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"clause of characteristic quality" or merely the term "descriptive relative clause," recommended by the Committee on Grammatical Nomenclature.

An excellent brief summary of the kind indicated above is to be found in the appendix to Professor Turrell's Spanish Reader, and there is another in the appendix of Shapiro's Beginner's Spanish Grammar.



Of almost equal importance with learning the structure of the language is the acquisition of a vocabulary. Fortunately it is possible for the student to make his own "at one fell swoop" hundreds of Spanish words, by study of groups of cognates: (endings -dad and -tad with -ty; -ción with -tion, etc.) There is much valuable material of this sort in McHale's Spanish Taught in Spanish and Terry's Short Cut to Spanish (pp. 258-292).8 This is undoubtedly a procedure so generally practiced that I shall not stress it here.


Quite as important as the content of our course is our ability—in the language of our pupils-to "put our stuff across." The factor of interest cannot be too much emphasized. Here we have many and diversified aids, which I shall merely summarize :

1. Realia. Especially helpful are the suggestions found from time to time in HISPANIA and The Modern Language Journal. Professor Moreno-Lacalle published an interesting report on the subject of realia in HISPANIA Some years ago.

2. Spanish Art and Architecture. I have used with good effect various standard books on Spanish art and architecture. One book in particular, Picturesque Spain (Brentano's), never fails to entrance pupils. A real "find" is the series of articles by Ralph Adams Cram appearing in the American Architect during the early months of 1924; Mr. Cram is most enthusiastic in his descriptions.

3. Journals. We have two excellent journals in Spanish which many teachers use with great satisfaction: El Eco, capably edited by

American Book Company.

7 University of North Carolina Press.

8 Both published by Houghton, Mifflin Company.

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Arturo Torres,' and La Prensa, of which that friend of Spanish teachers, José Camprubí, is the publisher.10 I can not forbear to mention here the generous cash prizes offered annually by La Prensa for essays in Spanish.

4. Prizes. Here we may mention the Cervantes medal, offered by the American Association of Teachers of Spanish and the Instituto de las Españas, as well as the prizes donated by La Prensa, already referred to.

5. Clubs. Every school or college should have a Spanish Club (and a French and a German Club as well). Excellent suggestions for such clubs have appeared in HISPANIA11 and the Modern Language Journal, and there are useful hints also in various textbooks. Pupils will soon begin to develop ideas of their own to add to the interest of such clubs.

I cannot leave this part of my paper without mention of the many and valuable suggestions on all these subjects that will be found in the "Spanish Teacher's Bible"-Spanish in the High Schools, by Lawrence A. Wilkins.12 This handbook has become an indispensable part of every Spanish teacher's equipment, and is a storehouse of practical suggestions. Its bibliography is especially useful.


In conclusion, let me repeat what I have already said elsewhere,13 that part of our function as Spanish teachers is to spread a knowledge of the real Spain, the real Spanish-America.

Spaniards are not more cruel, not more bigoted, not more ignorant, not more immoral, not more bloodthirsty, than other races under the same conditions and at the same stage of development. They are and have been for centuries victims of what they call "The Black Legend," about which Julián Juderías has written an important book.14 The Spanish race, moreover, possesses a culture that is as worthy of study as any other. In art it has produced a Velázquez, a

9 Doubleday, Page & Company.

10 Address, 245 Canal Street, New York City.

11 Vol. I, pp. 222 ff. and pp. 235 ff.

12 Benj. H. Sanborn Company.

13 "Spanish for Cultural Reasons,” Hispania, February, 1925.

14 La Leyenda Negra: Apuntes acerca del concepto de España en el extranjero, Barcelona.

Murillo, a Ribera, a Goya, a Sorolla, a Zuloaga. Mr. Cram (in the articles mentioned) has high praise for Spanish architecture. In music we have "Granados," whose operatic triumph with "Goyescas" was followed so closely by his regrettable death in the sinking by a German submarine of the ship on which he was traveling.15 In literature Spain has given us a myriad of great names, not just one book and one author as the uninformed would have it. Two Spaniards have won the Nobel prize for literature: Echegaray in 1904, Benavente in 1922. Ramón y Cajal, famous physician and psychologist, has won the Nobel prize for medicine and is the discoverer of the "neuron theory."

