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of a fair youth for a lovely lady the basis of her conduct. But for all that, Bella Mano was faithful to her lord, and turned a deaf ear to the wooing of the timid Galgano. Of this timidity there is no trace in the Italian and Spanish versions.

The scene with the falcon is described in considerable detail, and when Bella Mano, flushed with excitement, learns that the bird is Galgano's, whose rare perfections had been generously praised by her husband, her nascent love is changed into restless desire. And yet, even when her husband is called from home by affairs of state, she hesitates long before sending a messenger to summon to her side the youth she loves. The situation becomes thoroughly credible in this conflict of love and duty, an element that is lacking in both the Italian and Spanish versions.

When Galgano answers her call, she welcomes him with dignity and grace:

Then sat they fondly side by side,

And much they questioned and replied,
And much Galgano wished to know
What had o'ercome the lady's pride,

And changed her and subdued her so.
And she related the whole story;

The story of that summer day,

When he rode down the woodland way,

And, though entreated, would not stay,
And of the falcon and its flight,
And how her husband, Salvatore,
Spoke of him with so much delight,
With so much love and tenderness,
And placed his name so far above

All others, that she could no less

Than listen, and, in listening, love!

Then suddenly a sense of guilt filled the heart of the lover who exclaimed in "tones of deep contrition":

"May God forbid that I defame

Old Salvatore's honored name,

And pay his noble trust in me

By any act of infamy!"

Then with the instinct of despair

He rushed into the open air!

And homeward riding, through the night,

He felt a wild, but sweet delight

Pervade his breast, with thoughts of peace,

And gratitude for his release,

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For Ser Giovanni and his Spanish imitator, the story was merely a sample of hidalguía, of a gentleman's sense of honor. Longfellow felt obliged to lug in a moral, the joy one feels, or should feel, in successfully resisting temptation. The crisp ending of the foreign versions compares very favorably with the brief sermon that closes Longfellow's poem. In no one of the three versions do we have the comments of the lady who was so abruptly abandoned. Bella Mano, doubtless, had sufficient refinement of feeling to understand Galgano's scruples. In the other versions, the lady was probably unable to appreciate her lover's generous motives. The words of the Spanish text: "La dama debió de quedar burlada," seem to indicate that in the author's opinion, she received the treatment she deserved.

J. P. WICKERSHAM CRAWFORD

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA

THE SUBJUNCTIVE FORMS IN -RA AND -SE IN

SPANISH-AMERICAN SPEECH

A few additional notes on the subject of the relative frequency of Spanish subjunctive forms in -ra and -se may be of interest, in the light of three recent articles1 on this topic in HISPANIA.

It is patently difficult in such studies to maintain a clearly drawn distinction between the written and the spoken forms; and it is extremely difficult to argue about the latter without adducing proof from the former. A little thought devoted to the problem will convince any student that arguments against Dr. Dale's statements cannot fairly be drawn from written sources alone, since literary Spanish (as will be indicated in the appended statistics) usually tends to employ locutions more grammatically "correct" than does informal or conversational Spanish. On the other hand, it is evident that any support which can be brought from written sources to strengthen the argument from spoken sources adds just so much weight to the contention that the -ra form is replacing that in -se in the spoken language in Spanish America, since it goes to show that the conversational form is gaining a definite influence over the more deliberately composed written form.

The statement in Cuervo's famous note2 and that in Hills and Ford have reference to the common colloquial speech and not to the formal written language, so that counter-arguments cannot be easily drawn from written works. Particularly is this true of the writings of "men of scholarship and standing." The same man who writes in a particularly "correct" fashion is very likely to use a different manner in his everyday speech, as is strikingly illustrated by the analogous case in French. A Frenchman writes an article about subject r and employs the imperfect subjunctive in regular conformity to

- se

1 George I. Dale, "The Imperfect Subjunctive," HISPANIA, March, 1925; Francis B. Lemon, "The Relative Frequency of the Subjunctive Forms in andra," HISPANIA, November, 1925; Malbone W. Graham, “The Imperfect Subjunctive in Spanish America," HISPANIA, February, 1926.

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2 Andrés Bello, Gramática de la Lengua Castellana ( con extensas notas . . . de Rufino José Cuervo), Paris, 1918. Nota 94: en América (a lo menos en Colombia) es de raro uso la en -se en el habla ordinaria . . ."

