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of the Securities Act of 1933, was assigned to the Securities Division of that Commission which was charged with the administration of the Securities Act. Commissioner Woodside transferred to the Securities and Exchange Commission upon its establishment by the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. In 1940 he became Assistant Director and in 1952 Director of the Division (now Division of Corporation Finance) responsible for administering the registration and reporting provisions of the Securities Act, Securities Exchange Act, the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, and, in part, the Investment Company Act of 1940. For 14 months commencing in May 1948, he was on loan to the Department of the Army and assigned to duty in Japan as a member of a five-man board which reviewed reorganization plans of Japanese companies under the Occupation's decartelization program; and beginning in December 1950, he served 17 months with the National Security Resources Board and later with the Defense Production Administration as Assistant Deputy Administrator for Resources Expansion. He took office as a member of the Securities and Exchange Commission on July 15, 1960, for the term of office expiring June 5, 1962, and was reappointed effective June 5, 1962, for the term expiring June 5, 1967.

Manuel F. Cohen Commissioner Cohen was born in Brooklyn, N.Y., on October 9, 1912. He holds a B.S. degree in social science from Brooklyn College of the College of the City of New York. He received an LL.B. degree, cum laude, from Brooklyn Law School of St. Lawrence University in 1936, and was elected to the Philonomic Council. He is a member of the New York bar. In 1933–1934 he served as research associate in the Twentieth Century Fund studies of the securities markets. Commissioner Cohen joined the Commission's staff as an attorney in 1942 after several years in private practice, serving first in the Investment Company Division and later in the Division of Corporation Finance, of which he was made Chief Counsel in 1953. He was named Adviser to the Commission in 1959 and in 1960 became Director of the Division of Corporation Finance. He was awarded a Rockefeller Public Service Award by the trustees of Princeton University in 1956 and for a period of 1 year studied the capital markets and the processes of capital formation and of government and other controls in the principal financial centers of Western Europe. In 1961, he was appointed a member of the Council of the Administrative Conference of the United States and received a Career Service Award of the National Civil Service League. From 1958 to 1962 he was lecturer in Securities Law and Regulation at the Law School of George Washington University and he is the author of a number of articles on securities regulation

published in domestic and foreign professional journals. In 1962, he received an honorary LL.D. degree from Brooklyn Law School. He took office as a member of the Commission on October 11, 1961, for the term expiring June 5, 1963, and was reappointed for the term expiring June 5, 1968.

Jack M. Whitney II Commissioner Whitney was born in Huntington Beach, Calif., on May 16, 1922. He attended Millsaps College in Jackson, Miss., for 2 years, and Northwestern University School of Commerce, from which he received a B.S. degree in 1943. From 1943 to 1946, he was on active duty in the U.S. Naval Reserve, achieving the rank of Lieutenant (junior grade) in the Supply Corps. He was graduated from Northwestern University School of Law in 1949 with the degree of J.D. In law school he was an editor of the law review, and he is a member of Beta Gamma Sigma and Order of the Coif. Following graduation he became associated with the Chicago law firm of Bell, Boyd, Marshall & Lloyd, of which he was a member at the time of his appointment to the Commission. His practice was primarily in the field of corporate finance. He took office as a member of the Commission on November 9, 1961, for the term ending June 5, 1964.

IMPORTANT DEVELOPMENTS DURING THE YEAR

Special Study of Securities Markets

Fiscal year 1963 was a particularly notable one for the Commission by virtue of the substantial completion of the Special Study of Securities Markets, which was first undertaken, at the direction of Congress, in September 1961. The Study's Report was transmitted to Congress in three segments, on April 3, July 17, and August 8, 1963. As stated by the Commission in transmitting the final segment, the Report “is clearly the most thorough examination of the securities markets since the early 1930s. Size alone is but a poor measure of its importance and achievement. The Report would have high usefulness if only for its orderly presentation of basic facts about the markets. More importantly it offers a foundation for regulatory and industry actions for a long period to come.”

In its 13 chapters totaling some 3,000 pages, the Report provides a detailed catalog of practices involved in the operation of the securities industry and markets, as well as developments and problems in their regulation and self-regulation. A brief summary of the content of the Report will indicate the breadth of the subject matter reviewed by the Special Study.

Chapter I of the Report, after describing briefly the purposes and methods of study and the general nature of recommendations arrived at, sets forth general data highlighting the growth of the securities industry in the postwar period, which was an important reason for the Study and provides the background for many of the subjects explored. Chapters II and III are concerned with the broad range of persons and business entities engaged in the securities business broker-dealers, salesmen, salesmen's supervisors, and persons engaged in giving investment advice. The first of this pair of chapters examines the standards and controls relating to their entry into and removal from the business; and the second, their activities and respon

1 The Report is available from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., as House Document No. 95 of the 88th Congress, 1st session. Part I: $2.25, Part II : $3.50, Part III: 50 cents, Part IV: $3.75. The letters of transmittal and the Study's conclusions and specific recommendations are set forth in a summary volume, Part V: 55 cents. 717-943-64

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sibilities in the course of that business and the related controls. Chapter IV deals with primary and secondary distributions of securities to the public, with particular emphasis on new issues and briefer review of other specific areas such as the disclosure requirements of the Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, unregistered distributions, intrastate offerings, and real estate securities.

Chapters V, VI, VII, and VIII extensively explore the functions, structures, and problems of markets in which securities are traded after their distribution. Chapter V is a general introduction to this group of chapters. Chapter VI covers the exchange markets, with special attention to the most important of these, the New York Stock Exchange. The chapter reviews the functions and activities of various specialized categories of members, particularly specialists, oddlot brokers and dealers, and floor traders, and also deals with the subjects of short selling and commission rate structures. Chapter VII discusses the over-the-counter markets, their vast and heterogeneous character, their wholesale and retail components, the quotations systems, and present controls over all of them. Chapter VIII then examines various interrelationships among trading markets, including patterns of distribution of securities among exchange and overthe-counter markets, institutional participation in various markets, over-the-counter trading in listed securities, and the regional exchanges as “dual" and primary markets.

Chapter IX reviews the legal requirements and standards in respect of reporting, proxy solicitation and "insider” trading which are applicable to issuers of securities in public hands, contrasting those relating to securities listed on exchanges with those relating to overthe-counter securities and emphasizing the need for legislation in the latter area. It also considers problems in the dissemination of corporate publicity by issuers of both kinds of securities. Chapter X deals with the purposes, effects, and enforcement of securities credit and margin regulations and some inconsistencies and anomalies of the present regulatory pattern. Chapter XI is concerned with certain aspects of open-end investment companies (“mutual funds") which are for the most part covered neither by the recent industry study conducted by the Wharton School of Finance and Commerce nor by continuing inquiries of the Commission's Division of Corporate Regulation. It contains the results of an investor survey and also specifically treats with selling practices, contractual plans, and certain problems in connection with fund portfolio transactions. Chapter XII deals with the self-regulatory pattern which is largely unique to the securities industry. It evaluates the regulatory functioning

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