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guages have passed by. The following are examples of the causal in these latter: fare "write,” H.P.B.O.s.fact" cause to write,” (H. Pres.likhátá, Pret.

likhdyd, Aor. likhảe, or likhdy, or likhûve.) T“read,”

TUT“cause to read.” "hear,”


ETT“ cause to hear.”


In Hindi, as in the other languages, the causal of a neuter verb is, in effect, nothing more than an active, as

GET“ be made,"

9T “move,”
OTTTTT“ be awake,”
BTTT “rise,"
QATT “be cooked,"

TET“ make.”
ETIT “call” (ie.“ cause to speak.”)
बुलाना “ "
TOTT “drive.”
SINTETT “awaken.”
BUTT “raise.”
UANTIT “cook.”

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So also in the case of double verbs given in $$ 20, 21, the active form, with long vowel in the stem syllable, may be regarded as a causal. In fact, it might be said, looking at the matter with reference to meaning, that the modern languages have two ways of forming the causal, one in which the short vowel of the stem is lengthened, the other in which â or some other suffix is added. Looking at it in another way with reference to form, the division which I have adopted commends itself, the forms with a long vowel in the stem being regarded as actives, those with the added syllable as causals. In point of derivation, however, both forms are causals. There is a wonderful, though unconscious, economy in our languages; where Prakrit has more types than one for the same phase of a verb, the modern languages retain them all, but give to each a different meaning. For instance, Prakrit has three types for the passive, one in which the final consonant of the stem is doubled by absorption of the y of Skr. as gamyate=gammaï,


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a second in ia, as gamyate=gamiadi, and a third in ijja, as gamyate=gamijjadi. The first of these types, having lost whatever might remind the speaker of its passive character, has been adopted in the modern languages as the form of the simple neuter verb, the second survives in the Panjabi passive, as mâridâ=mâriadi, the third in the Sindhi and Marwari passive given in $ 25. So, also, it seems to me that the two types of the Prakrit causal have been separately utilized; that which corresponds to the Sanskrit type in aya with long or guņa vowel in the stem, has become in the moderns an active verb, as hårayati=hârää=hâr; trotayati = tosež= top; while that

: toreï which takes the q causal is preserved as the ordinary causal of the moderns, as kârayati (karâpayati) = karârei = karâ.

Often, however, both forms exist together, and there is little or no apparent distinction between them; thus from TT are made both फाटना and फटाना, from हरना are made हारना and TIT, and so in many other instances. हराना

The causal, properly so called, namely, that with the suffix å, år, etc., has always a short vowel in the stem syllable, except in a few instances where the stem vowel is vșiddhi, in which case it is sometimes retained. Thus in the double verbs the causal suffix may be regarded as added to the neuter form,

as in




तप ताव तपा

घुला In such cases, however, we more commonly find the double or passive causal.

Single verbs with a long or guņa stem-vowel have causals with the corresponding short or simple vowel, as in the examples बोलना and बुलाना, जागना and जगाना given above.

Verbs whose simple stems end in a vowel insert a semivowel before the termination of the causal, and change the vowel of the stem, if a, i, or e, into i, if û or o, into u. The semivowel


used is sometimes व or र, but more commonly ल. Thus, लेना " to take," लिवाना “ to cause to take," but

H. देना "give," दिलाना “ cause to give."

जीना “ live," जिलाना “ cause to live."
atat“ drink,” पिलाना "give to drink."
खाना "eat," खिलाना “feed."
ETETT “wash,”

YATT“ cause to wash.”
सुलाना “put to sleep."

” रोना “weep," रुलाना “ make to weep." In a few cases of stems ending in, or in aspirates, the is

a optionally inserted, as H. कहना “ say," काहाना

and कहलाना

cause to say,"

“be called.” देखना "see," दिखाना दिखलाना "show." सीखना “ learn,” सिखाना

सिखलाना “teach." बैठना “ sit," बिठाना (or बै०) बिठलाना (बै०) “ seat."

