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PREFACE

My aim in writing this book has not been to consider the temporary changes in industry and trade resulting from the war, nor primarily the problems of the immediate future, such as feeding starving peoples and restoring devastated areas. Although fully conscious of the importance of these questions, I have sought rather in the following pages to emphasize the permanent changes caused by the war and to discuss questions which for many years will rise for decision before the peoples of the world.

In this book I have considered only those aspects of the work of reconstruction that have to do with commercial policy in war time and after. In Part I are reviewed the diversifying and modifying influences of the war on American and foreign industrial conditions. Part II are discussed our national commercial problems — the tariff, anti-dumping legislation, methods for preventing discriminations against our national interests, and methods for promoting, controlling, and democratizing American commercial activities abroad. Finally, Part III deals with world affairs and surveys unfair trade practices between nations and their regulation, the permanent lessons of the war in the control of the production and distribution of food and raw materials, reciprocity treaties, preferential tariff arrangements, the policy of the "open door," colonies, foreign investments and concessions, and the League of Nations.

The proposals in Part III for a series of international commissions under the League of Nations as a step toward international government is an extension of the views contained in my article published in the Quarterly Journal of Economics, August, 1918, entitled, “Inter

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national Tariff Relations as Affected by the War," which was amplified in my address on “The Open Door and Colonial Policy” before the American Economic Association at Richmond, Virginia, December 28, 1918. The substance of both the article and the address is incorporated in this book through the courtesy of the editor of the Journal and the president of the Association. Portions also of my article in the Century Magazine for November, 1918, entitled, “Commercial Policy and the War," are used in this book with the permission of the editor, and the editor of the American Economic Review has kindly permitted me to reprint in an appendix my article on "The Tariff Board and Wool Legislation, published in March, 1913. In some portions of this book I have used freely information contained in reports of the United States Tariff Commission and have not deemed it necessary in every case to give detailed references.

I wish here to make general acknowledgment of my indebtedness to these sources.

The views I express in this book are personal. They are not, it need hardly be said, to be attributed to the United States Tariff Commission of which I am a member because of their publication by me. I take full and sole responsibility for all statements of fact and expressions of opinion.

W. S. CULBERTSON. Emporia, Kansas.

Postscript:

A summary of the treaty of peace is given out as this book comes off the press. To what extent this book is in harmony with the principles embodied in the treaty, to what extent the treaty establishes a basis for a liberal international policy such as this book argues for and such as the League of Nations Covenant gave the peoples the right to expect, must, at this late date, be left to the reader to judge.

W. S. C.

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