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LECONTE DE L'ISLE (1818-1894) 65

The Poèmes barbares (1862) contains the following three poems which derive directly from Spanish ballads: La Tête du comte, La Ximena, and L'Acespeccident de don Iñigo.

The Poèmes tragiques (1884) contains at least five poems which treat the with themes of Spanish ballads, or whose sources are to be found in the legend and vaja history of Spain: L'Apothéose de Mouça-al-Kébyr, La Suaire de Mohammedal-Mançour, Les Inquiétudes de don Simuel, La Romance de don Fadrique, and Cerva La Romance de doña Blanca.

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DAUDET, ALPHONSE (1840-1897)

Tartarin de Tarascon (1872): Is not Tartarin a variant of Don Quijote? In Chapter IV the author describes him as having the soul of Don Quijote and the body of Sancho Panza. Throughout the tale there is frequent reference to Cervantes and his immortal characters.

HEREDIA, JOSÉ-MARIA DE (1842-1905) 65

Trophées (1893) These poems contain the Spanish hero that appeared in Leconte de l'Isle's Poèmes tragiques, Rodrigo of the Mocedades (Crónica general).

BARRES, MAURICE (1862-1923)

Du Sang, de la volupté et de la mort (1914): Barrès yields to the spell of Granada and in this work seeks to analyse the charm of this Andalusian city. ROSTAND, EDMUND (1868-1918)

This writer confesses his espagnolisme:

"Et si j'aime, depuis l'enfance,

Sous le ciel venir et rester,

C'est qu'ici, sans quiter ma France,

J'entends mon Espagne chanter."66

La Princesse lointaine (1895): Joffroy has been described as a variant of Don Quijote who loves his Dulcinea. Huszar asks the question: "En lisant La Princesse lointaine, ne croit-on pas lire un roman de chevalerie mis en forme dramatique ?"67

Cyrano de Bergerac (1897): Cyrano is with Don Quijote another of those descendants of Amadis. Roxane with her gongoristic préciosité has many sisters among the heroines of the Spanish comedia. In reading Cyrano one is reminded of Tirso's Amor y celos hacen discretos, where the duke's secretary writes the love-letters for his master; the lady being wooed becomes greatly enamoured of the letters and of their writer.

Cf. also Delombre, R.: "L'Hispanisme de deux parnassiens, Leconte de l'Isle et J. M. de Heredia" (HISPANIA, 1922).

66 From his Musardises.

Huszar: L'Influ. de l'Esp. sur le théât. fr., p. 184.


Baret, E.: De l'Amadis de Gaule et de son influence sur les moeurs et la littérature française, Paris, 1853. — Espagne et Provence, Paris, 1857.

Brunetière, F.: Etudes critiques sur l'histoire de la littérature française, Paris, 1880. - "L'Influence de l'Espagne dans la littérature française,” Rev. des Deux Mondes, Mar.-Apr., 1891. Corneille et le théâtre espagnol, Paris,


Chasles, Ph.: Études sur l'antiquité, Paris, 1847. — Études sur l'Espagne, Paris, 1847. — M. de Cervantes, sa Vie et son temps, Paris, 1866 (2d ed.).

Clément, L.: "Antoine de Guevara, ses Lecteurs et ses imitateurs français au XVI siècle," Rev. d'Histoire littéraire de la France, Oct. 15, 1900.

Curzon, H. de: Le "Théâtre espagnol" et sa visite à Paris, Versailles, 1899. Demogeot, J.: Histoire des Littératures étrangères considérées dans leurs rapports avec le développement de la littérature française, Paris, 1880.

Fournel, V.: La Littérature indépendante, Paris, 1862. — Les contemporains de Molière, Paris, 1863 (3 vols.).

Fournier, E.: "L'Espagne et ses comédiens en France au XVII siècle," Rev. des Provinces, Sept. 15, 1864.

Frick, R.: Hernani als literarischer Typus, Tübingen, 1903.

Gassier, A.: Le Théâtre espagnol, Paris, 1898.

Habeneck, Ch.: Chefs-d'oeuvres du théâtre espagnol, Paris, 1862.

Hémon, F.: Appendice sur les sources de "don Sanche," Paris, 1896.

Holland, Lord: Some Account of the Lives and Writings of Felix Lope de Vega Carpio and Guillén de Castro, London, 1806.

Huszar, G.: P. Corneille et le théâtre espagnol, Paris, 1903. — Molière et l'Espagne, Paris, 1907. — L'Influence de l'Espagne sur le théâtre français des XVIII et XIX siècles, Paris, 1912.

Lanson, G.: "Étude sur les rapports de la littérature française et de la littérature espagnole au XVII siècle,” Rev. d'Hist. litt. de la France, Vols. 3, 4, and 8.

Le Gentil, E.: V. Hugo et la littérature espagnole, Bordeaux-Paris, 1899.
Lintilhac, E.: Lesage, Paris, 1893.

Maatz, A.: Der Einfluss des heroisch-galanten Romans auf das franz. Drama im Zeitalter Ludwig XIV. (Diss., Rosstock, 1896.)

Mahrenholtz, R.: "Molière's Leben und Werke," Heilbronn, 1881. (Fransösische Studien, Vol. II.)

Marsan, M.: La Pastoral dramatique en France, Paris, 1905. Martinenche, E.: La Comedia espagnole en France de Hardy à Racine, Paris, 1900.- Quaetenus Tragicomoedia de Calisto y Melibea ad informandum hispaniense theatrum valuerit, Nîmes, 1900.—Molière et le théâtre espagnol, Paris, 1906.-L'Histoire de l'influence espagnole sur la littérature française: l'Espagne et le romantisme français, Paris, 1922.