This very day (November 29, 1924), perhaps as I speak, the great French university, the Sorbonne, is conferring honorary degrees upon Dr. Charles D. Walcott, director of the Smithsonian Institution, and upon two Spaniards: Professor Ramón Menéndez Pidal, dean of Spanish scholars, and Dr. Ramón y Cajal, just mentioned. Can a backward race produce such men as these? No; nor does the Spanish race deserve the lies that for generations have been bandied about throughout the world in an attempt to hold it up to contempt.

Here I must close, and I do so with a confession of faith. Despite the opposition of "educators," despite the mistakes of overzealous friends of Spanish, despite the pernicious idea that "Spanish is easy," despite our own faults and deficiencies as teachers of Spanish, I take my stand, as in the past, for this principle: The Spanish language and literature are worthy of study, and of study for cultural reasons; and their study offers and will continue to offer a singularly rich and interesting field of endeavor for Americans who are linguistically and culturally inclined.

15 Cf. Van Vechten, The Music of Spain, New York, 1919.



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The people of this country of ours have a great propensity for fads and enthusiasms. A fad may be merely a trivial fancy, adopted and pursued for a time with great zeal. On the other hand, it is sometimes a matter of great importance, imperfectly understood, but taken up and urged with much energy.

Fads of both varieties are and have been rampant among us. The history of modern language methodology is full of examples of both kinds. However, I believe that most of our fads have been important matters imperfectly understood, rather than trivial fancies irrationally urged. Many of our fads have been real ideas newborn, but sent forth to revolutionize the field before they had reached maturity and could realize the modest place they were fit to occupy. The real significance of these fads, these new ideas, often dawns on us long after they have run their course.

Fads of the important category are good. They are an indication of mental activity and of the desire to find new and better ways of doing things. The present excitement over tests is dubbed a fad in some quarters and in these quarters the word is used to express a disdainful lack of interest.

We should agree, most of us, probably that these tests are an important matter imperfectly understood. The newness of these tests seems to consist largely in the attempt to be accurate and objective, in the attempt to measure more phases of our work and of our student material, and in the attempt to sound latent capacities.

These latter attempts are of course the most difficult and of the greatest importance. In the elaboration and perfection of such tests lies the germ of a revolution. A reliable prognosis test would go far toward the solution of the modern language problem in secondary schools.

There is no need for me to dwell upon the tremendous increase in the number of pupils in secondary schools, nor upon the fact that in New York City, for example, the bars are let down for the admission, no matter what his attainment, of every graduate of the elementary schools. In fact, until they reach the age of sixteen such graduates must come to high school. The state education law sees to that. It follows, therefore, that we have in the early terms in high school

1 A paper read at the Eighth Annual Meeting of the American Association of Teachers of Spanish, Columbus, Ohio, December 29, 1925.

a horde of low I.Q.'s. These low I.Q.'s get into our modern language classes together with their more gifted brethren. The pace has to be set for the latter. The weak ones cannot keep step, and they swell the percentage of failure at the end of the term, after having received attention that could more profitably have been given to their brighter comrades.

We are in direful need of a prognosis test which can furnish a satisfactory solution of our menacing failure problem. The rising cost of education and the growing realization that failure in itself is extremely harmful make it certain that the prosperity of foreign language instruction depends upon an early solution of the problem.

A satisfactory prognosis test would tell us in advance certain facts which we wish to know about the individual pupil. Before we can evolve a test of this character we must find out what it is we wish to know. Perhaps we should agree that we wish to know in advance whether a given individual can profit by the study of a language. That is certainly what we wish to know, but it is no basis for the construction of a prognosis test. Neither shall we find such a basis in the bushels of literature that exists on the subject of "aims" of modern language study. These "aims" are ideals only. They are the product of opinion and enthusiasm. They may be useful and inspiring as lodestars, but we must build upon a more concrete and substantial foundation.

We cannot hope to prophesy whether an individual can profit from the study of Spanish until we know just what advantages and benefits our students actually do derive from working with us in our classes. The only thing we can measure at present with any degree of accuracy is the amount of Spanish we teach. If the power acquired in a specific field were to be the sole criterion, probably no subject in the high-school curriculum could justify itself.

A few of our pupils do leave high school with a considerable power in the language studied. Some of these keep and increase the power after leaving school. The vast majority leave school with little book knowledge, and soon lose what they have. These people have, however, grown in various ways, and have developed certain attitudes of mind. It seems that these mental attitudes are coming to be considered the really important product of the school. Doubtless Spanish is a medium which offers exceptional opportunities for the creation of specific and valuable mental attitudes. These mental attitudes are rather difficult entities to corral. Nevertheless, a prognosis

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