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S. Cosma,

S. Damiane,

S. Romane,

S. Cæsari,

S. Marcelline,

S. Pancrate,

S. Nazari,

S. Benigne,

S. Symphoriane,

S. Hermes,

S. Felicissime,

S. Abdo,

S. Senes,

S. Tiburti,

S. Beate,

S. Candide,

[BRÉTON LITANY.]

S. Brioce,

S. Melore,

S. Branwalatre,

S. Patrici,

S. Brindane,

S. Carnache,
S. Gilda,

S. Paterne,

S. Petrane,

S. Guinwaloee,
S. Courentine,
S. Citawe,
S. Guoidiane,

S. Munna,
S. Serwane,

S. Serecine,

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S. Anastasia,

S. Petronilla,

S. Eufemia,

S. Savina,

S. Scholastica,
S. Eugenia,

S. Sussanna,
S. Appra,
S. Columba,
S. Tecla,

S. Ninoca,
S. Ticiawa,

S. Genufefa,

S. Justina,

S. Cristina,

S. Crispina,

S. Crispiniana,

S. Corona,

S. Benedicta,
S. Senentina,

S. Margareta,
S. Blandina,

S. Martha,

S. Menna,

S. Mathitia,

S. Perpetua,
S. Concordia,

S. Julitta,
S. Sinclita,
S. Soffonia,
S. Crescentia,

S. Donata,

S. Juliana,

S. Portuna,

S. Victoria,

S. Tarsilla,

S. Emiliana,

[BRETON LITANY.]

S. Trifina,

S. Brigida,

Omnes sancti chori Virginum,

orate pro nobis.

Omnes Sancti, intercedite pro nobis:

Omnes Sancti Angeli, intercedite pro nobis:

Omnes Sancti Archangeli, intercedite pro nobis:

Omnes Sanctæ Virtutes, intercedite pro nobis:

Omnes Sanctæ Potestates, intercedite pro nobis:

Omnes Sancti Principatus, intercedite pro nobis :

Omnes Sanctæ Dominationes, intercedite pro nobis:

Omnes Sancti Throni, intercedite pro nobis:

Omnes Sancti Cherubim, intercedite pro nobis:

Omnes Sancti Seraphim, intercedite pro nobis:

Omnes Sancti Patriarchæ, intercedite pro

nobis:

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[BRÉTON LITANY.]

Ab omni malo, Libera nos, Domine.

Ab omni immunditia cordis et corporis, Libera nos, Domine.

A morbo malo, Libera nos, Domine.

Ab haste malo, Libera nos, Domine.

Ab insidiis Diaboli, Libera nos, Domine.

A persecutione inimici, Libera nos, Domine.

A periculo mortis, Libera nos, Domine.

A ventura ira, Libera nos, Domine.

Per Adventum Tuum, Libera nos, Domine.

Per Nativitatem Tuam, Libera nos, Domine.

Per Baptismum Tuum, Libera nos, Domine.

Per Passionem Tuam, Libera nos, Domine.

Per Crucem Tuam, Libera nos, Domine.

Per Resurrectionem Tuam, Libera nos, Domine.

Per Ascensionem Tuam, Libera nos, Domine.

Per Descensionem Spiritus Sancti, Libera nos, Domine.

III.

Peccatores, Te rogamus, audi nos,

Ut pacem nobis dones, Te rogamus, audi nos.

Ut vitam atque sanitatem nobis dones, Te rogamus, audi nos.

Ut nobis in bonis operibus perseverantiam dones, Te rogamus, audi nos.

Ut nos in vera fide et religione conservare digneris, Te rogamus, audi nos.

Ut Ecclesiam Catholicam conservare digneris, Te rogamus, audi

nos.

Ut Regem et Episcopum nostrum conservare digneris, Te rogamus, audi nos.

Ut vitam et sanitatem eis dones, Te rogamus, audi nos.

Ut populo Christiano pacem et unitatem largiri digneris, Te rogamus, audi nos.

Ut fructum terræ nobis dones, Te rogamus, audi nos,

Ut cœli serenitatem nobis dones, Te rogamus, audi nos.

Ut pluviam oportunam nobis dones, Te rogamus, audi nos.

Ut caritatem nobis dones, Te rogamus, audi nos.

Ut nobis veram pœnitentiam concedas agere, Te rogamus, audi

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[BRÉTON LITANY.]

Agnus Dei, Qui tollis peccata mundi, Parce nobis, Domine.

Agnus Dei, Qui tollis peccata mundi, Dona nobis pacem. Christe, audi nos, III. Kyrie eleison, III. Christe eleison, III.

Oremus. Pater Noster.

