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and crosses formed by circular holes, of like character with the foregoing. (Stuart, ib., pp. 50, 51, 67.)

v. vi. (? 6th century.) At Whitherne, two similar fragments. (Stuart, ib., pp. 51, 68.)

vii. (?6th century.) At Wigton, in the churchyard, a like fragment. (Stuart, ib., I. plate cxxii.)

viii. (? 6th century.) At Kirkmaiden, among the rocks of the sea-coast of the Bay of Luce, an oratory or stone chapel of S. Medan (an Irish virgin and disciple of S. Ninian) in a cave, like those in Cornwall and like one in Brittany. (Stuart, ib., II. p. 50, n.)

ix. At Kirkclaugh, near Anwoth, co. Kirkcudbright, a sculptured cross. (Stuart, ib., I. plate cxxiii.)

x. (7th century.) At Inchinnan, on the Clyde, seven miles below Glasgow, co. Renfrew: slabs, in the churchyard, with crosses, animals, and interlaced work; of Hiberno-Briton character. (Stuart, ib., II. p. 38.)

xi-xxi. (? 7th century.) At Govan, 'on the Clyde, immediately below Glasgow: a stone with tracery, a sarcophagus, and nine sepulchral slabs, found in the old churchyard, where are also many others: covered with either interlaced work, or crosses, or representations of animals: of a like character with the foregoing. (Stuart, ib., I. plates ci, cxxxiv-cxxxvii.)

xxii. (7th century.) At Hamilton, on the Clyde, a cross near Hamilton Palace, much defaced. (Stuart, ib., plate cxviii.)

xxiii. At Barrochan, parish of Kilallan (now in Houston), co. Renfrew, a cross. (Stuart, ib., plates cxv, cxvi.)

Both with interlaced work and figures.

at Mount

xxiv. xxv. At Stanlie Green, near Paisley, co. Renfrew, and blow House, Kilpatrick, co. Dunbarton, slabs with like work. (Stuart, ib., plates cxvii, cxx.)

It will be observed, that these remains cluster round two centres, Whitherne (and westwards of Whitherne), Glasgow (and on the Clyde above and below Glasgow).

II. SAXON PERIOD, A.D. 700-800.

i. At Ruthwell, on the Solway Firth, near Dumfries and the mouth of the Nith an elaborate cross, in two parts, the lower 12 feet 6 inches, the whole 17 feet 6 inches, in height. On its two faces, tapering from 2 feet to 15 inches in breadth, are carved panels containing figures or groups of figures, some of them nimbed, with inscriptions in Roman letters

[CHRISTIAN INSCRIBED OR OTHER STONES IN SCOTTISH AND BRITISH CUMBRIA.] surrounding them: viz., on one side at the top, 1. a human figure with a bird, with VERBUM IN PRINa (supposed to mean Verbum in principio), now however effaced, and some nearly effaced Runes round it; 2. an archer with bow and arrow; 3. two figures embracing, with a nearly illegible inscription, of which .. TOPSEN.. is all that can be read on one side, and on the other . . INCOBD ..; 4. the woman that was a sinner, washing our Lord's feet, with ATTVLIT ALABASTRVM VNGVENTI ET STANS RETROSECUS PEDES EIVS LACRIMIS COEPIT RIGARE PEDES EIVS ET CAPILLIS CAPITI SVI TERGEGBAT (partly, however, defaced); 5. two figures, supposed to be our Lord healing the blind man, with ET PRAETERIENS VIDIT * * * A NATIBITATE ET S * B INFIRMITA *; 6. the Annunciation (probably), with INSRESSVS ANGELVS *** TE * IRN * * (remainder effaced). On the opposite side, 1. at the top, a bird perched upon a branch, with undecipherable Runes surrounding it; 2. two human figures; 3. a figure standing on two globes and holding a lamb in its arms, the inscription undecipherable, except the word [A]DORAMVS; 4. a nimbed figure, probably of our Lord, with one hand raised as if to bless, and round the panel, IHS XPS IVDEX AEQVITATIS SERTO SALVATOREM MVNDI BESTIAE ET DRACONES COGNOVERVNT IN DE * * 5. two figures, supposed to be SS. Peter and Paul breaking a loaf of bread between them, from an anecdote in S. Jerome's Life of S. Antony, and round them, SCS PAVLVS ET A*** FREGERVNT PANEM IN DESERTO; 6. the Blessed Virgin holding the Child Jesus in her arms. and riding on an ass, with what is supposed to have been the head of Joseph in the corner-inscription defaced, except MARIA ET IO**. But the most remarkable part of the cross are its edges-tapering from about 15 inches in width to 11-upon which are interlaced patterns and figures between borders, and upon these a series of Runes, deciphered by Mr. Kemble, so far as they were not defaced, into passages from an Anglo-Saxon poem, which poem (filling up all the lacunæ and tallying with the deciphered passages) was subsequently discovered in a Vercelli MS., and is conjecturally dated in the 7th century, about the time of Cadmon; its subject being the "Dream of the Holy Rood." No name is on the monument; unless that Professor Stephens now reads some of the Runes into "Cadmon me fawed" = "Cadmon made me." (Stuart, Sculpt. Stones, II. pp. 12–16. See also G. Stephens, Old Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, II. 419-422.)


ii. At Thornhill, in Nithsdale, co. Dumfries: a cross with interlaced work and animals, which possibly may belong to the earlier period. (Stuart, ib., I. plate cxxi.)


iii. At Durisdeer, in Nithsdale, co. Dumfries: a fragment of a cross, of the like character in its ornament with the Bewcastle and other English crosses. (Stuart, ib., II. p. 73.)

iv. At Hoddam, in Annandale, co. Dumfries, one also of S. Kentegern's temporary sees: fragments and crosses with interlaced ornaments and nimbed figures under canopies, but no inscriptions. (Stuart, ib., PP. 33, 34.)

