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as bajo latitudes diferentes y a diversos grados de altura sobre el nivel del mar, ni Nde multiplicar los medios en cuya virtud puede obligársela a revelar sus secretos. larg Belonging to that period, also, was Miguel Servet (1509-1553), e burned at the stake by order of Calvin in 1553 and now signalized fin Geneva by a monument erected to him in 1903 by the repentant

Swiss, who discovered the physiological phenomenon of la pequeña No circulación o circulación pulmonar, which was entirely unknown down atis to that time and served as the basis of Harvey's studies on circulation. la Of this vital fact very little, as is customary in connection with Spanish scientific contributions, has been said. Needless to say, the number of other zoological investigators in the sixteenth and seventeenth Ocenturies was exceedingly large.

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The physical and chemical sciences had their fullest development in Spain, as likewise in the rest of the world, after the eighteenth century. During the period of the conquest and colonization of the New World, Spanish physicists and chemists devoted their attention mainly to mineralogical investigation, and especially to the application el of the two sciences to metallurgy. In this science, the work of such de Spaniards as Alonso Barba, Pedro de Vargas, Contreras, was pregeminent and recognized as such all over the world. The amalgam process for the treatment of the precious metals, the invention of furnaces for the distillation of mercury, the discovery of certain importkant alloys, the first news of manganese, and various other discoveries Hand inventions connected with metallurgy are to be credited to Spaniards of the age of Ferdinand and Isabella, Charles V, and Philip II. In the eighteenth century two notable discoveries made by Spanish chemists were those of tungsten, by the Elhuyar brothers, and platinum by Ulloa. As for discoveries in physics, it may be stated that Ruiz de Luzuriaga established the identity of the magnetic fluid with electricity, and Salvá y Campillo published views that foretold the invention of the modern telegraph.

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In the field of linguistics, Spanish research has been extensive and productive, besides marking out new paths of investigation. Even in Chinese and Japanese it has not been idle. The first translation of any Chinese work into a modern European language was made in 1595, when Fray Juan Cobo put into Spanish the Beng Sim Po Cam of Lip Pun Huam under the title Espejo rico del claro corazón. But it is in Indian linguistics that Spaniards laid the basis of all later study. Scarcely an aboriginal American language was left

untouched. Grammars, dictionaries, lists of idioms and proverbs were compiled, and Spanish religious works, poetry, and general treatises were printed in the American tongues. Some of these works were the outcome of long years of painstaking observation and study, and several have never yet been superseded in their special provinces. Fray Alonso de Molina's Vocabulario en lengua castellana y mexicana (1555), reprinted and augmented several times and published anew in 1880 by Dr. Julius Platzmann, is a monumental compilation that still remains at the head of its class. Fray Juan de Córdoba's Arte en lengua Zapoteca (1578), in addition to its linguistic value, is important because of the curious information given about Indian rites and superstitions, the Indian calendar, and Indian customs and manners of the period of the Conquest. Fray Bernardino de Sahagún's Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España is a storehouse, in both Mexican and Spanish, of Indian linguistics and antiquities, and has been drawn on copiously by nearly every serious student of ancient Mexican lore and civilization. Many other large undertakings related to the study of the Indian languages were successfully carried out, not the least interesting being the numerous translations of popular secular works, such as the dramas of Lope de Vega, into various American languages. The early English investigations into the aboriginal speeches, such as those of John Eliot, the “Inidan apostle," will not stand comparison with the Spanish studies in any way whatsoever. The impression that the Spaniards made no scientific use of their splendid opportunities in the New World is totally erroneous, even with regard to linguistic research.

The main emphasis in this paper has purposely been placed upon the labors of Spaniards in the natural sciences for the simple reason that Spanish contributions in this field have been most persistently denied. That Spaniards have made important contributions to the social sciences also is demonstrable. To Spaniards is due the earliest establishment of fundamental principles in international law, and Grotius, generally considered the founder of that science, took many of his most vital ideas from them and quotes such men as Vitoria and Vázquez with great praise. Among the economists, Martínez de la Mata was plainly a precursor of Adam Smith. So, too, other names representing original ideas and ingenious theories in the social sciences can be adduced without much difficulty. Those who are interested in them will find many of them detailed in Menéndez y Pelayo's Inventory in the third volume of La ciencia española.

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As has been intimated several times, a conspiracy of silence and depreciation has obscured the scholarly and scientific achievements of Spaniards. Europe and America have been singularly unjust to a small, but worthy, and once powerful nation. Nevertheless, Europe has not disdained frequently to call Spaniards to the most honored chairs in her best universities, and that, too, not for the purpose of teaching the Spanish language, but for the purpose of teaching the sciences, law, medicine, etc. This movement dates back as far as the thirteenth century, Among Spanish professors in the principal European universities may be mentioned the following: at Bologna and other Italian centers of learning, Bernardo of Compostela, Juan García, Mariana, Esteve, Pereiro, Rivadeneyra, Laínez; in Paris, Pedro Hispano, Torquemada, Teodoro of Catalonia, Raimundo Lulio, Juan Monzó, Bernardo Oliver, Gaspar Lax, Miguel Francés, Pedro Ciruelo, Martínez Silíceo, Pérez de Oliva, Arias, Servet, Gélida; at Bordeaux, Gouvea, Tárrega, Granollés, Sánchez de Villegas; at Toulouse, Gouvea, Lucena, Sánchez; at Montpellier, García and Falcón; at Oxford, Luis Vives, Pedro de Soto, Juan de Villa García, Rodrigo Guerrero, Antonio del Coro. Time and again, Spanish scientists have been highly spoken of by men of the stamp of Newton, Humboldt, Linnaeus, and Grotius for their discoveries, inventions, and original and independent thought.

