Imágenes de páginas

Period I.-Until the Kingdom of Strathclyde was united to that of Scotland. A.D. 600-908.

De Glesguensi [Episcopo] breviter intimandum, quod est antiquorum Britonum Episcopus; cujus Ecclesiæ Episcopus, sicut a majoribus natu illorum traditur, usque ad hæc Normannorum tempora vel ab Episcopo Scottorum vel Gualensium Britonum consecrari solebat.-RADULPH., ARCHIEP. CANT., Epist. ad Calixtum Papam [Twysd. 1742, 1743.-A.D. 1119.] Period II.-Until the Church of Cumbria was united, partly to that of Scotland, partly to that of England. A.D. 908-1188.

Successit in Ecclesia Glasguensi [A.D. 1258]. ... Johannes de Cheham, vir... Angliæ nimis infestus. Nam in ultimis diebus, crescente cupiditate, obtendebat jus antiquum in partes Westmorlandiæ in præjudicium Karliolensis Ecclesiæ, dicens usque ad Rer Cros in Staynmor ad diœcesim suam pertinere; ob quod animo efferatus, ad curiam Papæ festinavit, sed in eundo vita defecit.-CHRON. DE LANERCOST, in ann. 1258. [p. 65.]



A. D. 600-1188.



[A.D. 600-685. English Cumbria gradually severed from British dominion by Northumbrian conquest b; and Scottish Cumbria shut in west of the water-shed from Peel Fell to the Pentlands, and for some years prior to A.D. 685 subject altogether to Northumbria.

A.D. 685-779. Scottish Cumbria again for a time independent, but further dismembered by Northumbrian conquest on the side of Galloway and Ayr, limited to the valley of the Clyde, and at length subdued again by Angles and Picts d.

A.D. 704. Cumbrians probably adopt the Roman Easter.

A.D. 803-870. Anglian rule ceases over Galloway, and perhaps, for a while, as far south as Carlisle. The Strathclyde princes possibly reclaim the district; but it was probably in a state of anarchy, and gradually occupied by colonists from north Ireland*.

A.D. 870-908. Strathclyde still an independent principality, but wasted by Northmen, and finally, by the election of King Donald to its throne, united to Scotland.]

[ocr errors]

a Cumbri, Cumbra-land, Combirland, Cumberland; Ystrat Clut, Strat Clut, Stræ-Clæd, But Stratha-Cluaidh, etc. Strathclwyd Wealas," and the kindred names, as applied to the entire district from Clyde to "Loidis," only from about A.D. 871 (A. S. C., in an.).

Battle of Caerleon (Chester), A.D. 613: conquest of Elmet by Eadwin, A.D. 616: Loidis Northumbrian before A.D. 655 (B., III. 24): lands on the Ribble granted to Wilfrid, A.D. 666 × 669 (Edd. XVI.): Carlisle Northumbrian A.D. 684 (B., IV. 26), and given with Creke, Cartmel, "et omnes Britanni cum eo," to S. Cuthbert, A.D. 685 (Sim. Dun. 5, 69): Derwentwater Northumbrian A.D. 687 (B., IV. 29).

e The Catrail or Pictswork ditch from Peel Fell to Galashiels, apparently the British boundary (Robertson, E. Scotl., I. 16): Bernicia reaches to the Forth and Eadwinsburgh by A.D. 633 (B., I. 34, II. 9): Melrose in Bernicia founded shortly after A.D. 635 (B., in V. S. Cuthb.): Oswy's dominion reaches to Manann, A.D. 655 (Skene, Chron. cxvii.): and to the Picts, A.D. 658 (B., III. 24, IV. 3): and Ecgfrith's, A.D. 670-685, also to the Britons of Strathclyde (Edd., XIX-XXI.; B., IV. 12, 26). On the Dalriad side, however, Donald Brec, King of Dalriada, defeated A.D. 638, and slain by the Britons at Strathcarron A.D. 642 (Ann. Tig.).

