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Clarín in the next cell to Segismundo; and Segismundo's sudden change of heart (Vida, 2148–49).

A few of the notes translating or explaining difficult passages might be improved. The meaning of como que salía de mí (Casa, 789-90) seems to be "as if on my own initiative" rather than "as if it were a slip on my part." Puerta falsa (Casa, 1459) means "side door" or "back door" rather than "secret door." Is it not possible that que me venga o que me vaya (Casa, 1820) may mean "whether it fits me or whether it falls off," or else that the author is simply using que me vaya in contrast to the basic meaning of venir but making a pun impossible to translate in English? Le regaló la pluma con la pluma (Casa, 2231) evidently refers to the custom of caressing the falcon with a pigeon's wing (ala de paloma), the idea probably being to keep the ungloved hand away from the sharp beak. Que yo dijera que en su marjen la tenía avisada (Casa, 2235-36) may be freely translated "and I would have said that [the king] had told it to be ready and waiting on its margin." In Casa, 2253, it is the first falcon that is being released to be followed shortly by the follow-up bird (de seguir). Does not pequeña tela (Casa, 2257) refer to the cloth part of the capote covering the bird's eyes, the meaning being that this obstacle to its flight was easily removed? The expression of dar a torcer in Casa, 2348-49, 2491-92, must have some connection with the idiom dar a torcer el brazo, and seems to mean here "so as not to have (my grief, jealousy) flouted." In the same play the latter part of the note to line 2972 apparently should read "that Félix should fail to recognize his sister is not, however, contrary to all probability. It is dark, etc." In La Vida es sueño, digo (924) might be confusing to students without the translation "I mean." The following lines of Casa are also likely to give difficulty without explanatory notes: 982-84; 1156 (the use of imperfect indicative for subjunctive); 2290–96; and 294 (meaning of seguro). There is something strange about line 2898 of the same play, in which Felix refers to himself as “Félix." The only misprint noted in the entire book was in Vida, 2653-Rosaura speaking.

To the reviewer it seems that Segismundo really won only three victories over the promptings of his baser self: anger (2411-13), pride (2664-71), and lust (2988-89). On no other occasions after his regeneration do the lines indicate a lack of self-control. It hardly seems that Clarín's final words (Vida, 3088-91) are to be construed out of their context. In this speech and in the following one by Basilio, Calderón is simply setting up a straw man to be knocked down by Clotaldo (3108–18).

The Cena is in a class by itself and presents many passages of unusual difficulty, the majority of which are well explained in the notes and to which no exception can be taken. The following constructions, however, which are not explained, were found confusing by a class actually using the text: ser (262) subject of satisface (271); el mundo (288) subject of consideraba (308) and se juzga (329); the stage direction Cúbrense (1185); the meaning of obsolete words like capuz (690); and especially lines 1064-68, 1275-77, 1408-13, and 1482-86.

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA

STURGIS E. LEAVITT

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A Primer of Spanish Pronunciation, by Tomás Navarro Tomás and Aurelio
M. Espinosa, with a Prólogo by Ramón Menéndez Pidal. Chicago: Benjamin
H. Sanborn & Co. 1926.

Teachers and students who are acquainted with Professor Navarro's Manual de pronunciación española will recognize the plan of this Primer. The general outline of the larger work has been followed with a sane suppression of minute details. The orderly treatment of the pronunciation of vowels and consonants which occurs in the Manual has been retained in the Primer. The position of the organs of articulation in the making of both vowel and consonant sounds is graphically indicated by means of the customary sketches. Single sounds and groups of sounds are simply and clearly explained, and the student is made acquainted with the necessary technical vocabulary for the study of phonetics. In fact, with a few exceptions, some of which are noted below, the Primer is not only an introduction to the study of Spanish pronunciation but also a very satisfactory reference book.

Professor Menéndez Pidal in his Prólogo calls attention to certain simplifications which one might naturally expect in a first book on Spanish phonetics. A few words only are devoted to open i and u and no phonetic symbol has been used to indicate the open quality of these vowels. In fact, the authors have omitted twenty of the symbols employed by the senior author, thereby limiting themselves to a total of thirty-eight symbols. Naturally these symbols cannot indicate with scientific accuracy all sounds which exist in Spanish. A discussion of relaxed vowels has also been wisely omitted.

Probably the two most significant aids for teaching and learning the correct pronunciation of Spanish are to be found in paragraph 42, which compares the voiceless explosives with their English equivalents, and the chapter on sound changes which discusses assimilation, liason, synalepha, and syneresis. Without a knowledge of the phenomena here indicated no foreigner who has passed the imitative stage of childhood can acquire accuracy in pronunciation.

Ample practice for the application of all rules is provided in the twenty pages of parallel Spanish-phonetic texts. A phonetic transcription of the three regular conjugations, the cardinal and ordinal numbers, and an analytical index complete the book.

The Primer is intended for teachers and students of Spanish, and should be employed to supplement imitation in the early stages of Spanish instruction. It should serve admirably as a first book in a course devoted to the study of Spanish phonetics.

