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forms which I regard as neuters been true "umlautend" passives.

Of the double verbs, then, as I prefer to call them, some differ only in the vowel, and the difference consists in this that where the vowel of the neuter is always short, as a, i or u, the corresponding active has â, e or o, occasionally i or û. As types may be taken, H. kaṭnâ, n, and kâṭnâ, a; phirnâ, n, and phernâ, a; khulnâ, n, and kholnâ, a; lipnâ, n, and lîpnâ, a; guthnâ, n, and gúthnâ, a. Of the other class, in which the final consonant differs, there are so many varieties, that it will be better to discuss them separately. Sindhi has the largest number of them, and it is with Sindhi therefore that we must begin.

§ 19. Trumpp (Sindhi Gr. p. 252) gives a list of these verbal stems, but it would have been out of place for him to have offered any analysis. The following verbs I take from him, but the explanations are my own. The first group consists of these verbs.

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1. Skr. √ बंध्, ix. बध्नाति, Pa. बंधति, Pr. बंध, whence S. बंध, H. बांध, P. बहह. In all the rest बांध . Skr. passive is बध्यते, whence Pa. बज्झति, Pr. बज्झद्, S. बुझ, H. बझ, used as a hunting term “ to be caught," also "to stick, adhere," P. n. Here, though undoubtedly derived from the passive, the stem is really a neuter or passive intransitive and its conjugation closely resembles the active. There is a regular passive S. बंधिजणु.

2. Skr. √ बुध् “ to know,” i. बोधते, iv. बुध्यते, from the latter come Pa. बुज्झति and Pr. बुज्झद्द, whence S. बुझ, originally “to know,” but now meaning "to be heard," H. “to understand," is active. So also


is both a and n.

0. वुझ, B. बूझ, G. बुज. But M. The form of the iv. conjugation is identical with the passive, hence S. makes a neuter and is probably due to a false analogy with .

3. Skr. √ Tų or Tų i. tufa originally "to destroy," but in moderns always “to cook," Pa. id., Pr. jug, S. TY, H. TIY a, and so in all but P. Passive रध्यते, Pa. रज्झति, Pr. रज्झद्द, S. रझ, not found in the

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1. Skr. √ लभ् “to get,” i. लभते, Pa. लभति, Pr. लहइ (भ= ह Vol. I. p. 268), S. लह, Old H. लह, H. ले, P. लहि and ले, G. ले, M. ने, 0. ने, B. लचो, all a. Pass. लभ्यते, Pa. लब्भति, Pr. लब्भद्, S. लभ, Old H. , not in the others.

2. Skr. / यभ् “coire" i. यभति, Pr. जहर, S. यह, Pass. यभ्यते, Pr. जब्भद्, S. यभे. Not in the others, except perhaps M. झवणें, where the aspiration has been thrown back on the .

3. Skr. √ दुह्, ii. दोग्धि, Pa. दोहति Pr. दोहद् and दुह, S. डुह, H. दुह and दोह, and so in all a. Pass. दुह्यते, Pa. दुह्यति (Childers writes duyhati, which can hardly be expressed in Devanagari letters), Pr. दुज्झइ. From this we should expect S. . The form recalls a similar one in Jaina Pr. सिब्भद् for सिज्झद् (Weber, Bhag. 389,429), Skr. f, but this seems to rest upon a doubtful reading of one of those obscure composite characters sometimes found in MSS. written with the thick Indian reed pen. See also Cowell's Var. viii. 59, note.1 Possibly we have here again a false analogy with लभ, like बुंध with बंध.

1 Hemachandra collects a number of passives in bh from roots ending in h, dubbbaï, libbhaï, vabbhaï, rubbhaï, from duh, lih, vah, ruh (or ruddh ?).—Pischel, Hem., iv. 245.



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Skr. √ दह “ burn," i. दहति Pa. डहति, Pr. दह, S. डह, H. डाह,

दाह, Pass. दह्यते, Pa. डह्यति (Childers dayhati), Pr. दज्झ, S. झ·

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1. Skr. √ भंज् “ break,” vii. भनक्ति, Pa. भंजति, Pr. भंजद्; अ becomes in S. ञ, hence भञ, Pass. भज्यते, Pr. भज्जद्, S. भज़ (ज्ज = ज़), H. भंज

and भज,

पुरुषातन भजे कित्ति हान |

"Manliness is broken, fame destroyed."-Chand, Pr. R. i. 172. P. मज्ज, G. भांज.