Perhaps a not too profoundly prejudiced critic will say that we may grant Spain a scientific place in the past, even if not in the present. That would be something, indeed. Possibly that same critic, if he were to investigate present conditions in Spain, might have his eyes opened further. A glance at the annual memorias of the Junta para ampliación de estudios e investigaciones científicas would convince him that scientific work of high rank is being done in Spain by a very large number of men and women, and that the government is actively fostering such work by means of scholarships for study abroad, special grants for investigations, and official honors of various kinds.






Countess Emilia Pardo Bazán, who died in Madrid on the twelfth of May, 1921, had obtained for herself a place among the foremost modern novelists and critics. The Chimera (La quimera) one of the most thoughtful and profound of an extended series of splendid novels, was published in 1905. It embodies the results of a life-long study of psychology (that is to say of character), of art, of religion; nay, of life itself. It sums up the author's experience in life, in art and in faith; it expresses her aesthetic and her religious creeds.

But the book is constructed on and around a central theme, that of man's struggle, often fruitless and destructive, to realize a fond illusion-his chimera, which may prove as deadly to him as the fiery, flaming breath of the Chimera, the monster of Greek mythology. Three illustrations of the vain quest confront us in the work. First and foremost, the failure on the part of a young Galician artist, Silvio Lago, to attain his artistic ideals and become one of the world's great painters. He wears out his fragile frame in the ardent pursuit of artistic perfection, and he dies, a victim of consumption, the result of privation in early years; but not before he is converted to idealism in art and in religion. And then the disappointment and disillusion of two young women who come to love him dearly. The one, a rich and noble young widow of great refinement and culture, Clara Ayamonte, whose exalted ideal of pure and unselfish devotion is shattered rudely by the artist. She finally seeks solace in a convent. She is followed by Espina Porcel, a dashing, arrogant, capricious adventuress who loves him too, in her strange way; she is driven to the use of morphine and to early death by her insatiable and invincible desire to live in a superior atmosphere of exaltation, both aesthetic and sublime.

Emilia Pardo Bazán made a place in this book for many of her best thoughts, the result of her life-long study of art on the one hand, and of the manifold manifestations of the supersensitive and aspiring spirit that clashes with the hard and cruel facts of life and suffers disillusion and defeat. Art then, psychology, and religion are the studies upon which this book is based, in keeping with the author's aesthetic doctrine that a novel should be based on study.

The Chimera embodies many a picture of life in Madrid and Paris among fashionable and aristocratic patrons and devotees of art,

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among artists and students of art as well, with whom long years of association had made the author perfectly familiar.

The book is a rich repository of the writer's reflections extending over many decades, on the artistic career and its problems, on the artistic temperament and its capricious as well as generous reactions, on the conduct, noble and ignoble, of patrons of art.

Subsidiary characters drawn from the professions of medicine and of music and from the proletariat enable the writer to disclose wide vistas in the province of psychology, normal and abnormal, seen through scientific as well as through artistic eyes. For its wealth of thought alone the book deserves an article, apart from any consideration of fine delineation of character or the technique of storytelling here displayed.

As for technique, attention is at once arrested by the pleasing combination and the variety presented in autobiographical memoirs, correspondence, and the ordinary method of narration from the author's omniscient point of view, in the third person.

Naturalistic pictures and delineations succeed one another, leaving the reader to supply in his imagination gaps, long or short, whose content is often omitted or merely suggested in rapid allusions. Masterful swiftness in dialogue, in narration and in transitions is everywhere a characteristic feature. Pardo Bazán was as gifted in knowing what to omit as she was vigorous in presenting the essentials. She carried the art of suppression and of omission to a higher degree of perfection than any other Spanish novelist. And thus it is that the reader is spared a vast amount of triviality; there are few lines in La quimera that could be excised without a loss. Pereda may be more concise, nay, even deeper at times, but his writing does not convey the impression of marvellous swiftness so peculiar to Pardo Bazán. The reader has to be alert, it is true, but he is gratified at the great saving in time, and at being made to share, as it were, in creative work.

Vigorous indeed is the portrayal of the physical and psychic process that ends in the conversion of the worldly, ambitious, artistic spirit, turning him away from the dream of glory and self-aggrandizement to the humility and submissiveness of a dying Christian. The story grips and moves us, and brings us face to face with death that comes to all. A wonderful setting for the closing regional scenes is furnished in the lovely surroundings of the Galician castle by the sea; and the varying moods of season, sky and landscape are

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