgh.

A.D. 1178-1188. Disputed election to the see of S. Andrew's.

A.D. 1188. March 13. Bull of Clement III. declaring the Scottish sees dependent on no one, save immediately upon the Apostolic See.]

A.D. 1109-1115. Failure, retirement, and death, of Turgot, the first English Bishop of S. Andrew's.

SIM. DUN., De G. R. A.—Veniens ergo (Turgotus) sic consecratus Scotiam, cum causis emergentibus digne non posset Episcopale officium exercere, Romam ire disposuit, ubi consilio et judicio domini papæ Paschalis vitam suam transigeret. Sed ne id ad effectum perduceret, invalescentibus inter ipsum et Regem causis, præ angustia spiritus decidit in melancholiam. Unde, accepta licentia remorandi ad tempus Dunelmi propter infirmitatem, vigilia Apostolorum Petri et Pauli venit ad Weremutham, ubi quondam ab Aldwino habitum monachi susceperat; ubi mane ut poterat Missa celebrata, ad sanctum Cuthbertum proficiscitur, ibique in lectum decidens, modo lentis modo nimiis præparatur febribus ad exitum, et hoc per duos menses et quatuor dies. Instante autem hora exitus, cum diceret sicut poterat orando, “In pace factus est locus Ejus et habitatio Ejus in Syon," et, "Laudate Dominum in sanctis Ejus," intra manus fratrum suorum animam exhalavit II. kalendas Aprilis, feria tertia, hora tertia; anno episcopatus ejus VIII. transacto, impetrato munere a Deo quod sedulo rogaverat ut apud sacrum Cuthberti corpus animam redderet. Sepultus est autem in capitulo. Cujus corpus interpositum corpus Walcheri Episcopi habet ad austrum, Willelmi Episcopi ad Aquilonem. Obiit autem anno ab Incarnatione Dominica MCXV. [Twysd. 207, 208.]

a See note, on p. 191.

A.D. 1109 x 1114. Wymund Bishop of Man and the Isles consecrated by Thomas II. Archbishop of Yorka.

CHRON. MANN. Post Willelmum in diebus Godredi Crouan Hamondus filius Iole Mannicus genere Episcopalem suscepit cathedram. [p. 29, ed. Munch.]

STUBBS, Actt. Pontiff. Ebor.-Wymundum quoque Insularum Episcopum idem Thomas (II.) ordinavit, qui ei professionem scriptam

[EARLIEST DIOCESAN BISHOPS IN SCOTLAND.]

tradidit, quæ sic incipit, Ego Wymundus Sanctæ Ecclesiæ de Schid, &c. [Twysd. 1713.]

a Godred Crovan's dates are A.D. 1079 (?)— 1095. The chronology therefore of the Man Chronicle, which is generally inexact, must be corrected by the statement of the York writer represented by Stubbs. For Wymund Mac Aulay's later and very curious history, see Gul. Neubrig., I. 14, and Matt. Paris. He was a Cistercian of Savigny, from which abbey Furness was founded A.D. 1126; and deserted his see

(to become a pretender to the Scottish crown) A.D. 1130 x 1139, if the letters of King Olaf given below, recommending Nicolas of Furness to (apparently) Archbishop Thurstin, are rightly referred to the time of that Archbishop. The Earl of Murray, whose son Wymund claimed to be, was killed A.D. 1130. "Schid"= Skye, of which island Wymund was a presbyter.

A.D. 1109 × 1114. Ralph (II.),a Bishop of the Orkneys, consecrated by Archbishop Thomas II. at York.

STUBBS, Act. Pontiff. Ebor.-Radulphum etiam urbis Eboracensis presbyterum in ecclesia S. Petri ab Orcadensibus electum idem Thomas (II.) Orcadum insularum ordinavit Episcopum, qui ei professionem fecit et scriptam tradidit, quæ sic incipit, Ego Radulfus Orcadensis sanctæ Ecclesiæ, &c. [Twysd. 1713.]

a Radulfus Novellus (Ralph Nowel) was at York at the consecration of Robert of S. Andrew's A.D. 1128; was sent by Archbishop Thurstin as his "suffragan" to the army that fought the battle of the Standard A.D. 1138, and made a stirring harangue on the eve of the battle (70. Hagulst., Ric. Hagulst., Ailr. Rieval. De Bello Standardii, H. Hunt., Hoveden, Brompton, &c.). A.D. 1143 (in Sim. Dun, it is 1144), with the abbats of

S. Mary's at York, and of Whitby, he repre-
sented the Bishop of Durham at the council of
Winchester which assented to the election of
William Fitzherbert to the see of York (Sim.
Dun., Hist. Contin. in an. 1144, Twysd. 273).
There is no evidence that he ever actually
went to the Orkneys. See the letters of
Calixtus II. A.D. 1119-1124, and Honorius II.
A.D. 1125, below.

