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them to send things from the countries in which they may chance to be. Some of the things received in this way mean infinitely more to the student and also to his class than all that a teacher may have accumulated and placed on the walls for silent approval. Sources of material must be at the students' disposal. This should consist of newspapers, advertisements, lists of jokes, lists of proverbs, clippings, material that may be pasted, lists of magazines dealing with things Spanish, and additional things that local needs may require. The magazine lists should be posted, and as the new numbers come out the students should be encouraged to report new material. The teacher then may add that to the list, giving the name of the class which brought it in and the initials of the student reporting the same. This encourages rivalry and may be done as readily by the beginner as by the more advanced student.

The results of this experiment are of more value to the student than may be supposed. It awakens and arouses his interest and causes him to be alert to the things of everyday life, not only of his fellow students, but of other students in other lands. Just reading a text does not make a lasting impression on the average high-school student. The average amount of material read is insufficient to give the student that broad international comprehension so much desired today. The bulletin board is an excellent means of utilizing to advantage the time intervening between bells before the class begins. The students have new material to discuss, new food for thought, and new suggestions for research; hence they utilize that time so often lost in idle gossip or lone gazing about the room. Material posted will call forth discussion, and it is then that the art of the teacher, as well as his ingenuity, will guide them on their way. It may be that the teacher will see fit to make a short talk about the man in question; but it is better, if possible, to find the material and let the student have the chance. The student's material may be introduced first and then supplemented by that of the teacher; or the teacher may give the student all available material and pictures in addition to material which he himself has found. After the student has concluded, the teacher may mention points omitted by the pupil and round out the discussion. After pictures have been discussed in this manner, they will mean something to the class when added to brighten the walls. As teachers, we lose so many wonderful opportunities because we fail to realize that those in our charge have never been taught to appreciate and observe the things that we think are self-evident.

A prize may be offered to the class which arranges the best exhibition, or the winners may be glad to put their material on again. Usually during the school year about three contests may be planned. For the second time an appropriate reward is a picture, and the third time a medal will draw forth the desired response.

PHOENIX UNION HIGH SCHOOL
PHOENIX, ARIZONA

GENEVIEVE L. Yannke

NOTES AND NEWS

GENERAL EDUCATIONAL NEWS

Mr. Charles P. Harrington, Jr., teacher of Spanish and French in the Kent School, Kent, Connecticut, and one of the most active members of our association since its inception, has been awarded the medal of the Connecticut Humane Society for rescuing two girls from drowning. This act of heroism occurred at Milford Beach, Connecticut, during the summer of 1925.

During the Velázquez exhibition in New York City in October, D. Antonio González de la Peña delivered a noteworthy lecture in Spanish under the auspices of the Instituto de las Españas entitled "La Pintura de Velázquez, Reflejo de su Vida." This popular and sympathetic appreciation of the Spanish master was presented in an informal manner in Room 305, Schermerhorn, Columbia University.

Señor D. Rafael Ramírez de Arellano, Spanish Professor of the University of Puerto Rico at Río Piedras, will spend his sabbatical year in Seville, Spain, where he will be engaged in a study of the archives of the Indies concerning the history of Puerto Rico. At present he is in Madrid finishing his labors in phonetic investigation under the direction of Señor D. T. Navarro Tomás.

Mr. Edwin B. Place, of the Department of Romanic Languages of the University of Colorado, is also enjoying his leave of absence in Madrid where he is to carry out his literary investigations of the novelists of the Siglo de Oro.

Forty students, twenty-seven of whom are norteamericanos, have attended the courses for foreigners organized by the Centro de Estudios Históricos this fall.

The Secretaría de los Cursos para Extranjeros, Almagro, 26, Madrid, will be very glad to supply, upon request, information regarding the summer courses to be offered there this year. Many noted men will lecture there, and the courses offered are of unusual interest to the teacher of Spanish who expects to visit Spain this summer as well as to the traveler who may wish to improve his knowledge of the language and the literature of this enchanting country.

Professor J. D. M. Ford, of Harvard University, who is at present Director of the American University Union with headquarters in Paris, went to Madrid at the invitation of the Centro de Estudios Históricos of that city and, on January 16, delivered a lecture in Spanish at the Centro on "La América Ibérica desde el punto de vista de un estadounidense." Dr. Ford was introduced to the audience by the President of the Centro, D. Ramón Menéndez Pidal.