d" Pars Britonum nonnulla " (evidently of


Strathclyde) freed through battle of Nectansmere, A.D. 685 (B., IV. 26): but Cuningham Northumbrian, A.D. 696 (B., V. 12): and Whitherne with coast from Solway round to Ayrshire, before A.D. 731 (Anglian see of Whitherne, B., V. 25, and Anglian names along the coast): and Kyle, A.D. 750 (Auct. in fin. B.): and although the Picts are defeated A.D. 750 (Ann. Tig., Welsh Chron.), yet Alclwyd capitulates to Picts and Angles A.D. 756 (Sim. Dun. in M. H. B. 662, Welsh Chron., etc.), and is burned A.D. 779 (Ann. Ulton.). Saxon crosses at Thornhill on the Nith (mutilated), and at Ruthwell, both in Dumfriesshire (Stuart, Sculpt. Stones of Scotl. Pref., ix., and Arch. Scot., IV. ii. 312). Dalriad Scots also defeat the Britons, A D. 711 and 717 (Ann. Tig.). In English Cumbria, Saxon abbey on the Dacre, A.D. 728 (B., IV. 29, 32), and S. Bega said to have founded S. Bees before A.D. 700 (Leland, III. 39. But for S. Bega, see Tomlinson's ed. of her Life, Carlisle, 1842, and Actt. SS., Sept. 6, II. 694). Whalley on the Calder Northumbrian, A.D. 798 (AngloSax. Chron.).

[ocr errors]

Anglian see of Whitherne ends after A.D. 803 Galloway is of the Britons (“Galinne na mbretann"), A.D. 822 (Ann. Ulton.): Britons sack Dumblane after A D. 843 (Chron. in Skene 8): Cu of Strathclyde son-in-law to Kenneth of Scotland, A.D. 843 × 859 (Robertson, E. S., I. 41): Carlisle, however, claimed in A.D. 854 as Northumbrian since A.D. 685, and

certainly so A.D. 875 and probably also A.D. 883 (Sim. Dun. 13, 14; and M. H. B. 683): yet the permanence of its British name, and the existence of stone crosses, with interlaced Irish (?) ornamentation, at Muncaster, Gosforth, Beckermet S. Bridget's, Dearham, Rockcliffe, and Lanercost (Lysons, Cumb. CII.), i. e. on the west and north of the Cumberland mountains, indicate a probable Celtic connection still at this period. See for these, and for inscribed monuments, below, in Appendix A.

[ocr errors]

Olave and Ivor sack Alclwyd, A.D. 870 (Ann. Ult, and Camb., Chron. in Skene 405): Healfden from the Tyne wastes the Cumbri or Wealas of Strathclyde, A.D. 875 (A. S. C., Ethelw., Asser, Flor. Wig., Sim. Dun.): and those of them that could not live with the Saxons" (i. e. probably Danes, possibly Scots), found the Welsh Strathclyde, A.D. 890 (Brut Gwent.): Danes destroy Carlisle (which lies waste 200 years) about A.D. 892 (Sim. Dun. 217, Flor. Wig. in an. 1092). But up to the Derwent Northumbrian in A.D. 915 (Sim. Dun. 74). Eocha of Strathclyde joint King of Scotland A.D. 878-889: and Donald, brother of Constantine King of Scotland, elected King of Strathclyde, A.D. 908.

Immigration probably of Irish Cruithne at this time into Galloway (Robertson, E. S., I. 21, II. 382), where is certainly a mixed race and in great part Irish thenceforth. And a few Northmen settlements along the coast from the Solway (Id. ib., II. 437) into Wigtonshire.

Shortly before A.D. 600. Foundation of the See of Glasgow by

S. Kentegerna.

ANN. CAMB.-CLXVIII. Annus [A.D. 612], Conthigerni obitus. [M. H. B. 831.]

