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ited m nada. There is nothing, however, which discourages a class more than to be told jokes which they cannot grasp readily, either from a multiplicity of new words or from a foreign subtlety of humor which they cannot appreciate.

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The textbook used in the Cleveland schools has been prepared -especially for the system, and while not perfect by any means, has been found most suited to the purpose. The guiding principle in the subject matter is to present only the most fundamental rules in the simplest form, accompanied by sufficient reading matter to keep the student at least a week on each important point. The vocabulary is practical and as far as possible limited to the topics which are best known and most interesting to the pupil. The grammar is presented inductively, in keeping with the idea that the student should gain self-reliance and the ability to think for himself.

The text is finished about the middle of the first semester of the second year, and not until then is the pupil ready to read his first bit of literature. He is now prepared to encounter any important point in grammar and to understand it without having his enjoyment of the story as a story spoiled for him, as it would be if it were necessary to take time out for explanations. Moreover, he is not being encouraged to slide past difficulties, thus inculcating slovenly, careless habits.

The student should never be cast adrift on uncharted seas. He gains little if his hour at home is spent in darting from the text to the dictionary and back again. The lesson is explained thoroughly by the teacher before it is assigned as home work. Moreover, the explanation should be in Spanish. It takes time and preparation on the part of the teacher, and no little ingenuity to keep the paraphrasing limited to the vocabulary which the class already possesses. At home, then, the time is utilized profitably in assimilating the content and the vocabulary. The interest is centered on Spanish only and not weakened by being diffused over two languages. The new word enters the brain more readily by the ear than by the eye, so that the explanation of the word by the teacher should make a more lasting impression than the sight of the English equivalent. In the recitation, a skilful questioning in Spanish reveals much more accurately than any amount of translation the student's understanding and retention of the passage read.

The verbs should be dealt with in sentences and not as disconnected units. Teaching them merely by tense, person, and number


deals a mortal blow to spontaneity. A more effective method is to have the proper form of the verb placed in the sentence, or to formulate questions necessitating a change in the form of the verb in the answer. The composition should always be based on the vocabulary and grammatical points being developed at the time.

The question has been raised as to whether this slow and careful method prevents the carrying out of college requirements. The student from the Cleveland system who expects to go to college need not fear any reasonable test imposed upon him. From the colleges who have sent reports on the freshman work during the first semester, it has been ascertained that of all the students who began their language study in the city schools and who continued it in college, no failure has been reported except in one case. In this particular incident the student had a mere passing grade in high school and was out of school for a year before continuing. A few points thoroughly mastered are much more valuable and give much better promise of the future than a multitude illy assimilated. One cannot but agree with Dr. de Sauzé that "a knowledge of a foreign language is in indirect ratio to the number of books read in a given time." If, however, the teacher wishes to complete the amount of reading indicated by the colleges, he may require certain additional work outside of class for those who are candidates for admission to these colleges.

Standardized tests have been used to ascertain the pupil's grounding in essentials, his ability to understand and use the material he has acquired, and his achievement in general. These are tests made out under the direct supervision of Dr. de Sauzé, with the system of grading carefully indicated so that there may be as great a uniformity as possible throughout the city in the matter of marking, and the personal equation of the teacher may be discounted as much as possible.

In summing up, there are two main purposes: educational results in the broad sense and the ability to read. As a by-product the student acquires the ability to understand and to speak. These two latter points may be satisfied without neglecting the first two.





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"Este es un vivo retrato de virtud, liberalidad, esfuerzo, gentileza y lealtad," says the preface of El Abencerraje or La historia de Abindarráez y la hermosa Jarifa, printed in El Inventario of Antonio de ent Villegas in 1565.1 Could one ask for more in an old-fashioned tale? It will be recalled that one evening, long before Granada was reconquered, the Moor Abindarráez was riding toward the fortress of sts Cártama to see Jarifa, the fair mistress of his heart, from whom he had long been separated and whom he had loved from childhood. Surprised by a band of Christian knights who had sallied forth from at the fortress of Álora in search of adventure, he defended himself la with the courage of Amadís, but finally, weakened and wounded, he was unhorsed and disarmed by their leader, Rodrigo de Narváez. A sigh escaped him as the Moor was being led a captive to Álora, and on learning the identity of his captor, who was admired even by his foes for his chivalrous qualities, he confided to him the secret of his quest that evening.

Rodrigo, the soul of honor, immediately recognized in his late adversary a man of the same stamp, and offered Abindarráez his release on condition that he should surrender himself within three days. The Moor joyfully accepted this generous proposal, and hurried away on a borrowed horse to meet his lady. Abindarráez exsultingly exchanged the fetters of Rodrigo for Jarifa's bonds, and in the presence of the tiring-woman, they gave one another a pledge of marriage. But Jarifa noticed that her knight was sorrowful, and when she pressed him for an explanation, he reluctantly told her of his promise made to Rodrigo. At first she made light of his scruples, declaring that the gold of her father, the Governor of Cártama, would pay his ransom, but when he insisted that his honor demanded that he present himself in person, Jarifa asserted her right to accompany him.