Os For additional bibliography consult Betz, L., P., La Littérature comparée: Essai bibliographique, Strasbourg, 1904 (2d ed.).



Menéndez y Pelayo, M.: Historia de los heterodoxos españoles, Madrid, 1880-82. OF SPAIN Mérimée, E.: L'École romantique et l'Espagne au XIX siècle, Toulouse, 1890. Moland, L.: Molière et la comédie italienne, Paris, 1867.


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Morel-Fatio, A.: Etudes sur l'Espagne (Première série), Paris, 1888, (Troisième série), 1904. Ambrosio de Salazar et l'étude de l'espagnol en France sous Louis XIII, Paris, 1901.

Morillot, P.: Scarron et le genre burlesque, Paris, 1888.

Morley, S. G.: Spanish Influence on Molière (Harvard Thesis), 1902. (Por-
tions published in the Pub. Mod. Lang. Ass'n, XIX.)

Puibusque, A.: Histoire comparée des littératures espagnoles et françaises,
Paris, 1843 (2 vols.).

Reynier, G.: Thomas Corneille, sa vie et son théâtre, Paris, 1892.

fra Rigal, E.: Esquisse d'une histoire des théâtres de Paris de 1548-1653, Paris, 1887. Rosières, R.: Recherches sur la poésie contemporaine, Paris, 1896. Rouanet, L.: Intermèdes espagnols du XVI siècle, Paris, 1897.



le." R

Schack, A. F. von: Nachtrage sur Geschichte der dramatischen Literatur und kunst in Spanien, Francfort, 1854.

Schönherr, G. Jorge de Montemayor, sein Leiben und sein Schäfferoman, Halle,

Segall, J. B.: Corneille and the Spanish Drama, New York, 1902.
Steffens: Jean de Rotrou als Nachmer Lope de Vega's, Oppeln, 1891.
Vézinet, F.: Molière, Florian et la littérature espagnole, Paris, 1909.
Vianey, F.: Deux Sources inconnues de Rotrou, Dôle, 1891.



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We regard the Spanish-speaking countries-and particularly the SpanishAmerican countries-as among the most important markets, both present and future, for the products of the manufacturing industries of the United States. By reason of our geographical position with respect to the countries to the south of us, and also because the United States is and must continue to be a very important market for the products of the Spanish-American countries, the trade between them and this country is already very important, and may be expected to increase to a practically unlimited extent in the future, as the southern countries develop.

In view of the fact that this country has now adopted a policy of restricting immigration, it is altogether probable that a large part of the stream of European emigration, which formerly came here, may be directed to South America. As a result, the growth of the population of that continent may parallel our own development during the nineteenth century. Just as English became the language of the United States, regardless of the fact that much of the immigration consisted of people speaking other languages, so the language of Spanish America will continue to be Spanish, and a knowledge of that language will be necessary for those who desire to do business with the Spanish-speaking countries.

I know of no better way to begin my remarks on the subject of Spanish in foreign trade than this statement from one who speaks from the standpoint of a business man who has to deal with the same problems as most of my hearers-Mr. E. P. Thomas, President of the United States Steel Products Company. He adds:

Our company is one of the largest organizations engaged in export trade, and we have found a knowledge of Spanish absolutely essential to the conduct of much of our business. We regard it as a distinct advantage to the young men in our employ that they should possess a working knowledge of that language.

Statements of the same general tenor could be presented from a host of business leaders and other men of affairs. Only a week ago, the Honorable Frank B. Kellogg, Secretary of State, declared at the Associated Press luncheon in New York:

What we need is a more intimate acquaintance with each other [he is speaking of the northern and southern sections of this hemisphere], a better understanding of each other's language, knowledge of government, social and

1 Address read at the National Foreign Trade Convention, Charleston, S.C., April 28, 1926.

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economic questions. For this education we must depend largely upon the universities and colleges, and press of the two continents.


Upon the

colleges and universities, in their exchange of students between the Central and South American countries and the United States, we must depend to a large extent for imparting knowledge of language, and familiarizing ourselves with each other's governmental institutions. I cannot emphasize too much the importance of bridging the span that ignorance of language always creates between peoples.

The recent Pan-American Congress of Journalists has done much to bring to the fore the matter of the desirability of greater knowledge of Spanish here, and of English in the Spanish-American countries. In many of the latter, English is a required subject in the secondary schools. In our country, although Secretary Hoover urged, several years ago, that "the study of Spanish, if not made compulsory, at least be made possible in all our secondary schools," we find that some so-called "educators" are opposed to the study of Spanish in our schools, and are doing what they can to restrict and eliminate it. In some cases, this is due to the fact that they are "little Americans," with no experience outside of their own limited bailiwicks; in some cases, it is due to a cheap attitude of superiority to all foreigners; in others, unfortunately, it appears that critics of Spanish may be financially interested in the sale of textbooks for teaching other foreign languages. Whether their motives are sincere and misguided, or whether they are unworthy and reprehensible, does not concern us here; the fact remains that in some sections steps have actually been taken to reduce and even to eliminate the study of Spanish in our schools.

I think that we may assume that most business men, especially those interested in foreign trade, do not approve of the attitude of these "educators," whether they oppose the teaching of Spanish or of any foreign language at all-as some of them do. The point is that the business man does not always know what is going on. How many of you know personally the superintendent of schools of your home city? How many know one or more members of the board of education? How many of you know whether the children of your city are being given that training in fundamentals that they need for life, or whether they are being used as laboratory material by some crack-brained "educator" with a pet theory to prove? How many of you realize that the curriculum of our schools is in danger of being made the football of professional teacher-trainers, some of whom

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