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INDEX.

pares

Anushțup page 4. 5. 28
Aparāntikā 15
Aparavaktra 14
áryá 16
Aupachchhandasika 14
Carols 26
Chapalā 19
Charchari 12
Chhand 1. 31
Dandaka 26
Druta Vilambita 10. 30
Elision 6
Feet 2, 28, 29
Ganga Dās 7. 30
Gīta Govinda 7
Heroic Metre 4
Hitopadesa 7
Horace 9. 13. 17. 18
Indra Vajrā 8
Mālini 11
Mandākrāntā 8. 12
Manjarī 21
Manjubhāshiņi 11
Matta mayūra 11
Megha Dūta 12
Musical Modes 48
Nārācha 12
Pathyā 19

Pluta 3
Prāchya 15
Praharshiņi 11
Prajjaţika 21
Prayrittika 15
Prithvi bhara 12
Pushpitāgrā 14
Rāthoddhatā 10
Raghu Vamsa 7
Rhymes 21
Sālini 10
Śārdūla 7. 13. 30
Sikharini 11
Slöka
Sragdharā 8. 13
Swagatā 10
Tāla 13
Totaka 10
Udgata 45
Udīchya 15
Vaitālīya 13
Uniform Metres 7
Upendra Vajrā 9
Vamsasthayila 10
Vasanta tilaka 11
Vipulā 18
Virgil 17

CONTENTS.

Scansion and Feet; Page 1; 28. 29
Anushțup 4. 28.

Elision 6
Uniform Metres 7. 31
Alternate ; Vaitāliya, etc. 13, 14, 15
áryá 16. Vipulā 18. Chapalā 20
Rhymes 21. Melodies, Carols, Dandaka 26

ERRATA.

P. 12, line 23, read TTUT.

24, 20, The Mallet to Destroy Delusion.

SANSKRIT PROSODY EXPLAINED.

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.

The vowels a, i, u, ri, lu, are short: as in wate atiśaya fafea milita, yra yudhi, ey křipa. The rest are long.

Short or breve is called me lag-hu or fe hraswa, meaning light.' Long is called TT guru 'heavy,' or pis dirgha 'long.'

To A breve becomes guru if followed by two consonants, as 'a' in ufa asti, or a vakra. But the vowels Ķi and Lri do not lengthen the preceding vowel. Thus Heia săkrit.

A breve is marked with an upright line 'l' thus; a tribrach, which we write UuU is marked 111. The long mark is u which we use for a breve. In Dēvanāgari the character resembles the Persian hamza (-), in Bengali is similar to the number for six in that alphabet.

But the language is pronounced as it is written, and the quantity of each syllable is evident to the eye: the marks for long and breve are therefore seldom used.

The letter y Y is always a consonant, and requires a vowel, as in दैत्यः dait-yah, कार्य kār-yam, योगिन् yogin, शय्या Sayya. When the consonant A M is final, as in 79A walata Nalăm + abravīt, it does not suffer elision. (Nala. iv. 1).

mã tã rãial tha na sa a gam 28

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Prosody is called : chhandah, that is, “fancy, will, pleasure.'

Sanskrit Prosody is measured with feet, called gaña, denoted by letters, Ma, Ya, Ra, etc. fixed in days earlier than the Homeric age. M or Ma denoted a foot of three long syllables, as 'majestas' or • Longini' or has sylvas.' Na is a tribrach of three breves like mulier' or <avibus. Eight such feet are give in the UAETT: or Table. To each I have added a Sanskrit and a Latin instance, having the same initial.

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In the three columns thus arranged in ancient times, the first has a long and a breve alternately; the second has two of each; the third has four.

The dactyl, in the present pages, will be marked B. The spondee will be marked -- as in Latin.

To aid the memory, a learned German friend has given me the following sentence : मायावी यतात्मा रावणः सहसा तन्त्राणि 5119 HTCu agfa “The deceitful, self-controlling Ravana uttered his spells in haste, beginning with · Preserve us”” [from] death. A long syllable is called Guru Te and a breve is

and a breve is erg la-ghu: and the initials, L, G, are thus used: गगं gagam or गा ga

spondæus. ललं la lam or ला la U U pyrrhichius. गलं ga lam

U trochæus. लगं lagam

U iambus. A line is called pāda or charaṇa, meaning a foot; four such form a padya or slok. A prosodial measure of two or three syllables is called gaņa ty because it is counted; we call it a foot.

Aksharam,' a letter,' also is a “syllable.' Heera Samskru-tam, or ftatu Gir-vā-nam (another name of the language) are called tri-literal, or words of three syllables. So is Aksha-ram.

to as fanini would have called All syllables are of a definite length, apparent to the eye; none are doubtful.

The last syllable of each line, in the uniform metres, is long by rule; but in practice is free.

“ Pluta,” denoting extension,' is the name given to a quaver or protracted sound, used in chaunting the Vedas.

In prosody it is merely a long syllable.

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