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THE present work is designed to supply a want which still exists in our School Classical Literature. It has been represented to the editor, from several quarters, that his Larger Classical Dictionary, though well adapted for the use of the higher forms in the public schools, is excluded, both by its size and price, from a great number of schools, which are therefore obliged to put up with the abridgments of Lemprière's obsolete work. In consequence of these representations, the editor has been induced to draw up this Smaller Dictionary. All names have been inserted which a young person would be likely to meet with at the commencement of his classical studies; and only those have been omitted which occur in later writers, or in works not usually read in schools. The quantities have been carefully marked, and the genitive cases inserted. The mythological articles have been illustrated by drawings from ancient works of art, for which the editor is indebted to the skillful pencil of his friend, Mr. George Scharf. In this, as in the Smaller Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, care has been taken not to presume too much on the knowledge of the reader. It is therefore hoped that these two works may be used conjointly with advantage, even in schools where Latin and Greek are not taught.
WILLIAM SMITH. B
ABACAENUM (-i), an ancient town of the the mere sight of it could reduce a revolted Siculi in Sicily, W. of Mengana, and S. of Tyn- people to submission. daris.
ABDERA (-ae and orum), a town of ABAE (-árum), an ancient town of Phocis, Thrace, near the mouth of the Nestus, which on the boundaries of Boeotia ; celebrated for flowed 'throngh the town. It was colonized an ancient temple and oracle of Apollo, who by Timesius of Clazomenae about B.C. 656, hence derived the surname of Abaeus. and a second time by the inhabitants of Teos
XBANTES, the ancient inhabitants of Eu-in Ionia, who settled there after their own boea. They are said to have been of Thra- town had been taken by the Persians, B.o. 544. cian origin, to have first settled in Phocis, It was the birthplace of Democritus, Protagwhere they built Abae, and afterwards tó oras, Anaxarchus, and other distinguished have crossed over to Euboea. The Abantes men; but its inhabitants, notwithstanding, of Euboea assisted in colonizing several of were accounted stupid, and an “Abderite" the Ionic cities of Asia Minor.
was a term of reproach. XBANTĪĀDĒS (-e), any descendant of ÅBELLA or AVELLA (-ae), a town of Abas, but especially Perseus, great-grandson Campania, not far from Nola, fonnded by the of Abas, and Acrisius, son of Abas. A female Chalcidians in Euboea. It was celebrated for descendant of Abas, as Danaë and Atalante, its apples, whence Virgil calls it malifera. was called Abantias.
ABGĂRUS, ACBĂRUS, or AUGĂRUS (-i), XBĂRĪS (-is), a Hyperborean priest of a name common to many rulers of Edessa, the Apollo, came from the country about the capital of the district of Osrhoëne in MesopoCaucasus to Greece, while his naiive land was tamia. Of these rulers one is supposed by visited by a plagne. His history is entirely Eusebius to have been the author of a letter mythical: he is said to have taken no earthly written to Christ, which he found in a church food, and to have ridden on an arrow, the at Edessa and translated from the Syriac. gift of Apollo, through the air. He may per- The letter is believed to be spurious. haps be placed abont B.o. 670.
ABÍA (-ae), a town of Messenia, on the XBAS (-antis). (1) Son of Metanira, was Messenian guit. changed by Demeter (Ceres) into a lizard, be. ABII, a tribe mentioned by Homer, and apcause he mocked the goddess when she had parently a Thracian people. come on her wanderings into the house of his mother, and drank eagerly to quench her
XBÌLA (-orum), a town of Coele-Syria, aft. thirst.-—(2) Twelfth king of Argos, son of Lyn- of the tetrarchy of Abilene (Luke iii. 1).
erwards called Claudiopolis, and the capital ceus and Hypermnestra, grandson of Danans, and father of Acrisius and Proetus. When
ABNOBA MONS (-ae), the range of hills he informed his father of the death of Danaus, covered by the Black Forest in Germany, not he was rewarded with the shield of his grand a single mountain. father, which was sacred to Hera (Juno). XBORIGÏNES (-um), the original inhabiThis shield performed various marvels, and tants of a country, equivalent to the Greek ABORRHAS.
