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HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY

TRANSFERRED FROM
BOTANICAL MUSEUM LIBRARY

FEB. 26, 1934

COPYRIGHT, 1889, BY BUBBARD BROTHERS.

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PREFATORY NOTE TO VOLUME IY.

IV

The Fourth Volume of this American Supplement to the Encyclopædia Britannica corresponds in alphabetical range nearly to the Volumes XIII. to XIX. of the original work. It will thus be seen that the Editors of the Supplement have maintained a due proportion between these two important works of reference. They have felt and freely acknowledge that in many respects and in many departments the Britannica needs no addition. In general history and theoretical science it presents the latest and most authoritative views. But in regard to many historical and practical subjects of the highest interest to Americans the Britannica is seriously deficient. Such deficiencies, wherever discovered, it has been the constant aim of the Editors in this as in former volumes to remedy and supply. For this purpose they have freely called to their aid those known to be authorities in their several departments.

This Volume will be found to contain information in regard to the industrial interests of the United States under Iron, Leather, Lumber, Manufactures, Metals, Metallurgy, Mining, Petroleum and other topics. The operations of the General Government are treated under Mint, Navy, Pension System, Postal Service, and similar heads. American history and biography have received especial attention; and while many biographical notices are brief, subjects of importance have been treated at sufficient length to do them justice.

In the discussion of Biblical topics the same plan has been pursued as in former volumes. American scholars of acknowledged eminence have examined the presentation of these subjects in the Britannica and have here given their judgment. Attention may be called to the articles on Israel, New Testament, and Pentateuch, as showing the conclusions of these American divines.

The list of contributors will show also that on a wide range of other subjects valuable information has been gathered in the present volume. Many of these contributors have been connected with the work from its inception and their merits are known to the readers of former volumes.

The Publishers and Editors trust that the present volume will meet the generous approval which has been bestowed upon the former part of the work.

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS TO THE SUPPLEMENT

VOLUME IV.

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This list embraces the names of those contributors whose names are signed (by their initiale) to artides in the

present volume. Where two or more contributors have the same initials, a distinction has been made in printing them, which will

enable the reader to assign to each his own work. The writers whose names are marked with an asterisk (*) have exercised more or less editorial supervision in their respective departments.

HOWARD CROSBY, D. D., LL. D., Editor-in-Chief.

Prof. JOHN P. LAMBERTON, A. M., Associate Editor.

A: G. ADAX, Editor Oil, Drug and Paint Review, New York. JULIUS CHAMBERS, New York.
Oils,
Pigments.
Journalism,

Mugwump.
Petroloum.

Lobby, Rev. GEORGE W. ANDERSON, D.D., Editor American Bap- Col. JAMES A. COLVIN, New York. tist Publication Society, Philadelphia.

Paper. Yinsions, Amorican Protestant.

ANTHONY COMSTOCK, New York, Prof. N. L. ANDREWS, Hamilton, N. Y.

Lotteries. Madison University.

THOMAS M. COOLEY, LL.D., formerly Chief-Justice Bupreme Hon. JAMES B. ANGELL, LL. D., President Michigan

Court of Michigan. University, Ann Arbor, Mich.

Libel. Michigan, University of. WILLIAM B. ATKINSON, M. D., Secretary American Medi. ELLIOTT COUES, W. D., National Museum, Washington, D.C. cal Association, Philadelphia.

Night Hawk,

Partridge. Obstetrics.

Rev. ALEXANDER CROMMELL, Washington, D.O.

Liberia.
Surg. PRESTON H. BAILHACHE, U. S. Marine Hospital
Service.

Rev. JOSEPH CUMMINGS, D. D., LL.D., Evanston, Ill. Marine Hospital Service.

Northwestern University.
Hon. KEMP P. BATTLE, LL. D., Chapel Hill, N. C. SAMUEL IVES CURTISS, D.D., Professor of Hebrew, Pres-
North Carolina.
North Carolina University. byterian Theological Seminary, Chicago, Ill.

Levites,
Prof. WILLIS J. BEECHER, D. D., Auburn Theological
Seminary, N. Y.

J. P. DAVENPORT, U. S. Commissioner of Immigration,
Isaiah,
Kings, Books of,

New York,
Israel,
Pentateuch,
Normons (in part),

Naturalization.
Judges.
Philistiues.