2. Skr. √ भ्रव्ज or भृज्, i. भर्जते vi. भृज्जति, Pa. भज्नति. Pr. would probably be भुजद्. I have not met the word, भुंज (Bhag. 278) is from भुंज् “to enjoy,” S. भुञ postulates a Pr. भुंज. In the other languages then occurs. H. भुन “ to fry,” and भून, P. भुन्न, G. भुज, M. भाज, but also भुंज, 0. भाज, B. id., Pass, भृज्यते, which would give Pr. भुज्जद्द्, whence S. भुज़, but the whole stem is somewhat obscure. P. भुज्ज .

3. Skr. √ छिद् “ cleave, ” vii. छिनत्ति, Pa. छिन्दति, Pr. छिन्दद्द (Var. viii. 38), whence S. छिन by the process रन = रण्डा (Vol. I. p. 299), Pass. छिद्यते, Pa. छिज्जति, Pr. छिज्जर, S. छिज़.


4. Skr. √ श्रु" hear, ” which, as already explained, is always सुण in Prakrit and in modern languages. Pass. श्रूयते, Pa. सूयति or सुव्यति, Pr. generally सुनिज्जद्द् (Var. viii. 57 ), also सुब्बद्, but a form सुज्जद् is also possible, whence S. सुज.

5. Skr. / स्कंद “ rise,” i. स्कंदति, which would give a Pr. खण्ड, whence S. खण, Pass. स्कद्यते. Pr. खज्जद, S. खज़. This stem does not seem to occur in the other languages, it is peculiar to S., and must not be confounded with खणणु “ to dig,” from Skr. / खन्, nor with Skr. खण्ड्

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1. Skr. √ कृष् and कुष् “ tear” “ drag,” i. कुषति, Pr. कुसद्, S. कुह, (स = ह, Vol. I. p. 259), Pass. कुष्यते, Pr. would be कुस्सद्दू, whence S. कुस, by rejection of one s. Persian vid≤ “ to kill.”

2. Skr. √ घृष् “ rub,” i. घर्षति, Pr. घसद्, S. गह, Pass. घृष्यते, Pr. घिस्सद् and घस्सद्, S. गस. The other languages have a different series of stems. H. घस and घिस, ” and a, घसीट, a, P. id., G. घस and घसड, a, M. घास, घसट, घांस n and a, O. B. घस.

3. Skr. √ लूष् “ burn,” i. लूषति, Pr. लूस, S. लूह, Pass. लूष्यते, Pr. लूस्सइ, S. लूस.

4. Skr. √ मुष् “ rob,” i. मुषति, Pa. मुसति, Pr. मुसद्, S. मुह, Pass. मुष्यते, Pr. मुस्सद्, S. मुस.

There are several other pairs of stems which exhibit special types; all, however, are explainable by the above noted process. Thus—

(6.) Neuter in प.

छुपण "to be touched,"

Active in ह·

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Skr. √ छुप् “ touch,” i. छुपति, Pa. id., Pr. छुपद्. प being unsupported goes out and ह is employed to fill up the hiatus, giving S. कुह. Pass. कुप्यते, Pr. कुप्पद्, whence S. छुप, by rejection of one प. In the other languages only the active is found. Old H. कुह, H. छू, P. कुह and छूह, G. छु, छू, छो, 0. कुं, B. id. O.,

§ 20. There is a group of words running through nearly all the seven languages in which the divergence between the two members of each pair is slighter than that just discussed. It consists in the final consonant of the neuter being the surd cerebral, while that of the active is the sonant; the neuter at the same time has the simple short vowel while the active has the corresponding guna vowel.

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The process in these words differs somewhat from that in the Sindhi stems in the last section, as will be seen from the following remarks.

1. Skr. √ (also J,

Westergaard, Rad. Skr. p. 128) “to ent,” vi. छुटति, but the Bha type would be छोटति, Pr. छोड, H. छोड, and so in all except M., which has, with its usual change of ☎ to ☎ (Vol. I. p. 218). H., which is pronounced chhor, while M. is soḍ, is active, and so is the word in all the other languages. It means "to release, let go, loose." Pass. छुट्यते, Pr. कुट्टद्, whence H. छुट, and so in all, but M. सुट. It is neuter and means "to get free, be unloosed, slip out of one's grasp, come untied."

The modern languages appear to have mixed up with this verb one that comes from a totally different root, namely— Skr. √ हृद् “vomit,” vii. कृणत्ति, also i. छर्दति and x. छर्दयति, Pa. छड्डेति, Pr. छड्डुद्र and ंड, Old H. छंड, P. छडू, B. छाड, O. id., H. QİC, M. Hic. These words all mean "to reject, abandon," and thus

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