Don Homero Seris, who is at present Secretary of the Centro de Estudios Históricos has been named Secretary of the Courses for Foreigners organized by the Centro de Estudios Históricos.

Señor D. Tomás Navarro Tomás is preparing a third and enlarged edition of his excellent and useful Manual de Pronunciación Española, which will soon appear.

Professor Ernest G. Atkin, of the University of Wisconsin, who is engaged upon a study of the works of Doña Emilia Pardo Bazán, is in Madrid.

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SAN DIEGO HIGH SCHOOL.-The Commercial Spanish classes at this high school have formed a new club which is called "El Club General Calles." The object of the club is primarily to promote interest in the sister republic and the other Spanish-American republics south of us.

The Spanish classes joined in celebrating Christmas after a novel fashion. Piñatas were held at the Roosevelt High School; nacimientos were on exhibition under the direction of the Commercial classes; villancicos were sung, and as nearly as possible the spirit of the Spanish Navidad was observed, many of the teachers and pupils attending the Misa del Gallo at the local churches.

JEFFERSON HIGH SCHOOL, Los ANGELES, CALIF.-The bronze medal of the A.A.T.S. was awarded at the close of the mid-year term to Catherine Kline (All, Spanish), and Bertha Levanthal (A12, Spanish). The medals were presented at the regular Assembly at the end of the term when the awards of athletic letters, cups, etc., were made.

SPRINGFIELD HIGH SCHOOL, SPRINGFIELD, ILL.-At the close of the past semester, Miss Ruth Healy was awarded the Bronze Medal of the A.A.T.S. for excellence in Spanish. Miss Healy completed a four-year course in Spanish with an average grade of 93 and enters Illinois College, Jacksonville, this spring.

ESCONDIDO HIGH SCHOOL, ESCONDIDO, CALIF.-The Third Annual award of the bronze medal of the A.A.T.S. was made in assembly March 16 at Escondido High School. Gladys Betsworth was the recipient of the medal, a distinction which is highly coveted and in which great interest is taken each year.

ENROLLMENT IN THE DIFFERENT FOREIGN LANGUAGES IN SENIOR
HIGH SCHOOLS, MARCH 1926

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German
Greek
Italian
Latin

Spanish

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Grand Totals, Modern Languages, 78,757
Grand Totals, Ancient Languages, 28,703

NORTH CAROLINA MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION.-The Association met in Raleigh on Friday, March 19, under the chairmanship of Dr. F. K. Fleagle, of Davidson College. Mrs. Helen M. Laughlin, of the Central High School of Charlotte, gave a short talk on the presentation of the Spanish subjunctive. Mrs. Laughlin uses a rack on which are mounted cards with the main rules of subjunctive. These are always before the eyes of the students. The subjunctive is then "borrowed" for the "polite" imperative. A general discussion on the subjunctive followed Mrs. Laughlin's talk.

Mr. Blythe, of Davidson, the next speaker, discussed the Laboratory courses which he conducts informally once a week. The students read La Prensa; and each student gives a summary of any news article that may interest him.

Mr. Steinhauser, of Duke University, read a paper on prognosis tests, citing Wilkins' Test and the Hansen Predetermination Test combinations of Esperanto and English. The different results of these tests were indicated.

Miss Lorna I. Lavery, of the North Carolina College for Women, spoke about the Spanish Club of her college, which has 169 enthusiastic members this year. Miss Lavery continued with her paper, "Survey of Literature Programs for Spanish Clubs," mentioning pantomimes of El Cid and Alfonso el Sabio.

Dr. Leavitt, of the University of North Carolina, presented to the group the advantages and the disadvantages of forming a chapter of the American Association of Teachers of Spanish. This question was discussed by everyone. It was moved, seconded, and carried that a committee be elected to solicit membership in the national organization. Miss Lavery was unanimously elected as chairman for the next meeting.

NATIONAL SPANISH HONOR SOCIETY.-The national Spanish honor society, Sigma Delta Pi, established at the University of California in 1919, is now a flourishing society with nine local chapters in as many different universities of the country. The objects of the society are the promotion of interest and fellowship among the most brilliant students of Spanish in the various universities and colleges of the United States in the study of things Spanish. It is for students of Spanish what Phi Beta Kappa is for general honor students. The latest chapter to be organized, the Kappa chapter, was organized at Stanford University in March, with fourteen foundation members and two honorary members from the faculty. The members of the Alpha chapter under the direction of the national president, Mr. Leavitt O. Wright, made the trip to Stanford to initiate the members of the new chapter. After the initiation ceremonies the members of Alpha and Kappa chapters dined at the Stanford Union.

