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poetical Hindi often uses बाढना for the neuter, as ऐसो देव प्रकट गोवर्द्धन । जाके पूजे बाढे गोधन ॥ “ Such a god is manifest in Govardhana, from the worship of whom wealth of cattle increases.-S.S. Govardhanlila, ii. 15, et passim. So also arga 69 en ga 1. “It grows like the threads of the lotus.”—Padm. This subject will be more fully discussed under the causal.

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§ 24. Gujarati, as will have been noticed in the examples given in the last section, often wants the neuter stem with the short vowel, but has in its place a form in which å is added to the stem, the included vowel of which is short. This form is not incorrectly treated by some grammarians as the ordinary passive of the language. It should, however, in strictness, be recognized as the passive intransitive (that form marked – 1 in the scale, $ 10). The rules for its formation are simple, in stems, whether neuter or active, having à as the included vowel, it is shortened to a, as,

ata “read,” T“be read.”
utan “mark, test." at“ be tested.”

H12706"hear,” BIZTOOT“ be heard.” The shortening does not always take place when the included vowel is î or û, though from the way in which short and long vowels are used indiscriminately in Gujarati, it is not safe to lay down a hard and fast rule on this point, thus

ata "learn,” TC (fUCT) “ be learnt.”

शीव “ sew," शीवा (शिवा) “ be sewn." Where the stem ends in a vowel, a is inserted to prevent hiatus, as— T“wash,”


“ be washed.” GT“ eat,”

Cat“ be eaten." fagt " fear,” fagtat“ be feared." 1 Vans Taylor, Gujarati Grammar, p. 81, from which most of the following remarks are borrowed, though I diverge from him in some points in which his views seem to be open to correction.


With regard to the meaning and method of using this phase, it appears that its construction resembles that of the neuter, while it implies either simple passiveness, habit, or power. As a simple passive, रामथी रावण मरायो “ Ravana was killed by Rama,” आ खेतर मां बी ववायुं “ In this field seed has been sown;" as expressing habit, og mere ae at “thus it is correctly said,” i.e. “this is the correct way of expressing it;"

Dati e rutere“ this boy is (usually) thought to be stupid ;” as expressing power or fitness, Watuit TCT het “he cannot walk,” literally “by him it is not walked ;” TTET UT

ut Waite are afę "a king cannot (or must not) do injustice;' कूवो अभडायो माटे एन पाणी पीवाय नहि “the well has become

“ impure, therefore its water is not drunk.” Some of the words which take this form are, to all intents and purposes, simple neuters in meaning, like abhadâyo in the sentence just quoted, which means “to be ceremonially impure,” and points back to a Sanskrit denominative, as though from 7 “not,” and the “good,” there had been formed a verb reâ “it is not

अभद्रायते “ good.” So also quit “ to be used,” “to be in use," as van

एक अर्थ ना बे प्रत्यय वपराय के “ two affixes are in use with one meaning,” postulates from व्यापार, a denominative व्यापारायते, or perhaps the causal of वि+ आ + पृ= व्यापारयति. This seems to be the real origin of this phase, though some would derive it from a form of the Prakrit passive. At any rate, the two stems just quoted (and there are several others of the same kind) look more like denominatives than anything else, though in others this form inclines more to the passive signification, as भीमक सुता नुं वदन सुधाकर देखीने शोभाय । चन्द्रमा तो क्षीण पामी WTTAT Hata | “Having seen the moon-like face of the daughter of Bhîmaka in its beauty—The moon wasted away, having hidden itself in the clouds.”—Premânand in K.-D. ii. 74. Here 1797 is “to be beautiful,” and looks like a denominative, but Hary has more of a passive or reflexive meaning, “to be hidden,” “to hide oneself.” Again, दमयंती - उदर देखी

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gatej TTT “Seeing the belly of Damayanti, the lake dried up,” (ib. ii. 75), literally “was dried up.” So also at ang त्यारे कूवो खोदावे ए अनि केम ओलवाय। “When the house has caught (fire), he has a well dug, how can this fire be put out ?-K.-D. i. 184. The verb wtaat is also written gtao, and is probably the same as 0. VIET “to descend, alight,” M. v1606 “to trickle, flow down,” which I take to be from 44+ = अपसरति, Pr. ओशल (Magadhi), and with change of स to p=ga. It is used in the sense of removing oneself, thus : हओहल ya WITH “ho there! get out of the way!” (Mș. 210), and causal ओशालिदा मए शअडा “I have got the cart out of the way,” (ib. 211)= Skr. quifcat. This phrase is conjugated throughout all the tenses, thus atarg “to be lost.” Present atatu “he is lost,” Future atata “ he will be lost," Preterite etatut, ataruit, or @tatuate "he has been lost," and in active verbs it is used in the Bhava-prayoga, as a sort of potential, as तेनाथी छोडाय “ he can loose," तेनाथी छोडायो “he could loose,” aatet TETİ “ he will be able to loose."