a For the 12th century Lives of S. Kentegern, see vol. I. p. 157. His date is fixed by his connection with Rydderch King of Strathclyde ("Roderchus filius Tothail, qui in Petra Cluaithe regnavit," Adamn. in V. S. Columbæ), who is fixed by the genealogies to A.D. 573-601 (Skene, Chron. Pref. xcv.). And this agrees with the legendary connection between him and S. David, and again between him and S. Columba (with whom he exchanged staves, according to Jocelyn); and with the date above given for his death. His diocese must have been coextensive with Rydderch's kingdom, i. e. from Clyde to Mersey, and from the sea to the hills that form the watershed; and was therefore in the south conterminous with the diocese of S. Asaph (which during his temporary expulsion from Strathclyde he is said to have founded), and in the north included all that was

afterwards the diocese of Glasgow, and very possibly indeed extended from sea to sea (Jocel. V. S. Kenteg.). Accordingly he fixed his see at one time for eight years at Hoddam in Dumfriesshire; and churches are dedicated in his name in Cumberland, as at Crosthwaite; and at Borthwick, Penicuik, Crichton, and Currie, in Mid-Lothian (at the first of which last list of places he is also said to have set up a cross of sea sand, Jocel. ib.); as well as at Glasgow (where was a stone cross). Borthwick however (then called Locherworth or Locherwart) was one of the earliest gifts to the revived see in the time of David (Reg. Glasg. no. II), but Midlothian was not included within its then boundaries. Such a diocese would not be larger than the Saxon one which was as it were its counterpart a century after, and for which Wilfrid fought so tenaciously.


Of course it was speedily encroached upon by Northumbrian conquest, beginning almost within a year or two of S. Kentegern's death. The cathedral was, as usual, near, but not at, the civil capital, Alclwyd or Dumbarton, viz.

at "

Glasghu" or " Deschu," formerly called "Cathures" (Jocelyn). If S. Monenna (ob. A.D. 517, according to Reeves, Adamn. 177) really built a church, among other places in Scotland, at "Chil-ne-case, in Galuveic" (Life in Ussher, Antiq. Brit. Ecc., Works, VI. 249); whether this was (as is probable) Whithern itself, or Kilcaiss (now Kincase) in the parish of Prestwick in Kyle, co. Ayr (Chalm. Caled., III. 496, see also above in vol. I. pp. 120, 121); S. Kentegern may well have sought to restore S. Ninian's decayed but scarcely extinct church

(so Jocelyn), only transferring the centre of his preaching to the neighbourhood of the new capital. Later boundaries (as those implied in the "Inquisitio Davidis," about A.D. 1120, or in the claims of the Bishops of Glasgow at that period, or assumed in Jocelyn's Life belonging to the same period, or alleged in the tracts on the English claims upon the Scotch side in Skene, one of which confounds Glasgow with Galwidia, Skene 255, as does also Fordun, XI. 52) belong really to the revived 10th century principality of Strathclyde or Cumbria. Kentegern's staff, as said to have been given to him by Columba, was exhibited in Ripon Minster in the end of the 14th century (Fordun, III. 30; Reeves's Adamnan, 324).

A.D. 666 × 669. Lands granted to Wilfrid in Lancashire.

EDDIUS, V. W., XVII.-Erat quippe Deo placabile donum, quod religiosi Reges tam multas terras Deo ad serviendum pontifici nostro conscripserunt. Et hæc sunt nomina regionum, juxta Rippela, et in Gaedyne, et in regione Dunitinga, et in Caetlevum, in cæterisque locis. [ed. Gale, p. 60.]

a "i. e. Hacmundernes" (Life of W. in Leland, Collect., III. 169), which was the district of Lancashire between the Ribble and the

Cocker. See also above in vol. I. pp. 124, 125.

A.D. 680. Council of Rome. Wilfrid claims to answer for the Catholic faith of the Britons, Scots, and Picts, as well as Angles, dwelling in "the northern part of Britain and of Hibernia and in the Islands a.” [See below, vol. III. p. 140, under the Anglo-Saxon Church.]

a The words of Wilfrid's subscription to the Council scarcely mean that he claimed to be Bishop of those for whose faith he pledged himself. Yet for some years after A.D. 670, and up to A.D. 685, the Britons of Strathclyde and some of the Picts beyond the Forth certainly, and on one interpretation of an ambiguous sentence in Bede (IV. 26) the Dalriad Scots also, were subject to the Northumbrian King (see above, p. 3, note ©). And Wilfrid would be certain to claim a diocese coextensive with the Northumbrian kingdom, even to its most recent or temporary conquests; as he did, e. g., on the south of the Humber in the case of Lindsey. The statement therefore of Richard of Hexham (see below under A.D. 685, note) may have a foundation of truth in it. That he really as Bishop exercised actual authority over Britons or

