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in the ablative with art or . When we are told, therefore, that this phase means “to cause to do" (the action of a neuter verb), the assertion, though correctly expressing the form, is incorrect as to the meaning; the dictionary-makers here halt between two opinions. Thus

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In double verbs, like those just quoted, however, the single causal in å may be used, as CT " cause to cut.” As a general

â rule, the exact meaning of stems in this phase must be gathered from the sentence in which they are used.

Sindhi makes its double causal by inserting (Trumpp, 257), as fare “be weary, fa 8“ make weary,tire,” faditt “cause to make

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weary. ETT “wound,” ETTT"cause to wound,” ETTTTT“ cause to canse to

wound, or cause (another)

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Stack instances also passive causals formed on the same model as ordinary passives, thus

सड “be on fire," साड "burn,” साडा " cause to burn,” माडाइज “be caused

to be burnt."

One example given by him shows a full range of phases, as UT4U “to be sucked, to issue” (as milk from the breast), neuter ; ETET “to suck the breast,” active; UTERY "to be sucked,” pass. ; utfuay" to give suck,” neut. pass. ; UTETEY

“ “ to suckle,” caus. ; UTCIETY “to be suckled,” pass. caus. ;

.

धाराराणु to cause (another) to suckle,” double caus.;

. धाराराइजणु UTTITEHTY“ to cause to be suckled by another,” double pass.

. caus. The whole of these forms, however, are rarely found in one verbal stem. The double causal is common enough, thus from the causals mentioned in the last section are derived double causals

FFETTY “ to put to sleep," FFETTTET“ to cause to put to sleep.”
BETTY“ to raise,”

उथाराणु “to cause to raise" (H. उठवाना).

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§ 28. Although the suffixed syllables shown in $26 generally and regularly indicate the causal phase, yet there are numerous verbs having this suffix which are neuter, active intransitive, or passive intransitive. As mentioned in § 11, these stems are probably built on the model of Sanskrit denominatives, and owe their long vowel to the aya or åya of that form. Hence they come to resemble in form modern causals.

In Sindhi these stems have a development peculiar to that language, and have a corresponding active phase like the double stems mentioned in § 19. Trumpp gives (p. 252, et seqq.) the

. following examples :

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उझाइणु "”

“to extinguish." BETET “to make fly, to spend.”

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“to fly,"

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surg“ to bring forth.”

BATHY “to be extinguished,"
उड़ामणु
जापणु

“to be born,”
जमणु
guy" to be satiated,”
CTHY“ to be on fire,”

“ मापणु

“ to be contained," HTHY faktay “to be passed, to pass

(as time), TUTHU " to grow less," हपामणु

,

GET “to satiate.”
खाइणु

“ to burn."

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HITY“ to contain.”

विहाणु “to pass the time."

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In this group the neuter stems have the type apa and ama, which, if we regard them as derived from the Prakrit type åbe of the causal, will appear as respectively a hardening and a softening of the b of Prakrit. In some cases the neuter form is clearly derived from the older causal, as in HTEY“ to con

माणु tain,” rather, “to go into," Skr. V HT “to measure ;” but HT4y, Skr. caus. Aluefa “to cause to measure,” where, by a natural inversion of the sense, the causal has become neuter. In the case of aluy the process by which the meaning has

बापणु been arrived at from Sanskrit vra is less clear. The other stems are also obscure, and I possess no data on which to establish any satisfactory explanation.

Sindhi stands alone in respect of this group; Hindi and Panjabi have a number of neuter stems with causal terminations, which stand on a different footing, and recall by their meaning the Sanskrit denominatives, having no corresponding active forms, as

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H. fa" to be abashed," "to shrink away.”

CIT“ to be worn out.”
GEMITT“ to itch.”
CITTOIT“ to be agitated,” “to be in fear” P.

P. घबराउणा.
EUTCTT “ to bask in the sun."
OTT“ to tremble,” “to be unsteady.” P. id.

P. घरलाउणा “to grow

soft” (a scar). TTT “to wither,” to grow flaccid.” P. id.

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In words of this class, also, a syllable is often inserted, as fefHTOIT “ to grin.”

P. खिखिाउणा id. This type is evidently closely connected with the passive of Gujarati and other dialects given in § 24, which I have been led by the considerations here mentioned to regard as a passive

intransitive. It seems also to be connected with the passive intransitive in B. in such passages as Tay ga 14 जानाय ॥ atay II “He must be a king's son, by his appearance and marks (of birth) it is known.” — Bhârat, B.-S. 378, where jânây=jânâë, “it appears, “it is evident,” a construction exactly parallel to the Gujarati phrases quoted in $ 24.

Marathi has similarly neuters with a causal type, which recall the method of formation of the Sanskrit denominative, inasmuch as they are referred by the grammarians to a nominal origin, thus

959 “a cracking or crashing sound;" as atau “to crack, crash ;” ac atau “to roar at,” “to make a crashing noise.” कमता (from Persian 3) “ deficient,” aaraît “ to grow less.”

” aitant "a grating sound,” alatifau “to grind the teeth.” atat (Skr.) “ doubt,” arautfaru“ to be doubtful.”

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-but this may also be formed from the two words at “why?” QHT “how ?” and would thus mean “to why-and-how,” “to hum and ha;” just as they use in Urdu the phrase bijsce, wat “to prevaricate,” literally to make “would that !” and “perhaps.”

A distinction may apparently be drawn in many cases between forms in dva and those in âvi, the former being rather denominatives, and as such neuter, while the latter are causals. Thus from uttal "little," "few," uttarai“ to grow less,” and uttarall“ to make less," but the authorities accessible to me are not agreed about this point, and I therefore hesitate to make any definite assertion on the subject. Molesworth gives, for instance, staigu n, to bellow,” “bluster,” and डरकाविणे “ to frighten by bellowing;" also डरावणी “ the act of roaring at," from ottfall or o fat “to intimidate,” where the i of the infinitive seems to be represented by a in the

noun.

On the other hand, the close connexion of these neuters with the passive type is seen in S., where the passive characteristic

is used, according to Stack, convertibly with the neuter, having the short vowel. Thus gray or grey “to be satiated;" while there are also verbs of two forms, one with the neuter type, the other with the causal type, but both having a neuter sense, as ढिरणु and ढिराइणु “ to grow loose or slack."

"

Further examples are

झपणु and झपिजणु “to grow less;" also झपामणु “ to decrease." neomy and granary “to fade,” “ tarnish.” माणु and माइजणु “to be contained in." It is not certain how far later and better scholars like Trumpp would confirm the accuracy of Stack's definition. He seems to be somewhat inaccurate and careless in drawing the distinction between the various phases of the verb.

§ 29. Secondary verbs are not so numerous as secondary nouns, and those that exist have, for the most part, a familiar or trivial meaning. They are formed by the addition of a syllable to the verbal stem, or to a noun. This latter feature is especially common in H. verbs formed from feminine nouns in aka (Vol. II. p. 31), thus Behari Lâl.

छुटी न शिशुता की झलक झलक्यी जोबन अंग ॥ "The splendour of childhood has not ceased, (yet) youth shines in

the limbs."-Sats. 17.

Here the substantive garan“glitter,” “splendour” (probably formed from v 599), gives rise to a verb 900" to shine.” Similarly all the nouns quoted in the passage referred to in Vol. II. have verbs formed from them as there stated. It is un

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