The following are the universities that now have local chapters of Sigma Delta Pi: University of California, University of Southern California, University of Idaho, University of California Southern Branch, University of Missouri, University of Oregon, University of Maryland, University of Ohio, University of Texas. Arrangements are now being made for the installation of a chapter at the University of Illinois.

CHAPTER NEWS

SAN JOAQUIN CHAPTER.-The second meeting of the current school year of this chapter was held in Lemoore, January 30. Miss Dona Pounds acted as hostess in receiving the members and guests in the artistic new high-school building, and the following program was rendered under her direction: "Teresita Mía," Quintette, by Lemoore High School; "La Golondrina" and "O sole mío," by Hanford High School; Playlet, En el Café, Lemoore pupils; Fandango and Slide Waltz, Guitar Trio from Lemoore High School; Spanish Dance, Hanford High School; "Clavelitos," a solo, Lemoore High School.

After a dainty luncheon, which was served by the pupils of the Domestic Science Department, in the model dining-room of the new building, the members were entertained by the pupils in the Little Theater. Miss Emma Schray gave a talk on her trip through Spain last summer and an exhibit of project work in vocabulary building by means of picture notebooks and posters.

TUCSON HIGH SCHOOL

TUCSON, ARIZONA

PHEBE M. BOGAN

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Three Plays by Calderón: Casa con dos puertas mala es de guardar; La Vida es sueño; La cena del Rey Baltasar. Edited with introduction and notes by George Tyler Northup. D. C. Heath & Co. lv+358 pages.

The appearance of this volume is a welcome addition to the limited number of dramas of the siglo de oro available in school editions. Particularly happy is the inclusion of an auto sacramental, a type of dramatic composition impossible to describe adequately to a group of students, and yet one which must be introduced in a well-balanced course in the drama of this period. Without consideration of the "starry autos" a study of Calderón is especially incomplete. The cape and sword play which the editor has seen fit to include is also wholly representative of the playwright., La vida es sueño effectively rounds out the list. The tragedies of Calderón find a place only in the introductory pages, where the student will not be shocked by daggers and gore.

The Introduction with its chapters on the life of Calderón, the social and political background against which his plots are thrown, the code of honor of which he was so fond, his style, the attitude of critics, and a classification of his plays is presented in a clear and straightforward manner and contains the essentials necessary for an understanding of the man and his works. Little is said, however, of the predecessors of Calderón and their contribution to dramatic art in Spain. In the pages dealing with the Spanish conception of honor it is possible that insufficient emphasis is given to the likelihood of a gulf between the code of honor as enunciated in plays and that actually practiced in life. Calderón's lack of a sense of humor is touched upon in several instances, but the stage conventions of the time which made a gracioso almost a necessary evil might have been mentioned in this connection. It is regrettable that the objections to Calderón in the eighteenth century were not more explicitly stated. In enumerating the few splendid characterizations of Calderón, the editor mentions "Don Álvaro de Ataíde, the gouty captain, in El Alcalde de Zalamea." He must mean Don Lope de Figueroa.

The notes to the plays are carefully chosen and illuminating. Good examples of dramatic technique are called to the attention of the student when these qualities do not speak for themselves. In perfect fairness more faults might have been pointed out, as for example: the imparting of facts to a character who is already informed (Lisardo to Félix, Casa, 531-95; Clarín to Clotaldo, Vida, 1183-86. [This awkwardness is mentioned in the case of Astolfo, Vida, 515 ff.]; the timely interruptions at critical moments (Celia, Casa, 659; Félix, Casa, 1891; Lisardo, Casa, 3144; Clotaldo, Vida, 277; and Basilio, Vida, 576); the insufficient motivation for Fabio's calling Laura into another room (Casa, 1522-24); the uncertainty of the time element in Casa, Act II, Part II; the foolishness of Astolfo in wearing a picture of Rosaura when courting Estrella (Vida, 573) a slender thread upon which much of the secondary plot depends; the unusual confidence (Vida, 1786-92) which Estrella places in Rosaura; the insufficient motivation (Vida, 2028-29) for locking

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