As to the other languages, a similar form is found in the Bhojpuri dialect of Hindi, used as a simple passive, as the “ seize,” 4915T “be seized,” as Et Taittin at “I am being seized.” In this dialect, however, there are signs, as will be shown further on, of a passive similar to that in use in classical Hindi. In the old Maithil dialect of Bidyâpati, which is transitional between eastern Hindi and Bengali, this form is found ; thus, सिकता जल जैछे थलहि शुकायल “ As water poured out on the ground is dried up."-Pad. 984. ut att

figigate“ (He who is) the moon of Gokul rolled himself on the earth.”—P.K.S. 77. atat yaa ūferent are i

जनु इंदीवर पबने पेलिल अलि भरे BOTTEI "As a lotus pressed down by the wind is tilted by the weight of bees” (var. lect. Hft=by a swarm).—Pad. 1352.



· This is equivalent in meaning to our English saying, “When the steed is stolen, sbut the stable door."

There seems to be some difficulty in deducing this form from a Prakrit passive. One of the methods in which the passive in Prakrit is formed is by resolving the y of Sanskrit into ia or ia, Skr. araâ=Pr. Orkuf; and it is supposed that this & has become v7, and subsequently w, but no instances of intermediate forms are found; it would seem, therefore, more correct to suppose that this form originates from the causal of Sanskrit in those instances where the causal characteristics are used to form denominatives, and has from them been extended to other verbs. Neither explanation, however, is quite satisfactory, and the question is one which must be left for further research.


$ 25. The regular Passive (phase — 2) is found only in Sindhi, Panjabi, and in some rustic dialects of Hindi. It arises from the Prakrit passive in ijja (Var. viii. 58, 59). Thus Skr. grûyate =suņijjai, gamyate = gamijjai, hasyate=hasijjač. In Sindhi the passive is formed by adding 75 or o to the neuter or active stem. Thus

Ty “to bury,” Passive sy “to be buried."
“to lessen,"

aftay “to be lessened.” A passive is also made from causal stems, as

faalku“ to lose,” Passive faste eu “ to be lost.”

वित्राणु Here, also, we find denominatives which have no corresponding active form, and have scarcely a passive sense, as garigely “ to long for,” where the causal termination used in Sanskrit for denominatives appears to have been confused with the ijja of the passive. Thus Skr. Braio "longing,” makes a verb Befa “to long for,” whence the Sindhi ukhandijanu. So also myrsery “to be entangled,” which seems to be from Skr. अङ्गुल, or अङ्गुरि were “a finger,” whence we may suppose a verb

1 Trumpp, Sindhi Grammar, p. 258.


wşrafa "to be intertwined (like the fingers of clasped hands);" fasty “to be angry,” from GHT “anger,” Skr. GHT “uproar," of which the denominative would be gatafa.

In cases where the vowel of the active stem is long in the imperative, but shortened in the infinitive, the passive retains the long vowel. Thus ots “ drink thou,” fung “ to drink,” staru “to be drunk.”

" thread thou,” tany“ to thread,” og “to be threaded." uts “wash thou,” yuy“to wash,” uitery" to be washed.”

“ ”

A similarly formed passive is used in the Marwâți dialect of Hindi, spoken west of the Aravalli hills towards Jodhpur, and thus not very far from Sindh. Instances areङ्केकारणो “ to do,"

artout “ to be done.” CTCUT “to eat,” OTPUT “ to be eaten.” OUT“to take,” fattaTUT “ to be taken.” aut “to give,” factorut “to be given.” aut “to come,” wa Hut “to be come.”

Thus they say म्हें सुंअवीजै नहीं= H. मुझ से आया नहीं जाता “by me it is not come,i.e. “I am not coming." og atheit agt =H. THÊgt atet FTOT “by you it will not be eaten,

तुम i.e. “ you will not (be able to) eat it.” This passive construction is frequent in the Indian languages, but usually with the negative expressing that the speaker is unable or unwilling to do a thing. The insertion of 7 instead of a in â and is peculiar and unaccountable.

Panjabi also has a synthetical passive, though rarely used. It is formed by adding & to the root, and is probably derived from that form of the Prakrit passive which ends in ia, as

1 I have to thank Mr. Kellogg, of Allahabad, author of the best, if not of the only really good Hindi Grammar, for communicating this form to me in a letter. I was previously unaware of it.

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