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A similar method exists in Sindhi, but with र instead of ल, as is customary with that language, as' डिअणु “give,"

डिआरणु “ cause to give."
चुअणु " leak,"

चुारणु "cause to leak."
विहणु “ sit," विहारणु "seat."
सिखणु " learn,"

सिखारणु “teach."

" उथणु "rise,"

उथारणु "raise." सुम्हणु “ sleep,"

FETTY"put to sleep."

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Here the T is inserted after the causal suffix, and this was probably the method originally in force in Hindi, for we find in the mediæval poets such words as dikhârnâ “ to show," and even in modern colloquial usage baithalnå is quite as common

1 Trumpp, Sindhi Grammar, p. 256.

as bithlânâ. Gujarati forms its causal in an analogous way, but uses & instead of T, as

Tag“ suck,"

wateg "give suck."
शीवq "sew,"


cause to sew.” atro“ sound,” वगाड

queg“ strike” (a bell, etc.) After words ending in a vowel, the suffix takes a to prevent hiatus, and so also after , as था (थ) “be," थवाड

TE"cause to be.”
CTD “eat,"


“ feed."
“ give," देवाड cause to give.”
सेहq "endure," सेहवाड “ cause to endure."

agatog “ cause to rot.”

" This language, like Hindi, also reverses the position of the long vowel of the causal suffix, and uses such forms as dhararâr, khararâv, with change of 3 to T.

There is nothing remarkable about the Panjabi causal, which is identical with Old Hindi, merely retaining the junction vowel u, as khilâ-u-, dikhâ-u-. In both these languages the old form au has, in a few instances, changed to o instead

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of â, as


faritat “to wet,” from Htatat“ to be wet.”
gatat“ to drown,"

5@T“ to be drowned.” Bengali and Oriya have only the causal form in å with junction vowel i, as B. kará-i-te, 0. kará-i-, and use this form in preference to that with the long stem vowel, even in those causals which are, in meaning, simple actives.

There are thus, independently of the stem with the long or guņa vowel, which I prefer to treat as an active, two separate systems of forming the causal in the seven languages : one starting from the Prakrit causal in dve, and exhibiting the forms âva, ava, iva, iva, av, âu, o, à; the other starting, I know

VOL. 111.


not whence, but probably from a method in use in early Aryan speech, which has only been preserved by the classical language in a few instances, and exhibiting the forms år, åd, ál, , . Whether these two forms are connected by an interchange between the two semivowels 1 and v, is a problem which must remain for future research. Such a connexion is not impossible, and is even, in my opinion, highly probable.

$ 27. The Passive Causal may be also called the double causal. The use of either term depends upon the point of view of the speaker, for whether I say, “I cause Râm to be struck by Shyam," or, “I cause Shyâm to strike Râm,” the idea is the same. As regards form, the term double causal is more appropriate in some languages. In H. and P. this phrase is constructed by adding to the stem H. , P. aT3, in which we should, I think, recognize the syllable âv of the single causal shortened, and another åv added to it, thus from sun “hear," comes causal suna, "cause to hear," "tell," double causal sunra, “cause to cause to hear," "cause to tell;" here, as sunâ is from the fuller form sundv, so sunvå is from sunâv+âv=sunav+â= sunvâ. This double or passive causal is in use mostly with neuter and active intransitive stems, whose single causal is naturally an active, as agat "be made,” aatat “make," बनवाना cause to be made.” Thus they say, ya aga The fort is being built;" gak TE ATTAT “The architect is building the fort ;” and Tiya QTTT TE atat “The king is causing the fort to be built by the architect.” In this last sentence, and in all similar phrases, the nature of the construction is such that we can only translate it by the passive causal, we could not render “The king causes the architect to build,” etc., by agat in any other way than by putting "architect” बनवाना

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1 Generally, the semivowel in this form is pronounced softly, almost like the English w, so that sunuând would more nearly represent the sound than sunvând. The v, however, in all Indian languages is a softer sound than our v.

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