Autochthones. But the Aborigines in Italy Amphoterus. Their father was murdered by are not in the Latin writers the original in- Phegeus when they were very young; but as habitants of all Italy, but the name of an an- 8001 as they had grown up, i hey slew Pheyecient people who drove the Siculi ont of Ln- us, his wife, and his two sons. They aftertium, and there became the progenitors of wards went to Epirus, where Acarnan foundthe Latini.
ed the state called after him Acarnania. ABORRHAS, a branch of the Euphrates, ĂCARNĀNÌA (-ne), the most westerly provjoining that river on the E. side vear Arce- ince of Greece, bounded on the N. by the smsium ; called the Araxes by Xenophon. bracian guif: on the W. and S.W. by the 10
ABSYRTUS or APSYRTUS (-i), son of nian sea ; on the N.E. by Amphilochia, which Acöten, king of Colchis, whom Media_took is sometimes included in Acarnavia; and on with her when she fled with Jason. Being the E. by Aetolia, from which, at a later time, pursued by her father, she murdered her it was separated by the Achelons. The name brother, cut his body in pieces, and strewed of Acaruania does not occur in Homer. In them on the road, that her father might be the most ancient times the land was inhabitdetained by gathering the limbs of his child. ed by the Taphii, Telebone, and Leleges, and Tomi, the place where this horror was com- subsequently by the Curetes. At a later time minted, was believed to have derived its name a colony from Argos, said to have been led by from (iturw) “cut."
ACARNAN, settled in the country. In the sevABUS (-1: Humber), a river in Britain. enth century k.o. The Corinthians founded sev.
eral towns on the coast. The Acarpanians ABÝ DOS (-i). (1) A town of the Troad on the Hellespont, and a Milesian colony, nearly of the Peloponnesian war, B.o. 431. They
first emerge from obscurity at the beginning opposiie to Sestos, but a little lower down the stream. The bridge of boats which Xerxes robbery, and they always remained behind
were then a rude people, living by piracy and constructed over the Hellespont, B. c. 450, ihe rest of the Greeks ir civilization and recommenced a little higher up than Abydos, finement. They were good slingers, and are and touched the European shore between praised for their fidelity avd courage. Sestos and Marlvt118.- 2) A city of Upper different towns formed a League, which met
The Egypt, near the W. bank of the Nile; once second only to Thehes, but in Strabo's time
at Stratus, and subsequently at Thyrium or
Leucas. (A.D. 14) a small village. It had a temple of Osiris and a Memnonium, both still standing,
ÅCASTUS (-i), son of Pelias, king of Ioland an oracle. Here was found the inscripcus, one of the Argonauts and of the Calydo
His sisters were induced by tion known as the Table of Abydos, which nian hunters. containg a list of the Egyptian kings.
Medea to cut up their father and boil him, in
order to make him young again. Acastus, in XBYLA (-ae) or ABILA (-ae) MONS or COLUMNA, a mountain in Mauretania Tingi. Lolcus, and instituted funeral games in hon
consequence, drove Jason and Medea from tana, forming the E. extremity of the s. or
our of his father. During these games, HipAfrican const of the Fretumn Gaditanum. This polyte, the wife of Acastus, fell in love with and M. Calpe (Gibraltar), opposite to it on Pelens. When Peleus refused to listen to her the Spanish coast, were called the Columns she accused him to her husband of having atof Hercules, from the fable that they were tempted her dishonor. Shortly afterwards, originally one mountain, torn asunder by while Aca tus and Peleus were bunting on Hercules.