Condensation has perhaps tended to introduce difficulties of interpretation which might not have occurred otherwise. For example, paragraph 28 states that e is pronounced open: "1. In closed syllables, except those closed by m, n, s, or .r, (=s). 2. When in contact with a trilled r anywhere." Which rule must one follow in pronouncing responder? The authors in their phonetic texts at the back of the book regularly indicate the closed sound of e for this word (pp. 99, 102, 111, 112).

In paragraph 36 (Diphthongs) the combinations ia, ua, ie, ue, io, uo, iu, ui are not mentioned. It does not seem wise in a primer to exclude all mention of such combinations, for the natural tendency is to consider them as diphthongs

even though the first element is semiconsonantal. Professor Navarro's Manual (paragraph 71) treats all of the above-mentioned phonic groups as diphthongs. In the diphthongs eu, ou, the e and o are indicated as closed vowels. This is contrary to what is stated in the Manual (paragraph 71) and seems a more accurate representation of the sound which is actually heard in these combinations.

An attempt to treat intonation, one of the most difficult of speech problems for foreigners, has been very cleverly carried out, though the statement concerning interrogative sentences is too incomplete. Interrogative sentences are not all spoken with the voice rising to a higher pitch when the last accented syllable of the group is reached. Such a statement is invariably true when the interrogation requires an answer yes or no, but it is not invariably true in other types of questions. Compare, for example: Porque duele. —¿Qué duele? La vista. ¿Quién te ha consagrado rey? ¿Cuántas son las obras de misericordia? The typographical difficulties in a book on phonetics are many, and it is a pleasure to find a first printing with so few misprints. The following have been noted paragraph 18, phonetic symbol for voiced interdental consonant does not show the dot beneath the ; paragraph 54, fifth line, b of bondad is a continuant; paragraph 78, 2, fourth line, symbol for n of aunque did not print; page 89, eighth example, d of helado is a continuant; page 90, first example, e of el is open; page 91, last example, e of el is open; page 105, line 22, o of Redentor is open; page 109, line 9, o of crédulos is open; page 120, top of page, first e of tercera is open. The transcription of the first e of responder has been discussed above. An occasional accent mark has also been omitted in phonetic transcriptions.

CORNELL UNIVERSITY

The terms "Spanish," "Castilian"

GEORGE IRVING Dale

In Tomo I, Cuarderno 1, of the publications of the Instituto de Filología of the University of Buenos Aires, the following articles are published: R. Menéndez Pidal, "La lengua española”; T. Navarro Tomás, "Concepto de la pronunciación correcta"; M. L. Wagner, “El español de América y el latín vulgar.”

The articles are preceded by an Introduction written by Américo Castro, who was at the time one of the directors of the new Instituto. The Introduction is in part a plea for the unity of Spanish wherever it is spoken, as against the study of the idioma nacional in the Argentine.

The first article is the one that appeared in HISPANIA in 1918, and is a plea for the use of the term lengua española rather than lengua castellana.

Navarro's article is an amplification of one published in HISPANIA for October, 1921. Navarro takes up in considerable detail the study of the popular pronunciation of Spanish in the two Castiles, as it is differentiated from the speech of cultivated people throughout Spain and, in large degree, throughout Spanish America also. The common language of cultivated people in all Spain is based on the speech of the upper classes in Madrid. It is this form of the language that should be called the lengua española, and the term lengua castellana should, according to Navarro, be used only as referring to the popular

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speech of the common people in Castile with its many dialetic peculiarities. In the main, Navarro supports the same thesis that Mendéndez Pidal has supported, and which, by the way, led the Spanish Academy to change the title of the new edition of its dictionary to that of Diccionario de la lengua española.

Navarro calls attention to many peculiarities of popular Castilian that are found wherever Spanish is spoken, but are not accepted by cultivated people, such as, pior (peor), piaso (pedazo), tuavia (todavía), cai (cae), paice (parece), ties (tienes), miusté and misté (mire usted), muncho (mucho), icas dicho? (¿qué has dicho?), cal cura (casa del cura), deo (dedo), comía (comida), güeso (hueso), güevo (huevo), leción (lección), dotor (doctor), inorante (ignorante), oservar (observar), etc.

Attention is called to other peculiarities of popular Castilian that are not found generally in southern Spain or in Spanish America, such as the tendencies in some parts to make the final s palatal as in Portuguese, or a fricative 7 as in lor dedos (los dedos), arcenso (ascenso); or in combination with fricatave b, an f, as in lafacas (las vacas) efarrar (desbarrar); or, in combination with fricative g, a j, as in lojatos (los gatos), ejarrar (desgarrar), etc. Navarro sums up his thesis in the following words:

"(a) Existe en Castilla una pronunciación vulgar, distinta de la pronunciación corriente entre las personas ilustradas. (b) La pronunciación corriente en Castilla entre las personas ilustradas se usa también frecuentemente, entre las clases cultas, en las demás regiones españolas; es la pronunciación que la Academia recomienda, la que se enseña en las escuelas, y la que de un modo general practican y cultivan los oradores, los catedráticos y los actores españoles, cualquiera que sea la región en que cada uno haya nacido. (c) Esta pronunciación culta y general, que es sin duda la que interesa aprender a los extranjeros que aspiren a hablar correctamente nuestro idioma, debe llamarse propiamente pronunciación española. El nombre de pronunciación castellana debe reservarse, según se va ya haciendo corriente entre los filólogos, para designar la pronunciación vulgar propia del pueblo inculto de Castilla."