On the road to Álora, they met an old man who told them this story regarding their future jailer. When Rodrigo de Narváez was 1 It is well known that this story, with certain divergences, had already appeared in the 1561 edition of Montemayor's Diana, published after Montemayor's death. We are not concerned here with questions of authorship or origins.


Governor of Antequera, he fell in love with a lady who rejected his advances because of her devotion to her husband. One day she and her husband saw a falcon pursue and kill a number of birds, and her husband remarked that in the same fashion Rodrigo de Narváez, the bravest knight he had ever seen, was wont to pursue and kill Moors in skirmish. The lady decided that perhaps she was wrong in refusing the attentions of one who enjoyed such high repute, and finally, overcoming fear and scruples, she sent for him. After receiving Rodrigo, she explained to him her change of heart.

Señor Rodrigo de Narváez, yo soy vuestra de aquí adelante, sin que en mi poder quede cosa que no lo sea; y esto no lo agradezcáis a mí; que todas vuestras pasiones y diligencias, falsas o verdaderas, os aprovecharon poco conmigo; mas agradecedlo a mi marido, que tales cosas me dijo de vos, que me han puesto en el estado que agora estoy.

Tras esto le contó cuanto con su marido había pasado, y al cabo le dijo: -Y cierto, señor, vos debéis a mi marido más que él a vos.

Pudieron tanto estas palabras con Rodrigo de Narváez que le causaron confusión y arrepentimiento del mal que hacía a quien de él decía tantos bienes; y apartándose afuera, dijo:

-Por cierto, señora, yo os quiero mucho, y os querré de aquí adelante; mas nunca Dios quiera que a hombre que tan aficionadamente ha hablado de mí, haga yo tan cruel daño; antes de hoy más he de procurar la honra de vuestro marido, como la mía propia, pues en ninguna cosa le puedo pagar mejor el bien que de mí dijo.

Y sin aguardar más, se volvió por donde había venido.

Abindarráez applauded the generosity of Rodrigo, but the lady took a more personal view of the case, and replied:

Pór Dios, señor, yo no quisiera servidor tan virtuoso; mas él debía estar poco enamorado, pues tan presto se salió a fuera; y pudo más con él la honra del marido que la hermosura de la mujer.

The desenlace is briefly told. Rodrigo's heart is touched by Jarifa's devotion to Abindarráez; in a quaint letter he asks the King of Granada to intercede with Jarifa's father in behalf of the lovers whom he will set at liberty; and parental forgiveness and blessing is forthcoming, followed by an exchange of gifts between Rodrigo and his former captives.

Rodrigo de Narváez was a well-known figure in Spanish history in the early fifteenth century, but there is no evidence that the incidents referring to him in El Abencerraje are authentic. At all events we may say that the story relating to him told by the old man is not historical, since it is found in the first tale of the first day of Ser

Giovanni Fiorentino's Il Pecorone, which was begun in the year 1378, only three years after the death of Boccaccio, but was not bird printed until 1558.

Nan There we read that the young Galgano of Siena, wealthy, wellborn, brave and adorned with all graces, was madly enamored of Madonna Minoccia, Messer Stricca's wife, but she was indifferent to his importunities. One day a falcon chased a magpie into their garden and fought so valiantly that the lady asked her husband whose falcon it was. "It belongs to Galgano," replied Messer Stricca, "the bravest and most accomplished youth in Siena." Madonna Minoccia pondered these words in her heart, and when her husband was sent on a mission to Perugia, she took advantage of his absence to summon Galgano. The lover, overjoyed, is admitted to her presence, but after the first kisses, his curiosity is aroused, and he asks why her disdain has changed to love. Then the lady tells him that he owes his triumph to her husband's praise. The situation is offensive to Galgano's sense of honor, and he bids her a curt farewell, declaring that he will not betray one who had shown himself a friend.


The author of El Abencerraje omitted in his version certain crudities of the Italian text, whether from an innate sense of delicacy or because they ill accord with the sentimental tone of his story, but apart from a few details, it will be seen that the two accounts agree.

Professor Goggio2 has recently made a comparison between Longfellow's poem entitled "Galgano" and Ser Giovanni's tale, and it has seemed to me not without interest to consider the similarities and divergences between a sixteenth-century Spanish version and one made by an American poet about three hundred years later from the same Italian original.

After one descriptive stanza of Siena, "the home of love and gallantry," Longfellow introduces his dramatis personae or comoediae personae if you like: the good old count Salvatore, his beautiful young wife Bella Mano, and "the noble, handsome, rich Galgano. The poet felt that Madonna Minoccia's indiscretion was insufficiently motivated in the Italian version, and made the irresistible attraction

1 J. P. W. Crawford, "Un episodio de 'El Abencerraje' y una novella de Ser Giovanni," Revista de Filología Española, X (1923) 281–287.

2 E. Goggio, "Italian Influences on Longfellow's Works," The Romanic Review, XVI (1925), 215–220. For the text of "Galgano," I have used Putnam's Monthly Magazine of American Literature, Science and Art, I (1853), 512–516, where it was first published.

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