mount Pelion, and the latter had fallen asleep, XCĂDĒMIA and -TA (-ae), a piece of land Acastus took his sword from him, and left on the Cephissus, 6 stadia from Athens, orig: him alone. He was, in consequence, nearly inally belonging to a hero Academus, and destroyed by the Centaurs: bui he was saved subsequently a gymnasium, adorned by Ci- by Chiron or Hermes, returned to Acastus, mon with plane and olive plantations, stat. and killed him, together with his wife. ues, and other works of art. Here taught
ACBARUS. [ABG ARUS.) Plato, who possessed a piece of land in the neighborhood, and after him his followers, the wife of the shepherd Faustulus and the
ACCA LAURENTIA or LARENTĨA (-ae), who were hence called the Academici, or Academic philosophers. Cicero gave the purse of Romulus and Remus, after they had pame of Academia to his villa near Puteoli, been taken from the she-wolf. She seems to where he wrote his “Quaestioves Academ be connected with the worship of the Lares, icae."
from which her name Larentia is probably
derived. ĂCĂMĀS (-antis). (1) Son of Thesens and Phaedra, accompanied Diomedes to Troy to
ACCÌUS OR ATTIUS (-i), L., a Roman tragdemand the surrender of Helen.-(2) Son of ic poet, was born B.c. 170, and lived to a great Avtenor and Theano, one of the bravest Tro- age. His tragedies were chietly imitated from jane, sinin by Meriones.-(3) Son of Eussorus, the Greek, but he also write some on Roman one of the leaders of the Thracians in the subjects (Praetextatae). Trojan war, slain by the Telamonian Ajax. ACCO, a chief of the Senones in Gaul, in
ĂCANTHUS (-i), a town on the Isthmus, duced his countrymen to revolt against Caewhich connects the peningnla of Athos with Bar, B.0.53, by whom he was put to death. Chalcidice, founded by the inhabitants of An
ACE. [PTOLEMA18.] dros.
ACERBAS. [Dipo.) ACARNĀN (-ānis), one of the Epigoni, son XCERRAE (-arum). (1) A town in Campaof Alcmaeon and Callirrhoö, and brother of nia, on the Clanius ; destroyed by Hannibal, ACESINES.
but rebuilt.—(2) A town of the Insubres in (2) Son of Darius I., was governor of Egypt, Gallia Transpadana.
and commanded the Egyptian fleet in the exXCESINĒS (-ae: Chenaub), a river in India, pedition of Xerxes against Greece, B.C. 480. into which the Hydaspes flows, and which it. He was defeated and killed in battle by Inaself flows into the Indus.
rug the Libyan, 460. XCESTA. (SEGESTA.)
XCHAEMĚNĪDĒS, OR XCHEMENĪDĒS, a ACESTES (-ae), son of a Trojan woman, of companion of Ulysses, who left him behind in the name of Ègesta or Segesta, who was sent Sicily when he fled from the Cyclops. by her father to Sicily, that she might not be ACHAEUS. (AOHAEI.) devoured by the monsters which infested the XCHĀŤA (-ae). (1) The northern coast of territory of Troy. When Egesta arrived in the Peloponnesus, originally called Aegialea Sicily, the river-god Crimisns begot by her a or Aegialus, i.e. the coast-land, was bounded son Acestes, who was afterwards regarded as on the N. by the Corinthian gulf and the lothe hero who had founded the town of Seges- nian sea, on the S. by Elis and Arcadia, on the ta. Aeneas, on his arrival in Sicily, was hos- w. by the Ionian sea, and on the E. by Sicyopitably received by Acestes,
nia. "Respecting its inhabitants, see AONAEI. ACHAEI (-örum), one of the chief Hellenic -(2) A district in Thessaly, which appears to races, were, according to tradition, descended have been the original seat of the Achaei. from Achaeus, who was the son of Xuthus and (3) The Roman province, which included PeCreusa, and grandson of Hellen. The Achaei loponnesus and northern Greece S. of Thesoriginally dwelt in Thessaly, and from therce saly. It was formed on the dissolution of the migrated to Peloponnesus, the whole of which Achaean League in B.c. 146, and hence derived became subject to them with the exception its name. of Arcadia, and the country afterwards called XCHARNAE (-ārum), the principal demus Achaia. As they were the ruling nation in of Attica, 60 stadia N. of Atheus, possessing a Peloponnesus in the heroic times, Homer fre