Before A.D. 1115. Foundation of the sees of Moray and of Dunkeld".

The foundation charter of Scone Abbey is witnessed by "Gregorius Episcopus," and "Cormac Episcopus," and by no other Bishops, S. Andrew's being then vacant. A grant of Alexander to Scone, A.D. 1124, is attested by Robert 66 elect of S. Andrew's" (elected A.D. 1124, in which year also King Alexander died) and by Gregory and Cormac, but Gregory is here designated" Episcopus de Moravia." And King David's charter to Dunfermlin (A. D. 1128) is witnessed by Robert of S. Andrew's,

John of Glasgow, Cormac Bishop of Dunkeld,
Gregory of Moray, and Macbeth of Ross.
See Lib. de Scon, pp. 3. 4; Lib. de Dumferm-
lyn, PP. 3, 4.
It seems to follow that the sees
of the great northern Mormaerdom of Moray,
and of the great lay and hereditary abbey of
Dunkeld, existed before A.D. 1115. Dean
Mylne dates the foundation of Dunkeld A.D.
1127, and attributes it to King David (see
above, p. 181).

A.D. 1115a. Foundation of Augustinian Canons at Scone by Alexander I. and Sibilla his Queen.

CHRON. DE MAILROS, in an.-Canonicis tradita est ecclesia de Scon.

A.D. 1114 according to Fordun (V. 37). Robert the prior and his companions came

from the English monastery of S. Oswald's near Pontefract. The foundation charter is in

[ALEXANDER KING OF THE SCOTS TO RALPH ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY.]

Lib. de Scon, pp. 3, 4. That the church belonged to Keledei previously, is asserted by Buchanan, and is not improbable. But so far as the evidence goes, the transfer might well have been from clergy who were simply

Scottish and Columbite, and not Keledei at all: as in the parallel case of Dunfermlin, transferred probably by David from simply Scottish monks to Benedictines.

A.D. 1115. Alexander I. King of the Scots to Ralph Archbishop
of Canterbury.

Help us to a

successor

the Archbishops

consecrated the

see".

EADMER, Hist. Nov. V.-Domino et Patri charissimo

to Radulfo, venerabili Cantuariensi Archiepiscopo, ALEXANDER, Turgot of S. Andrew's, since DEI MISERICORDIA REX SCOTORUM, salutem et devote the Pope or fidelitatis obsequium. Notificamus vobis, benignissime of Canterbury pater, quod Episcopus Ecclesiæ Sancti Andreæ Apostoli, have always dominus videlicet Turgodus, II. Kal. Septembris migravit Bishops of that a seculo. Unde valde contristamur tanto solatio destituti. Requirimus ergo vestræ [paternitatis] consilium et auxilium, sicut confidimus in vobis, ut secundum Deum talem substituere valeamus, qui nos et gentem nostram per Deo placitam conversationem regere et docere utiliter sciat. et docere utiliter sciat. Petimus etiam, ut recordari dignemini, quid vobis jam quadam vice suggessimus de Episcopis Ecclesiæ Sancti Andreæ; quod in antiquis temporibus non solebant consecrari nisi ab ipso Romano pontifice, vel ab Archiepiscopo Cantuariensi; hocque tenuimus, et per successiones temporum ex auctoritate ratum habuimus, quousque dominus Lanfrancus Archiepiscopus, nescimus quo pacto, absentibus nobis et nostris, Thomæ Eboraci Archiepiscopo illud ad tempus relaxaverat. Quod omnino, vestra, si placet, auctoritate suffulti, ut amplius sic remaneat, non concedimus. Nunc igitur, si ad id nobis nostræque Ecclesiæ reparandum vestrum adjutorium sperare debemus, quod humillimis votis desideramus et petimus, secreto nobis certitudinem dignis vestris apicibus remandare curate. Valete. [ed. Selden, p. 117; W., I. 393.]

a The value of such historical statements, probably put into the mouth of the King by a clerical scribe, may be tested by this assertion; which, it need hardly be said, is literally and wholly the reverse of the facts; and, further, the very reverse of Alexander's own

statements to Eadmer five years afterwards. According to Simeon, Turgot died “II. kal. Aprilis." But this was a Wednesday in A.D. 1115; the "II. kal. Sept." was a Tuesday: and Simeon himself specifies that Turgot died "feria tertia." See Wharton, Ang. Sac. I. 786.

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