Hæc Oratio post Litaniam canitur. Magnificis mirificisque orationibus atque meritis recensitorum Patriarcharum, Prophetarum, atque Apostolorum, plurimorumque Martyrum, vel electorum, atque Confessorum omnium, petimus et oramus, ut quemadmodum eorum nomina vel

It is a difficult task to locate a Litany, which prays for the "Plebs et Clerus Anglorum," as well as for "Rex et Episcopus," who must be supposed to be " of the Angles" also, and which yet in its list of local saints contains principally Bréton, but wholly Celtic, saints, S. Samson, S. Brioc, etc., S. Patrick and the chief Irish names, and S. Columba, and the Cornish S. Melorus, but no one name connected with Saxon England except that of S. Augustin, an exception proving nothing. And the Bréton names moreover are not only the chief names, but also those of less note. The name of S. Judicael brings down its date to at least the end of the 7th century. The special mention of S. Benedict, as in connection with Brittany, points to (at earliest) the 9th. And the names of Gudwal and Melorus seem to postpone it to the end of the 10th, inasmuch as the legends

memoriam in hoc sæculo memorari et recitare frequentamus, ita atque ipsi pro nobis in regnis cœlestibus affectuales ac privatas preces fundere dignentur, ut a Deo veniam et indulgentiam impetrare atque obtinere, et eorum desiderandam et aspiciendam speciem et gloriam in regno Dei videre et congaudere mereamur, præstante Domino nostro Jesu Christo, Cui est honor et potestas et imperium una cum Patre atque Spiritu Sancto in sæcula sæculorum. Amen. [Mabillon, Anal. 168, 169, ed. 1723, from a Rheims MS.]

of those (fictitious) saints date at that period, although they themselves are alleged to have lived earlier. The omission of Columbanus (O'Conor, Biblioth. Stow., II. 2) proves nothing, since the document plainly has no relation to foreign Irish missions or Churches, and belongs to a time and place where S. Benedict was the monastic founder and was held in special reverence. On the whole, taking into account also the place where it was found, and the character of the documents accompanying it or found in like localities, it seems most probable that (invocations excepted) it is an English Litany, possibly from York, transcribed for Bréton use, at the latter part of the time when the influence of the York school was great in Northern France, and when the Bréton Church and State looked for protection to Anglo-Saxon Kings; i. e. somewhere in the 10th century.

APPENDIX B.

LEGENDARY LIVES EXIST OF THE FOLLOWING BRETON SAINTS A.D. 450-800, OF WHOM ALL, EXCEPT THE FEW MARKED ‡, CAME FROM GREAT BRITAIN OR IRELAND.

A.D. 450-500.

1. Vita S. Brioci, Episcopi (a Briton "ex gente Coriticiana," alleged to have gone to Gaul with S. Germanus, and thence to Armorica, where he founded a monastery, first at Tréguier a, and then at S. Brieuc, and to have died about A.D. 500: not called a Bishop in his legend, and the see of S. Brieuc was one of those founded by Nomenoë about A.D. 844): in Actt. SS., May 1, I. 92-94, "ex Officio Proprio Eccl. S. Brioci ;" and the Hist. Translationis (i. e. of his relics, to Angers, during the Northman ravages in the end of the 9th century), ib., 94; and see ib., VII. 539, and Hardy's Descr. Catal., I. 103, 104.

2. Vita S. Winwaloei, Abbatis (son of a British Prince, Fracanus, who fled to Armorica b, and born according to one story in Armorica, according to another in Britain, c. A.D. 418; alleged to have been connected with S. Patrick and S. Budoc, and with S. Martin of Tours, and with Gradlon Count of [part of] Brittany, and to have died about A.D. 504; founded the abbey of Landevenech): one, auct. anonymo, in Act. SS., March 3, I. 250-254; a second, ib., 254, 255; a third in two Books, auct. Gurdestino monacho (abbat of Landevenech some time during the 9th century), ib., 256-261; another in Surius, March 3, p. 38, abbreviated in Capgrave, N. L. A. 312. See also Arch. Cambr. 3rd Series, III. 129, X. 41; and in Dom Morice, Lobineau, etc., and Hardy as above, 104.

[Notices also exist of—i. S. Ninnoca, Virgin (from Great Britain, “ in Combronensia regione," daughter of King Brechan, migrated to "Letavia," and founded the nunnery of Lan Ninnok; said to have been contemporary with S. Germanus, yet baptized by S. Columba, and more probably of 6th than 5th century), collected in Actt. SS., June 4, I. 407-411; and in Le Grand, from Reg. of Quimperlé.—ii. S. Corentin d, Bishop (a Briton, who founded the see of Quimper [Cornugallia or Cornubia at first, after 8th century Corisopitensis, which properly meant Corseul near Aleth according to M. Bizeul in Bull. Arch. de l'A. Brétonne], under Count Gradlon, and

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