The third and last article in The Bulletin, that by Professor Wagner, gives an interesting comparison between the spread of Latin in Western Europe, and the spread of Spanish in America. I have undertaken to review it elsewhere.

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

E. C. HILLS

Homenaje ofrecido a Menéndez Pidal. Miscelánea de estudios lingüísticos, literarios e históricos. Three large (7 x 10) volumes, 848, 718, and 696 pages each, respectively. Madrid, 1925.

Upon the completion of his twenty-fifth year as Professor at the Universidad Central, Madrid, the pupils and friends of don Ramón Menéndez Pidal have presented him with this great monument of linguistic, literary, and historical studies. No greater honor could be conferred on don Ramón, now recognized as the greatest living Romance philologist, than this human document, a veritable encyclopedia of modern research into linguistic, literary, and

historical problems. All the great masters, from Morel-Fatio, Meyer-Lübke, and Schuchardt to the most humble pupil of the master who follows his example, have contributed to this document of labor and love.

It is impossible to give here even a cursory account of the important materials contained in the three volumes. A few of the outstanding contributions are mentioned below.

Tomo Primero. There is first of all an excellent photoprint of don Ramón. The homenaje begins with a German poem, An don Ramón Menéndez Pidal, by Hugo Schuchardt, where he states with deep feeling that, although his physical faculties do not permit him to contribute as he would have wished, his heart and mind still allow him to admire Spain, the Cid, and don Ramón and to send his greetings in German verse. The following contributions of Volume I seem to be especially worthy of notice: "Phaenomenologie und Philologie" (by Eduard Wechssler), “Zur Frage der Volksetmologie” (W. V. Wartburg), "Zur spanischen Grammatik" (Karl Pietsch), "Beiträge zur spanischen Syntax" (Leo Spitzer), "Zur Kenntnis der vorrömischen ortsnamen der iberischen halbinsel" (W. Meyer-Lübke), "La tendencia a identificar el español con el latín" (Erasmo Buceta), "Terreros y sus opiniones ortográficas" (Miguel L. Amnátegui Reyes), "De coro, decorar" (H. Gavel), “L'hispanisme dans Victor Hugo" (A. Morel-Fatio), "La leggenda della madonna della neve e la Cantiga de Santa María (Mario Pelaez), "Shakespeare y España” (H. Thomas), "La fortune d'Atala en Espagne" (Jean Sarrailh), "Proverbios de Salomón" (C. E. Kany), “Traducciones de romances en Dinamarca e Islandia" (Hans Aage Paludan), "Versiones en romance de las crónicas del Toledano" (B. Sánchez Alonso), "Alonso de Valdés y el Diálogo de Mercurio y Carón" (M. Bataillon), “Laínez, Figueroa and Cervantes” (Rudolph Schevill), "Sobre Lope de Vega" (Hugo Albert Rennert), “La figura del donaire en el teatro de Lope de Vega" (José F. Montesinos), "Strophes in the Spanish Drama before Lope de Vega" (S. Griswold Morley), "A Bibliography of American Spanish" (C. Carroll Marden), "Notes de syntaxe gasconne" (Eduard Bourciez), "Syllabes ouvertes et syllabes fermées en roman” (Salverda de Grave), “Confusions d'occlusives" (Louis Gauchat), “Études Siciliennes" (Georges Millardet), “Irregular Epic Metres" (E. C. Hills), "Latin universitario" (P. Gonzáles de la Calle).

Tomo Segundo. The most noteworthy contributions are the following: "Evolución de algunos grupos con s en las lenguas hispánicas" (V. García de Diego), "Voces que significan hollin en las lenguas romances" (Arnald Steiger), "Sobre un aspecto estilístico de D. Juan Manuel" (José Vallejo), "El romance en documentos oscences" (Samuel Gili Gaya), "Mezcla de dialectos" (F. Kruger), “El grupo tr en España y América” (Amado Alonso), “La primera versión española de El purgatorio de San Patricio" (A. García Solalinde), "La legende de Roncevaux" (J. Saroihandy), "Le vrai et le faux Figaro" (Henri Merimée), "I versi spagnuoli di mano di Pietro Bembo e di Lucrezia Borgia" (Pio Rajna), "La vida del hogar en el siglo XVII" (Caroline B. Bourland), "Los romances tradicionales en Méjico" (Henríquez-Ureña), "Ensayo de clasificación de las melodías de romance" (Eduardo M. Torner), "Les assonances dans le Poeme du Cid" (E. Staaff), "Les jeux de scène et l'architecture des idées dans le théatre allegorique de Calderón" (Lucien-Paul

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