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3 E. C. Hills and J. D. M. Ford, First Spanish Course, Boston, 1917, p. 137: "... the form in ra is more common in Spanish America."

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the grammatical rules; but he will later converse with a friend about the same topic and repeat the substance of what he wrote with, nevertheless, a strict omission of the forms in -ss-, as well as of those of the past definite. Custom so dictates. These forms have passed completely out of conversational use in French, and yet we cannot test this statement of the grammarians by reference to written works alone. In strict analogy to the case in French, the writer has observed in common, free conversation in Mexico an almost exclusive use of -ra, while in formal writing -se is also used. He recently questioned two cultured Spanish boys, students at this university, who were born and brought up in Guadalajara, Mexico, and they agreed in saying: "Nunca usamos tal forma, ni la oímos, excepto de parte de personas como nuestros tíos que son españoles de España, o en la oratoria o discursos excesivamente formales. La forma corriente y usual es 'fuera,' no ‘fuese.'" And their contention is borne out vividly by the appended statistics based on a careful scrutiny of five complete issues of the principal Guadalajara daily showing not a single case of a verb in -se in 200 columns of news and editorials.

In view of the difficulty we meet in supporting with proof such a statement as that in Cuervo's note, those of us who can bear witness in person to its veracity find ourselves at a loss to offer testimony which shall receive more credence than can be expected for our mere word that "we have noticed that it is so." It has been contended above that arguments cannot be easily drawn from written works to prove the relative infrequency of the form in -ra over that in -se in spoken usage on account of the fact that the writer who uses the -ra in natural conversation will "stiffen up" when he takes his pen in hand, and be formal. However, if to the contention that the -ra form is commoner in spoken Spanish we can adduce examples from written works which go to show that a writer who is pressed for time and has to write as he thinks in reporting an event, with no time to polish his article, shows a definite tendency to use the ra more, despite the regular tendency to be more formal in writing, it may be of value. We all know that the editorial page of any newspaper is likely to show, in its deliberately written articles, more carefully and more consciously chosen words and syntactical constructions than

4R. T. Holbrook, Living French, Boston, 1917, p. 196: “. . . . in spoken French all forms of the past subjunctive in -asse, -isse, -usse, etc., have ceased to be used."

those used by reporters who write in haste and who usually have less literary training than the editorial writers. For this reason an examination was made of five editorial pages of El Excelsior (Mexico City), La Nación (Buenos Aires), and El Mercurio (Santiago, Chile), and then of a corresponding amount of local news from each issue, with the result that the latter showed, as a rule, an increased percentage of forms in -ra. Possibly an examination of a larger number of issues of El Mercurio would tell a different story; but the writer has confined himself strictly to but five copies of each publication. In addition there were examined the same number of issues in toto of El Informador, the large daily of western Mexico; of Hispano-América, a San Francisco, California, weekly; and of El Mundo Cristiano, a Mexico City weekly, which was chosen because it is a gathering together of popular articles and letters from all sections of Mexico, being a national, interdenominational, religious weekly. In addition there is given a count of the frequency of -ra and -se forms in a representative daily of Madrid, by way of comparison.

While preparing this material the writer has conversed with local Mexican friends in an effort to watch their use of -ra versus -se, and has noticed the strict omission of the latter from ordinary conversation. However, in an argument, a cultured Mexican friend said to him: "Sin embargo, por más que dijera Ud. que sí, yo francamente dijese3 que no." Later, when interrogated, he explained that he had used the -se form for emphasis! It seems that people who do not have a "Sprachgefühl" for the -se form are apt to use it incorrectly when they try to use it in elevated style, despite a comparatively sound academic training. The following quotation from the wellknown Mexican writer, Carlos Díaz Dufoo, whose special articles appear regularly in El Excelsior (Mexico City), is illustrative of this tendency:

Seguramente que de no haberse tratado del Señor L., el Señor R. no hubiese aceptado . . . su interinato, ni el Señor L. habría admitido otro colaborador que no fuese su discreto amigo."

...

Of parallel interest is a sentence from an editorial in La Nación (Buenos Aires):

5 Bello, in par. 721, and Cuervo, in his Nota 99, attack this tendency.

6 Carlos Díaz Dufoo, Limantour, México, 1910, p. 55.

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