Scots or Picts, is improbable; especially considering that none of the three, nor yet the northern Irish, had adopted the Roman customs in A.D. 680. Trumwine, however, at Abercorn, for the few years he was there, probably had something more than the mere name of Bishop over the Picts within his jurisdiction. The conquest of Cuningham by the Northumbrians in A.D. 696 implies also that Anglian conquest had been creeping round Galloway for some time before; having certainly included Carlisle before A.D. 685, although no doubt checked in that year for the moment by Ecgfrith's defeat and death. And both northern and southern Cumbria were still probably Briton in the bulk of their population. So that here again Wilfrid certainly had Britons within his diocese.


A.D. 685. English Cumbria taken from Glasgow and united (in part) to the See of Lindisfarne ».


SIM. DUN. Hist. S. Cuthb.-Rex Ecgfridus et Theodorus Archiepiscopus dederunt S. Cuthberto villam quæ vocatur Creca; .... et quia videbatur parva terra, adjecit civitatem quæ vocatur Luel [i. e. Carlisle], quæ habet in circuitu quindecim milliaria, et in eadem civitate posuit congregationem sanctimonialium, et abbatissam ordinavit, et scholas constituit. Postquam vero S. Cuthbertus suscitavit puerum a mortuis in villa quæ vocatur Exanforda, dedit ei Rex Ecgfridus terram quæ vocatur Cartmel et omnes Britanni cum ea, et villam illam quæ vocatur Suth-Gedluyt, etc. [Twysd. 69: see also ib. 5.]

a Ecgfrith completed what his predecessors had been gradually doing (see above, p. 3, note b). But Wilfrid in A.D. 666 × 669 would seem to have obtained the southern part of English Cumbria, i. e. the lands on the Ribble, etc., for Ripon, i.e. for York (Edd.XVII.). And although Lindisfarne did not then exist except as the substitute for York, viz. not until A.D. 678, yet what was afterwards Lancashire would appear to have continued permanently as part of the more limited diocese of York, even after that year. For like encroachments further north, and on Scottish Cumbria, during this period, see p. 3, note c. These would have been reckoned to Lindisfarne or York, as the only Saxon see north of Humber during that time, until A.D. 678: and either to Lindisfarne, as separate from York, from A.D. 678 [except so far as the short-lived see of Trumwine at Abercorn (A.D. 681-685) may have included part of the Lothians and the northern part of Bernicia as well as his more proper Pictish flock; and, further, from the Forth only so far southward as to the Alne, the latter river separating Lindisfarne from the newly-formed

see of Hexham (Rich. Hagust. c. V.)]; or again, from the Alne to the Tees, to Hexham, which last diocese reached west into modern Cumberland as far as to Wetherall on the Eden (Rich. Hagust., ib.), but (as appears from Sim. Dun., above) no further. Hexham see came to an end in A.D. 821. The (possible) see of Ripon with its one (possible) Bishop, Eadhæd, from A.D. 681, would apparently have claimed, if it ever existed, some part of the more southern British spoils. Rich. Hagust., c. VI. (as is said above), includes the " Britones," i. e. some at least of those of Strathclyde, in Wilfrid's original and undivided diocese of York; and also the "Scots of Lindisfarne" and the "Picts " (whom he of course supposed to have lived in Galloway at that time) of Candida Casa. But in the first, as certainly in the last case, he probably wrote after the belief, and the disputes, of his own time. See above, under A.D. 680.

b"Suth-Gedling," in App. II. p. 231, to

Hinde's ed. of Sim. Dun.

A.D. 697. ANN. TIG.-Molingus Luachraensis monasterii abbas obiit, i. e. inter Britones. [O'Conor, II. 219.]

a i, e. either in Iona or in Strathclyde.

A.D. 704. The Strathclyde Britons apparently adopt the Roman Easter a. BED. H. E., V. 15.-Quo tempore plurima pars Scottorum in

« AnteriorContinuar »