Municipality,
Hon. CHARLES H. BELL, Exeter, N. H.

CHARLES T. DAVIS, Department of the Interior, Washing. New Hampshire.

ton, D. C. JOHN BIRKINBINE, M. E., Philadelphia,

Leather,

Mint,
Maine,

Mississippi,
Iron.

Maryland,

Missouri, LORIN BLODGET, Editor Industrial Review, Philadelphia.

Metallurgy,

Moulding. Manufactures.

MADISON DAVIS, Post-Office Department, Washington, D.C.

Postal Service.
Prof. ALBERT S. BOLLES, Editor Banker's Magazine, New
York.

Mrs. REBECCA HARDING Davis, Philadelphia.
Money.

Life-Saving Service, U. 8. Justice JOSEPH P. BRADI.EY, LL. D., U, S. Supreme Hon. JOHN M. DOANE, State Librarian, Columbus, Ohio. Court, Washington, D. C.

Ohio. Law.

WILLIAM H. EGLE, M. D., State Librarian, Harrisburg, Pa. Rev. W. P. BREED, D. D., Philadelphia.

Pennsylvania. Inspiration.

WALTER M. FERRISS, Bay Ridge, L. I. LINUS P. BROCKETT, M. D., Brooklyn, N. Y.

Patents,

Polygamy. Mississippi River.

Mason F. GALLAGHER, U. 8. Pension Bureau, Washing. R. W. D. BRYAN, Esq., Albuquerque, N. M.

ton, D. C. New Mexico.

Pension Systom. Rev. H. C. CAMERON, D.D., Princeton, N. J.

WILLIAM E, GARDINER, Mobile, Ala. College of New Jersey.

Mobile

Rev. T. A. K. GESSLER, Brooklyn, N. Y.

Rev. H. M. MCCRACKEX, D. D., New York. Materialism.

University of the City of Now York, DANIEL C. GILMAN, LL.D., President Johns Hopkins FREDERIC G. MATHER, Albany, N. Y. University, Baltimore, Md.

New York,

Ontario, Lako. Johns Hopkins University.

New York City,

Opium,
Niagara,

Political Convontion..
CHARLES W. GREENE, M. D., Merchantville, N. J.

•THOMAS MEEHAN, Philadelphia. Jetty,

Michigan, Lako,
Manitoba,
Neat Cattle,

Ivy,

Maplo,
McClellan, G. B.,
Oriole.

Kalmia,

Marigold,
Mexico,
Opossum.

Larch,

Melon,
Lily,

Mezquito.

Linden, Rev. W. ELLIOTT GRIFFIS, D.D., Boston, late Professor in the Imperial University of Tokio.

A. G. MENOCAL, Civil Engineer U. 8. N.
Japan.

Interoceanic Canala.
W. N. Hailman, State Superintendent of Schools, LA JOSEPH C. MOORE, San Francisco.
Porte, Indiana.

Nevada,

Oregon. Kindergarten.

CHARLES MORRIS, Academy of Natural Sciences, Phil. Rev. CHARLES A. HAY, D.D., Lutheran Theological

delphia. Seminary, Gettysburg, Pa.

Industrial Exhibitions,

Medical Colleges, American, Lutherans in the United States,

Inundations,

Mound Builders,
Irrigation,

Ocean Life,
D. P. HEAP, Secretary Light-House Board, Washington,

Lighting, Electric,

Oleomargarino, D. C.

Lumber,

Oyster, Light-Houses.

Meats,

Parks. S. S. HERRICK, M. D., Seeretary Board of Health, New JOHN T. NAPIER, Associate Editor, The Sunday-School Orleans, La.

Times, Philadelphia. Measles.

Job. FREDERYCK HESS, Fort Dodge, Iowa.

Rev. THOMAS B. NEELY, Ph.D., D.D., Philadelphia. Nebraska.

Parliamentary Practice. E. C. HINE, Editor Insurance Monitor, New York.

* Lieut. LEWIS Nixon, Assistant Naval Constructor, U.S.N. Insurance, Fire.

Iron-Clads,

Navigation, Inland,
Naval Academy,

Navy, U.S.,
A. A. HODGE, D. D., Professor of Dogmatic Theology,

Navigation,

Ordnance, Princeton Theological Seminary, N. J.

Rev. J. V. O'CONNOR, D.D., Philadelphia, Miracles.