numerons and warlike population. One of quently gives the name of Achaei to the col- the plays of Aristophanes bears their name. lective Greeks. On the conquest of Pelopon- XCHĚLÕIADES. [ACHELOUB.] nesus by the Heraclidae and the Dorians, so years after the Trojan war, many of the Achaei
ACHELOUS (-i), the largest river in Greece, under Tisamenus, the son of Orestes, left their rises in Mount Pindus, and flows southward, country and took possession of the northern forming the boundary between Acarnania and coast of Peloponnesus, then inhabited by lo- Aetolia, and falls into the Ionian sea opposite nians, whom they expelled from the country, miles in length. The god of this river is de
the islands called Echinades. It is about 130 which was henceforth called Achaia. The expelled lonians migrated to Attica and Asia scribed as the son of Oceanus and Tethys, Minor. The Achaei settled in 12 cities: Pels and as the eldest of his 3000 brothers. He lene, Aegira, Aegae, Bura, Helice, Aegium, fought with Hercules for Deianira, but was Rhypae, Patrae, Pharae, Olenus, Dyme, and conquered in the contest. He then took the Tritaea. These 12 cities formed'a league for form of a bull, but was again overcome by Hermutual defense and protection. The Achaei cules, who deprived him of one of his horns, had little influence in the affairs of Greece which, however, he recovered by giving up till the time of the successors of Alexander.
the horn of Amalthea. According to Ovid In B.O. 281, the Achaei, who were then subject (Met. ix. 87), the Naiads changed the horn to the Macedonians, resolved to renew their which Hercules took from Achelous into the ancient league for the purpose of shaking off
horn of plenty. Achelous was from the earthe Macedonian yoke. This was the origin liest times considered to be a great divinity of the celebrated Achaean League. It at first throughout Greece, and was invoked in prayconsisted of only four towns, Dyme, Patrae, ers, sacrifices, etc. Achelous was regarded as Tritaea, and Pharae, but was subsequently the representative of all fresh water; hence joined by the other towns of Achaia, with the
we find in Virgil Achelora pocula, that is, waexception of Olenus and Helice. It did not, irrädes, as the daughters of Achelous.
ter in general. The Sirens are called Achehowever, obtain much importance till 3.0. 251, when Aratus united to his native town, Sic
XCHERON (-ontis), the name of several rivyon. The example of Sicyon was followed ers, all of which were, at least at one time, beby Corinth and many other towns in Greece, lieved to be connected with the lower world. and the League soon became politi- -(1) A river in Thesprotia, in Epirus, which cal power in Greece. At length the Achaei flows through the lake Acherusia into the lodeclared war against the Romans, who de- nian sea. -- (2) A river in southern Italy, in stroyed the League, and thus pnt an end to Bruttii, on which Alexander of Epirus perthe independence of Greece. Corinth, then ished.--(3) The river of the lower world round the chief town of the Leagne, was taken by which the shades hover, and into which the the Roman general Mummius, in 1.0.146, and Pyriphlegethon and Cocytus flow. In late the whole of southern Greece made a Roman writers the name of Acheron is used to desprovince under the name of AONAIA.
ignate the whole of the lower world. XCHAEMENĒS (-is). (1) The ancestor of ACHÉRONTỈA (-ae). (1) A town in Aputhe Persian kings, who founded the family of lia, on a summit of Mount Vultur,whence Horthe Achaemenidae, which was the noblest fam- ace speaks of celsae nidum Acherontiae.—(2) ily of the Pasargadae, the noblest of the Per- A town on the river Acheron, in Bruttii. [Aousian tribes. The Roman poets use the adjec- ERON, No. 2.) tive Achaemenius in the sense of Persian.- XCHERŪSÍA (-ae). (ACHERON, No. 1.)