v. At Whitherneb, two fragments of crosses supposed to be of Saxon date; on one of them, LOCI T I PETRI APVSTOLI, and above it the monogram added to the upper limb on the right hand of the (inscribed) cross. (Stuart, ib., p. 53, and plate lxxvii.)

vi. At Bewcastle, co. Cumberland: an elaborate cross, with ornamentation of running foliage with birds and animals, like that at Ruthwell, also with figures, and several inscriptions in Runic letters; the meaning of which is much disputed, but one of them is supposed to mention the death of King Alcfrid of Northumbria, A.D. 664. See a short account of the principal pamphlets and interpretations in Stuart, ib., pp. 16-18.

vii. At Jedburgh, co. Roxburgh: a slab with ornamentation of Saxon date. Other fragments of crosses of like date exist there also. (Stuart, ib., pp. 66, 67c.)

These monuments belong to the localities that were most entirely Saxonized, and connect themselves with like monuments in Lindisfarne or Hexham dioceses, as at Jarrow, at Hexham itself, etc. etc.

This might be ERIN, so far as appears by the stone itself.

Sir J. Y. Simpson suggested that the first letters of the inscription should be read, LOC STI, &c. A bell existed also at Whitherne in the 17th century, with an inscription in Saxon

letters in honour of S. Martin. (Stuart, ib., p. 68.)

According to Fordun, II. 96, a magnificent cross was dug up at Peebles A.D. 1260, which bore the inscription of "Locus [or Loculus] Sancti Nicholai Episcopi.”


cross with figures and interlaced (Stuart, ib., p. 18.)

i. At Dearham, co. Cumberland: a work, resembling that on Manx crosses. ii. At Gosforth, near Wastdale, co. Cumberland: an elaborate cross, of the same character with that at Dearham; also some fragments of crosses, like the Northumbrian examples. (Stuart, ib., plates 24, 25, 28.)

iii. At Kirkcolm, co. Wigton, on the west coast of Loch Ryan, in the midst of churches with Irish dedications: a stone having the Crucifixion and several symbols of the Passion on one side, and on the other a short

[CHRISTIAN INSCRIBED OR OTHER STONES IN SCOTTISH AND BRITISH CUMBRIA.] cross filled with scroll ornaments; all very inferior in execution. (Stuart, ib., p. 34.)

iv. There are some fragments of crosses also, of uncertain date, at Friars Carse, parish of Dunscore, and at Glencairn, both co. Dumfries; and at Mansfield, co. Ayr. (Stuart, ib., p. 67.)

Crosses with interlaced work are also mentioned, as

v. At Muncaster, close to Ravenglass,

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Other monumental stones are recorded also as having been destroyed at comparatively recent dates: as e. g. at Rutherglen, on the Clyde, a cross ornamented with various figures, on the top of Crieshill, destroyed in the time of Charles I. And throughout (English) Cumberland, generally, there is scarcely a church, in or near which some portions of ancient crosses may not be seen, not mentioned by Stuart or Lysons; the former of whom only professes to give specimens of Saxon work in Northumbria, &c., by way of contrast with the Scottish and Pictish stones.




A.D. 1188-1472.

A.D. 1188. March 13, Lateran, Bull of Pope Clement III., declaring the freedom from York of the Scottish sees by name, but omitting Galloway (see above, p. 50).

JOHN, A.D. 1189-1209.

A.D. 1189. Sept. 17, Pipewell, John Bishop of Candida Casa, consecrated by John Archbishop of Dublin, Fulmar Archbishop of Treves, and Concord Bishop of Enachdune (Hoveden, Brompton), makes his profession to Geoffrey Archbishop Elect of York (Reg. Ebor. a); and immediately after at the same place, as "suffraganeus Eboracensis Ecclesiæ," ordains. Geoffrey to the priesthood, Fulmar of Treves assisting (Diceto): A.D. 1194, March 30, was at a council under Richard I. at Nottingham (Hoveden, III. 240): A.D. 1195, March, consecrates chrism etc. in York diocese, as 'suffraganeus et officialis" of York, at York and at Southwell (Hoveden, III. 286) A.D. 1189 x 1206, is one of the judges appointed to decide a right of patronage claimed by the see of Glasgow (Reg. Glasg. p. 72): A.D. 1206, becomes a monk of Holyrood (Fordun): and A.D. 1209, dies (Chron. de Mailros).

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a A Profession of John elect of Candida Casa to Will. York, mentioned in Hutton's

Extracts from the York Register, must be a mistake.

WALTER, A.D. 1209-1235.

A.D. 1209. Walter, chamberlain to Alan Lord of Galloway, consecrated Bishop of Candida Casa (Chron. de Mailros): A.D. 1214, Nov. 2, and Dec. 11, the Bishop of Candida Casa receives pay from the "custodes" of the see of York for taking charge of the spiritualties of York diocese during the vacancy (Rot. Claus. pp. 173, 181)a; gave the church of Sembry to Dryburgh Abbey (Keith); witnesses a grant to Melrose in the reign of Alexander II., A.D. 1214-1235 (Lib. de Melr., I. 181); and A.D. 1235, dies (Chron. de Mailros).

a Pope Innocent III., A.D. 1216, names only Durham and Carlisle as suffragans of York (Reg. Ebor., MS. Lansd. 402, and in Dugd. Mon. VI. P. iii. p. 1185, n. 38). The same Pope, A.D. 1203, writes to the Archbishop of

York, that in releasing Bernard Archbishop of Ragusa from that see, he permits him to act as Bishop in Carlisle, but "absque usu pallii" (Decret. Greg. IX. lib. 1. tit. ix. c. 9).

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