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directly representing the Latin sta "stand," has numerous nouns from that root, as station, étage, from statio, état from status. From these nouns fresh verbs are derived, as stationner and the like. So also the modern Indian languages, while they have lost such roots as dip, kram, as verbs, have nouns dipa, diyâ and derivatives, also krama as a noun with numerous secondary formations.

Analogous to this is the practice we are now discussing of forming verbs from Sanskrit participles, a practice which begins as early as Prakrit, and appears to have arisen from the habit mentioned in § 2 of forming a definite preterite by compounding the participle with wh, as in Tatsfer "I have gone." It was pointed out in § 7 that this practice had been extended in Prakrit so widely that it had resulted in giving a termination in fig to the present tense, as in ôfeeft. Examples are:

Skr. v fan “enter,” with 84, Bufat “take a seat,” i.e. to pass from a standing to a sitting posture, p.p.p. gufaa “seated,” Pa. उपविट्ठो, Pr. उबविट्ठो, and later उवट्ठो, whence, by rejection of उ, H. ây, P. id., M. ah, where the last consonant is due to a confusion between बैठ and वस. G. has ay, which is from Skr. pres. Bufaufa. Its p.p.p. is aat.

s. also विह by softening of स to ह, p.p.p. बेठो. With 9, ufau,“enter,” “ penetrate,” P. ufazt, Pr. qast, whence H. ày, “to enter” (generally with the idea of penetrating forcibly). G. again पेश from प्रविशति, p.p.p. पेठो, S. पिह, p.p.p. पेठो.

Skr. / पच् “cook,” पचति, p.p.p. पक्व, Pa. Pr. पक्को, H. पक “to be cooked,” to be in process of cooking (if you ask, “Is dinner ready?” your man answers, gaat “It is being cooked”), P. TE, G. ata, M. fam. It also means “ to ripen,” “ to be in course of growing ripe,” B. पाक. There is also a stem from the present पचति, as S. पच् “ to grow ripe,” p.p.p. qat. H. and all the rest have 99, but in the sense of rotting, decaying.

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Skr. V शुष् " ,p.p.p. dry," P.P.P. शुष्क, Pa. Pr. सुकबो, H. सूख “to be dry,"

“ ” P. सुकब, S. G. M. सुक, B. 0. शुक. .

Skr. / भङ्ग " break," p.p.p. भन, Pa. Pr. भग्गो, H. भाग “to flee" (said originally of an army, “to be broken up and dispersed"), G. भाग, M. भांग, “to yield, give way," also भंग a, “ to break," 0. भांग. Here again there are stems as if from the present form Bhû zjafa, Pa. njofa, Pr. भंजद, H. भंज “to be broken," and भज. (See $19.)

Skr. / गम "go," with उद्, p.p.p. उद्गत “sprung up," Pr. उग्गो, H. उग, “to spring up" (as a plant), P. उग्ग, S. G. उग, M. उगव.

It is questionable whether we should here class some words which come from /y with उद्. The present would be उद्भरति, but though the p.p.p. in Sanskrit is उद्धृत, yet in such verbs Prakrit forms the p.p.p. on the model of the present tense, and has उब्भरिओ as if from Skr. उद्भरित, so that the modern verbs उभर, उभल, and the like keep the type of the present tense as much as that of the participle. Another

very
common word is

उट् “ to rise,” but in this case Prakrit has already adopted this form for all parts of the verb, as has also Pali; thus from / उद्+स्था Skr. makes उत्था “to

stand up."

SKR.

PA.

PR.

Present S. 3. उत्तिष्ठति उट्ठहति, उट्ठाति उहदि, उट्टेदि, उट्टे Impv. S. 2. उत्तिष्ठ

उहह

उद्धेहि
S. 3. उत्तिष्ठतु
उहतु

उठेउ Future s. 3. उत्थास्यति उट्टहिस्सदि उहिस्सह Pres. part.

थत्तिष्ठत् | उट्ठन्तो उटुंतो P.p.p.

उत्थित उट्टितो उट्टिदो, उडिओ Infin.

उत्थातुं उट्ठातुं Gerund

उत्थाय उद्याय, उट्ठहित्वा उट्टिन Here, whatever be the form taken in Sanskrit, both Pali and Prakrit assume a stem 33, and conjugate it as if it were a Bhû verb throughout. It seems as though ep being com

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pounded with gt had lost its final consonant, thereby making a form 38T, whence Prakrit 35. Sanskrit has adopted the opposite course, and while keeping Ec intact, has sacrificed the # of er in the non-conjugational tenses, retaining it in the conjugational ones where it is prevented from coalescing with the preposition by the reduplicated syllable. In the moderns we have H. 38, P. , S. 39 and 37, and in all the rest 37.

The stem te has undergone a change of meaning which is explainable only by bringing it under this head.

Skr. V TE "desert,” tafa, usually found in Prakrit only in the p.p.p., Treu (= trea) in the sense of " deserted,” then almost adverbially, as "without,” hence probably the meaning which it bears in the modern languages, “to stop," "stay,” remain," from the idea of being deserted, left behind. It is te in H. and all except M. TIE, G. JE. It is ancillary in most of the languages as oca TOT“ go on reading.” (See $ 72, 10).

पढते रहो

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§ 15. Single active stems exhibit the same method of formation as the single neuter stems given in g 12. A few examples are given of roots which in Sanskrit are of the Bhů, or the closely allied Div, Tud, and Chor classes.