Indulgence. Major-General OLIVER O. HOWARD, U. S. A.

Prof. W. B. OWEN, Easton, Pa. Indians,

Martial Law,
Indian Territory,

Lafayette College.
Mexican War,
Infantry,

Military Academies.

Prof. J. L. PICKARD, LL.D., Iowa City, Ia. JAMES HUNTER, Lynchburg, Va.

Iowa State University. Peninsular Campaign, McClellan's.

E. B. POND, Ann Arbor, Mich. Prof. THOMAS HUNTER, New York,

Michigan. Normal Schools.

Ben: PERLEY POORE, late Editor Congressional Directory,

Clerk Senate Com. on Printing Records, etc. W. W. KEEN, M. D., Philadelphia.

Mileage. Lithotomy.

Thomas REATH, Esq., Philadelphia. O. KIRCHHOFF, JR., M. E., Editor Engineering and Mining

Negligence,

Penalty. Journal, New York.

Neutrality,

Partnership Metals,

Mining.

* Rev. MATTHEW B. R:DDLE, D.D., Western Theological * Prof. JOHN P. LAMBERTON, Philadelphia.

Seminary, Allegheny, Pa.
New Testament,

Paul,
Lee family
Parnell, Charles Stewart.

Pastoral Epistles,

Peter. Lowell, James Russell.

Pawnbroking Newman, John Henry,

Phillips, Wendell

Prof. C. V. RILEY, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, Numismatics, American,

Pennsylvania, University of.

D. C. Prof. W. A. LAMBERTON, Lehigh University, South Beth

Locust.

Phylloxera. lehem, Pa.

F. L. RITTER, D. Mus., Vassar College,Poughkeepsie, N. Y. Lebigh University.

Music, Rev. ALBERT G. LAWSON, D.D., Boston, Mass.

BUNFORD SAMUEL, Philadelphia Library. License.

Libraries, American Public. J. W. LEAVITT, M. D., New York.

Bishop EDMUND DE SCHWEINITZ, D.D., Bethlehem, Pa. Medical Treatment, Special Methods of

Moravian Church. J. LESPERANCE, Montreal, Canada.

Prof. W. H. SEAMAN, Patent Office, Washington, D. C. Jesuits.

Microscope. A. G. MoCoy, Ph. D., Chicago.

J. C. Suaw, M. D., Superintendent of Brooklyn Insane Iowa,

Minnesota,

Asylum.
Kansas,
Montana.

Insanity.

•Rev. LUCIUS E. SMITH, D. D., Editor of The Watchman, FRANK WEITENKAMPF (" Frank Linstow White"), Astor Boston, Mass.

Library, New York.
Massachusetts,
Native American Party.

Opera,

Painting Monroe Doctrine,

Organ,

Piano. Rev. Dwight SPENCER, D.D., Salt Lake City.

FRANCIS WHARTON, LL. D., Solicitor Department of State, Mormons.

Washington.

International Law, Private.
Miss CORÅ STICKNEY, Secretary Philadelphia Branch McAll
Mission.

J. WILLIAM WHITE, M. D., University of Pennsylvania. McAll Mission.

Physical Education.

Hon. A. J. WILLARD, late Chief Justice of South Carolina, WILLIAM R. THAYER, Cambridge, Mass.

Washington, D. C. Italy.

Nullification,

Petition, Right of. Prof. ROBERT ELLIS THOMPSON, Ph. D., D. D., University Col. GEORGE W. WILLIAMS, Worcester, Mass. of Pennsylvania.

Negro in America. Ireland,

Political Economy.

WILLIAM C. WINLOCK, U. S. Naval Observatory, Wash. Rev. O. H. TIFFANY, D. D., New York.

ington, D. C. Methodist Episcopal Church.

Observatories. COLIN K. URQUHART, Lockwood Press, New York HORATIO C. WOOD, M. D., University of Pennsylvania. Pen, Pencil,

Poisong. CALVERT VAUX, C. E., New York.

CARROLL D. WRIGHT, U. S. Commissioner of Labor, Wasbo Landscape Gardening.

ington.

Labor.
NORMAN WALKER, The New Orleans Times-Democrat,
New Orleans, La

GEORGE H. YEAMAN, New York,
Louisiana,
Now Orleans,

Insanity, Legal Aspects of

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