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COURBEVILLE, JOSEPH FRANÇOIS

L'Homme universelle (1723) was a French adaptation of Gracián y Morales' El discreto.

La Conversion du pécheur réduite en principes (1730) is from a Spanish work of the same title by Francisco de Salazar.

His Maximes (1730) were selected from Gracián y Morales.

L'Imitation de la Vierge (1740): Translated from Francisco Arias' Imitación de Nuestra Señora.

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Alzire (1736) deals with the conquering Spaniard in Peru.

Zulime (1740) owes its location and atmosphere to Zaïde, Histoire espagnole, by Mme de La Fayette, and to the Descripción de Africa of Luis de Mármol, translated into French in 1667.

Spain appears often in other works of Voltaire, Essai sur les moeurs e l'esprit des nations (1756), Le Siècle de Louis XIV (1751 and 1768), Précis du siècle de Louis XV (1769), in his Ode à la Vérité, etc.

BOISSY, LOUIS DE (1694-1758)

La Vie est un songe (1732) is Calderón's drama of the same title put into French.

BRET, ANTOINE (1717-1846)

Le Jaloux (1745) is drawn from Mme de La Fayette's Zaide. BEAUMARCHAIS (1732-1799) 50

Le Barbier de Seville, ou la Précaution inutile (1775) with its lover in disguise and its gracioso, Figaro, and with a plot and situations frequent in the comedia, is essentially Spanish. Furthermore, its author had much recourse to Scarron's Précaution inutile, translated from the Spanish of Zayas y Soto

mayor.

Le Mariage de Figaro (1781): Beaumarchais called this his "comédie espagnole."51 Huszar says it recalls Spain by "certains détails de mise er scène, tels les danses et les chants qui font ressembler la fin de cette comédie à un zarzuella, et par la vivacité de son imbroglio." ."52 Loménie, in his work on Beaumarchais, adds, “Il y a dans l'action générale un entrain, un bric empruntés à la comédie espagnole, qui font passer par dessus les invraisem blances."53

Linguet, HENRI (1736–1794)

Le Malade imaginaire (1768) is adapted from the Don Juan Rana Comilór of Quiñones de Benavente.

Linguet also made several translations from Lope and Calderón. GARNIER, CHARLES-GEORGES-THOMAS (1746-1795)

Adélaide, ou la Force du sang (1771) is drawn from Cervantes' tale, Lo fuerza de la sangre.

49 Cf. also de Salvio: "Voltaire and Spain," HISPANIA (Calif.), March and May, 1924. 50 Cf. also Morel, L.: " 'Clavijo' en Allemagne et en France" (Rev. d'Hist. litt., 1903). 51 Preface of La Mère coupable.

52 Huszar: L'Influ. de l'Esp. sur le théat. fr., p. 110.

53 Loménie: Beaumarchais et son temps, II.

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Alcipe (1773) is an imitation of the Astrée and shows to a high degree the influence of the Spanish pastoral.

HERBOIS, COLLOT D' (1750-1796)

Le Paysan magistrat (1777) is adapted from Calderón's Alcalde de Zalamea.

DUMANIANT, ANTOINE-JEAN BOURLAIN (1752-1828)

La Guerre civile, ou Ruse contre ruse (1786) was imitated from Moreto's No puede ser.

FLORIAN, JEAN PIERRE CLARIS DE (1755-1794)

La Galathée (1783): The first three books of this pastoral are imitated from Cervantes' Galatea.

Gonzalve de Cordue (1792): The principal source of this work was the Guerras civiles of Pérez de Hita. In addition the author drew upon the following historians, Mariana, Garibay, Ferras, and Zurita. Cervantes' Quijote also played its part in this work of Florian.

Fables (1792): The principal source of these apologues was the Fábulas literarias of Iriarte.54

JOUY, ETIENNE DE (1764-1846)

Les Abencerages, ou l'Étandard de Grenade (1807) draws its inspiration and subject matter from the Spanish-Moorish novel.

CHATEAUBRIAND (1768-1848)

Les Aventures du dernier abencerage (1808) was partly inspired by the Guerras civiles; it also contains some verses translated from the old Spanish romance, Abenámar, Abenámar. This novel was written under the influence of a trip to Spain.

LESSER, CREUZÉ DE (1771-1839) 55

Le Cid: Romances espagnoles imitées en romances françaises (1814) is a collection of the Cid ballads, most of which were taken from Escobar's Romancero.

DESAUGUIERS, MARC-ANTOINE (1772-1827)

L'adroite Ingénue (1805), done in collaboration with Dumaniant, was drawn from Casa con dos puertas mala es guardar, by Calderón.