Skr. / खाद् “eat,” खादति, Pa. id., Pr. खाइ (Var.viii. 27, for खाअड्), H. TT, and so in all. Gipsy khava, Kash, khyun, Singhalese kanava.'

Skr. /चर्व “chew," चर्वति, Pr. चब्बर, H. चाब, P. चब्ब, s. चब, G. M. चाव, 0. चोबा, B. चाब.

Skr. v qę“ read,” uzfa, Pa. id., Pr. TCT, H. Tą (pash), P. M. G. id., S. UCE (which is only their way of writing 96), B. YE,

Skr. / प्रछ “ ask,” पृच्छति, Pa. पुच्छति, Pr. पुच्छ, H. पूछ, P. पुच्छ, G. B. id., M. ye (see Vol. I. p. 218), 0. go, 401T.

Skr. V stof (and IT!) “ seek,” i. Atoffa, x. profefa, Pa. Hvalfa and मग्गेति, Pr. मग्गह, H. मांग, P. मंग, S. मङ (mang), G. M. माग, B. मांग, 0. माग.

Childers, in J.R.A.S. vol. viii. p. 146.

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0. पढ़.

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Skr. V TT"keep,” Tofa, Pa. Tagfa, Pr. TRET, H. Te“ keep,” also simply “to put,” utent at C T T@T“ put the book on the stool,” P. Tace, S. TC, G. M. B. Tre, 0. TC, Singh. rakinavá.

Skr. / कथ् “ say," कथयति, P. कथेति, Pr. कहद, कहेह, H. कह, P. S. B. O. id. In M. it is wanting. G. GIE, Singh. kiyanavi.

Those roots which belong to other conjugations are almost always reduced to the Bhù type, even if Prakrit retains any of the conjugational peculiarities the moderns do not. They take in most instances the root-form of the present as it occurs in Prakrit, and keep it throughout. Instances are :

Skr. V "know,” ix. Eta, Pa. id., Pr. arufa, also STUT (Pr. keeps grut throughout, but it and Pa. occasionally drop the initial, having wuif, etc.), H. B. am, the rest aru. Gipsy janava, Kash. zánun, Singh. dannavd. Skr. Va “do,” viii. aifa, Pa. id. (see 1 and 9 4), Pr. gut and

कुण at and the stem of is adopted in most tenses. The moderns universally reject all forms but aft, which they use throughout except in the p.p.p., which is the phonetic equivalent of Prakrit (see § 48).

Skr. V श्रु" hear," v. शृणोति, Pa: सुणोति, मुणाति, Pr. सुणइ, H. सुन, and in all सुन or सुण.

Skr. V आप "get," v. आप्नोति (but also i. आपति), Pa. आपुनोति, आपुनाति and अप्पोति, Pr. (see $ 5) आवद, seldom used alone. Old H. wap “to obtain,” also used in the sense of giving.

अप्य मत्ति सरसें सबल ॥ "Having obtained wisdom and the aid of Sarasen (Saraswati)."

- Chand, Pr. R. i. xv. Also G. 979 "to give,” which is the ordinary word in that language, may be from this root or from a (?). Far more common is the compound with प्र=प्राप, Pa. as above. Pr. पाउण and later पावद, old H. and P. पाउ, H. पाव and पा, S. पा, 0. id., G. पाम, M. पाव, B. पाओ. In all in the sense of finding, getting, obtaining.

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Skr. V ग्रह “ seize," ix. गृह्णाति. The treatment of this root is peculiar. Pa. for the most part takes a form गएह, and Pr. generally गेएह. Some of the principal tenses are given here.

.

SKR.

PA.

PR.

Pres.

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S.2. गृहाण
S. 3. गृह्णातु

Fut.

Infin.

S. 3. गृह्णाति

गएहाति, गएहति गेहद Atm. Pres. S. 1. गृहे

गरहे 1 Aor. S. 3. अग्रहीत् अग्गहि, अग्गंहि Impv.

गएह, गण्हहि

गेण्ह, गेहह गएहदु

गेहदु Impv.Atm. P.2. गृह्णीध्वं गण्हतो

गेहध S.1. ग्रहीष्यामि गएिहस्सं

गएिहस्सं S. 3. ग्रहीष्यति गएिहस्सति, गहेस्सति गएिहस्सद ग्रहीतुं गरिहतुं

गेबिहदु, गहिदु, घेत्तुं P.p.p. गृहीत गहितो

गहिदो, गिहिदो Gerund गृहीखा गरिहखा

गेण्हिअ, घेत्तून There are thus two types in Pa. ganh and gah, and three in Pr. genh, gah, and ghe. The double t in ghettum and ghettuna arises, I fancy, from e being short in Pr., and is not an organic part of the word (Var. viii. 15).

In the modern languages H. has utk as an archaic and poetic word. P. also गह. But M. घे “ take,” is very much used, as also S. गिन्ह, and 0. घेन, the other languages prefer the stem ले from Wr. Singh.gannavá, perhaps Gipsy gelara, is connected with this root, though it means rather “to bring.” (Paspati, p. 241.)

$16. Some Sanskrit roots ending in vowels have undergone curious and interesting changes in the modern languages. Such is Skr. / दा "give," iii. ददाति. This is one of the primitive Indo-European race-words, and being such we probably have not got it in its original form in Sanskrit. With the idea of giving is intimately connected that of dividing, or apportioning, and we find in Sanskrit several roots with this meaning, all of which seem to point back to some earlier

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