PIXÉRÉCOURT, R. C. GUILBERT DE (1773-1844)

Le Pavillon des fleurs, ou les Pècheurs de Grenade (1822) was given birth in the Spanish-Moorish novel.

BARTHÉLEMY, H...., MME

L'Amazone de Grenade (1812) is imitated from Florian's Gonzalve, which was drawn from the Guerras civiles.

54 Florian says in his De la Fable: "Je dois quelquesuns de mes sujets Esope, à Bidpai, à Gay, aux fabulistes allemands, beaucoup à un espagnol nommé Iriarte, poète dont je fais grand cas et qui m'a fourni mes apologues les plus heureux." Quoted by Vézinet: Molière, Florian et la littérature espagnole, Paris, 1909, p. 179.

53 Cf. also Tronchon, H.: ""Préromantisme' allemand et français" (Rev. d'Hist. litt., 1913).

BRIFAUT, CHArles (1781-1851)

The Don Sanche of this writer, which was a direct contribution from Spain, was forbidden by the censorship, but its name was immediately changed to Ninus II, Spain easily became Assyria, and the play was presented in 1814.1 LA TOUCHE, HENRI DE (1785-1851)

La Reine d'Espagne (1831) is a play thoroughly saturated with Spain. LEBRUN, PIERre Antoine (1785–1873)

Le Cid d'Andalousie (1825) was inspired in the reading of Lope's Estrella de Sevilla.56

MÉLESVILLE, JOSEPH DUVEYRIER (1787-1865)

Aben-Hamet, ou les Deux héros de Grenade (1815) was inspired in, and built up from, the Spanish-Moorish novel.

ALBÉNAS, CLÉMENCE ISAUre d'

Boabdil, ou les Abencerages (1832) is drawn from the Aventures du dernier abencerage of Beaumarchais.

DESCHAMPS, ÉMILE (1791-1871) 57

In 1841 Deschamps published a new edition of his poems which contained the following: Le Poème de Rodrigue, Le Retour du Châtelaine, and Les Deux premières romances sur Bernard de Carpio. These poems are all drawn from legends of Spain.

SCRIBE, EUGÈNE (1791-1861)

Gusman d'Alfarache (1816): The origin of this play is in the Spanish novel of the same name.

Piquillo Alliaga, ou les Maures sous Philippe III, in eleven volumes, 1847. The subtitle of this work indicates its content.

DELAVIGNE, CASIMIR (1793-1843)

Don Juan d'Autriche (1835) received its inspiration and subject from the Spanish.

La Fille du Cid (1839): The idea for this play came from the Spanish Romancero del Cid.

DUVERT, FÉLIX-AUGUSTE (1795-1876)

Renaudin de Caen, done in collaboration with Lauzanne (1805–1877), was drawn from Calderón's Casa con dos puertas mala es guardar.

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Le Tisserand de Ségovie (1839) was translated from Alarcón's Texedor de Segovia.

HUGO, ABEL (1798-1855)

Messages de Roland et de don Bernard (1822): The author drew this from the Spanish, having read the original during a stay in Madrid.

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56 Cf. also Bonnefon, P.: "Pierre Lebrun et 'Le Cid d'Andalousie' (Rev. d'Hist. litt., 1912).

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57 Cf. also Lanson. "Emile Deschamps et le Romancero" (Rev. d'Hist. litt., 1899). 55 Denis also translated from the Portuguese of Ferreira, Inès de Castro and Le Jaloux.

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Romans traduits de l'espagnol (1822): The content of this work and its sources are indicated by the title.

HUGO, VICTOR (1802-1885)

Les Orientales (1829) drew from Spanish legend and story, and contains, among others, the following poems on Spain: Grenade, Fântomes, Romance mauresque.5 59 Number XXX is a transformation of A cazar va don Rodrigo; contained in the Crónica general of 1344.

Hernani (1830): This play draws some upon Calderón's Pérez el Gallego, a comedy with which Hugo was familiar. It also suggests Alarcón's Texedor de Segovia. Analogies have been cited between Hernani and Rojas' García del Castañar and Alarcón's Ganar amigos. To these contacts with the drama of Spain must be added that espagnolisme in which the play abounds and which rests "dans l'esprit qui anime les personages du drame et dans les mobiles qui determinent leurs actes."60

Marion de Lorme (1831): Here the pécheresse réhabilitée has in Spanish literature an ancient model, the Tía fingida of Cervantes. The continual clashing of swords throughout the play recalls the atmosphère duelliste of the Spanish theater, and the edict against duelling reminds us of Calderón's Ultimo (Postrer) La duelo en España.

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Notre Dame de Paris (1831): Esmeralda is a Spanish gypsy who finds her model and prototype in the Preciosa of Cervantes' Gitanilla.

Le Roi s'amuse (1832) has taken over some traits of the intrigue and atmosphere of the Spanish comedia. This play seems to show the direct influence of Rojas' García del Castañar.

Angelo (1835) evokes more than once Calderón's Médico de su honra.
Esmeralda (1836) by its heroine belongs to Cervantes.

Ruy-Blas (1838) is filled with Spanish characters and intrigue. There exist, furthermore, analogies between this play and Tirso's Prudencia en la in mujer. The sources of Ruy-Blas are Mme d'Aulnay's Mémoires de la cour d'Espagne.

La Légende des siècles (1859) contains several verse renditions of popular Spanish traditions. Among them are the following: Romancero du Cid, Le petit Roi de Galice, Le Cid exilé, Bivar, Masferrer, La Rose de l'Infante, and Quand le Cid fut entré dans le Généralife.

Torquemada (1882) takes place in Spain and has characters who are Spanish in conception as well as in name.

Hugo's La Piété suprême is an adaptation of Alberto Lista's A la tolerancia. DUMAS, ALEXANDRE (PÈRE) (1803-1870)

Don Juan de Maraña (1836) is wholly Spanish in characters, setting, and atmosphere. It seems to have utilized the sources of Mérimée's Ames du purga

toire.

1899).

Cf. also Paris, G.: "La 'Romance mauresque' des Orientales" (Rev. d'Hist. litt.,

30 Huszar: L'Influ. de l'Esp. sur le théât. fr., p. 146.

MÉRIMÉE, PROSPER (1803–1870) 61

Le Théâtre de Clara Gazul (1825): Attributed by the author to a "comédienne espagnole," this work is full of Spain.62

Inès Mendo (1825) shows the influence of Calderón and especially his Alcalde de Zalamea.

La Famille de Carvajal (1828): Mérimée has mixed the real with the fictitious in his play on the life of the Spanish captain, Francisco Carvajal (1464– 1548).

Ames du Purgatoire (1834) imitates a novel and a play by Cervantes, La tía fingida and El rufiián dichoso.

Carmen (1845) was given to Mérimée by Spain and is thoroughly Spanish.63 La Vénus d'Ille (1841): Here Mérimée utilized one of the Galician Cántigas de Santa María of Alfonso el Sabio.

MUSSET, ALFRED DE (1810-1857)

Contes d'Espagne et d'Italie (1829): Those contes of this collection which deal with Spain celebrate the beauty of Andalusia and mention many places of the Peninsula.

Les Caprices de Marianne (1851) recalls the title of a play by Lope de Vega, Los melindres de Belisa. Musset's piece is a comedy entirely in the manner of that renaissance which inspired the Celestina. Coelio recalls the Spanish cavalier as he was idealized by Cervantes and by the Castilian dramatists.

On ne badine pas avec l'amour (1861) suggests Calderón's No hay burlas con el amor. The thesis of the play is that of many Spanish comedies; as the author defines it, "Il y a un gardien qui défend mieux l'honneur d'une femme que tous les remparts d'un sérail et que tous les muets d'un sultan, et ce gardien, c'est elle-même."64

BOUCHARDY, JOSEPH (1810-1870)

L'Amurier de Santiago (1868): This play was inspired in the author's knowledge of the Spanish romances and in two dramas of Spain, La devoción de la cruz of Calderón, and Alarcón's Crueldad por el honor.

GAUTIER, THEOPHILE (1811-1872)

Un Voyage en Espagne (1843) is a vaudeville done in collaboration with P. Siraudin.

España (1845) is a collection of poems written while Gautier was travelling in the Peninsula, and in which he sings of Spain and of her people and cities. Capitaine Fracasse (1863) was inspired by Scarron's Roman comique, the greater part of which was taken bodily from the Spanish.

Mallefille, FÉLICIEN (1813-1868)

Les Sept Infans de Lara (1836) has used a part of the legend built around the Infantes of Lara.

61 Cf. also Morel-Fatio, A.: "Mérimée et Calderón" (Rev. d'Hist. litt., 1920); and Trahard, P.: "Cervantes et Mérimée" (Rev. de Litt. comparée, 1922). Clara

02 Cf. also Trahard: "Les Sources de l'amour africain dans le Théâtre de Gazul" (Rev. de Litt. comp., 1922).

03 Cf. also Carmen, suivi de Lettres adressées d'Espagne au directeur de la "Revue de Paris," Paris, 1921. (Crès.)

04 Compare with Lope's Llave de la honra.

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