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after pinning out the specimens, I proceeded to write the name of the place on small circular tickets and attach one to each, even the old kapala, the Mohammedan priest, and some Malay traders could not repress signs of astonishment. If they had known a little more about the ways and opinions of white men, they would probably have looked upon me as a fool or a madman, but in their ignorance they accepted my operations as worthy of all respect, although utterly beyond their comprehension.
The next day (October 16th) I went beyond the swamp, and found a place where a new clearing was being made in the virgin forest. It was a long and hot walk, and the search among the fallen trunks and branches was very fatiguing, but I was rewarded by obtaining about seventy distinct species of beetles, of which at least a dozen were new to me, and many others rare and interesting. I have never in my life seen beetles so abundant as they were on this spot. Some dozen species of good-sized golden Buprestidæ, green rosechafers (Lomaptera), and long-horned weevils (Anthribida), were so abundant that they rose up in swarms as I walked along, filling the air with a loud buzzing hum. Along with these, several fine longicorns were almost equally common, forming such an assemblage as for once to realize that idea of tropical luxuriance which one obtains by looking over the drawers of a well-filled cabinet. On the under sides of the trunks clung numbers of smaller or more sluggish longicorns, while on the branches at the edge of the clearing others could be detected sitting with outstretched antennæ, ready to take flight at the least alarm. It was a glorious spot, and one which will always live in my memory as exhibiting the insectlife of the tropics in unexampled luxuriance. For the three following days I continued to visit this locality, adding each time many new species to my collection, the following notes of which may be interesting to entomologists. October 15th, 33 species of beetles; 16th, 70 species; 17th, 47 species; 18th, 40 species; 19th, 56 species-in all about a hundred species, of which forty were new to me. There were forty-four species of longicorns among them, and on the last day I took twentyeight species of longicorns, of which five were new to me.
My boys were less fortunate in shooting. The only birds.
THE PEOPLE OF KAIOA.
at all common were the great red parrot (Eclectus grandis), found in most of the Moluccas, a crow, and a Megapodius, or mound-maker. A few of the pretty racquet-tailed kingfishers were also obtained, but in very poor plumage. They proved, however, to be of a different species from those found in the other islands, and come nearest to the bird originally described by Linnæus under the name of Alcedo dea, and which came from Ternate. This would indicate that the small chain of islands parallel to Gilolo have a few peculiar species in common, a fact which certainly occurs in insects.
The people of Kaióa interested me much. They are evidently a mixed race, having Malay and Papuan affinities, and are allied to the peoples of Ternate and of Gilolo. They possess a peculiar language, somewhat resembling those of the surrounding islands, but quite distinct. They are now Mohammedans, and are subject to Ternate. The only fruits seen here were papaws and pine-apples, the rocky soil and dry climate being unfavorable. Rice, maize, and plantains flourish well, except that they suffer from occasional dry seasons like the present one. There is a little cotton grown, from which the women weave sarongs (Malay petticoats). There is only one well of good water on the islands, situated close to the landing-place, to which all the inhabitants come for drinkingwater. The men are good boat-builders, and they make a regular trade of it, and seem to be very well off.
After five days at Kaióa we continued our journey, and soon got among the narrow straits and islands which lead down to the town of Batchian. In the evening we staid at a settlement of Galéla men. These are natives of a district in the extreme north of Gilolo, and are great wanderers over this part of the Archipelago. They build large and roomy praus with outriggers, and settle on any coast or island they take a fancy for. They hunt deer and wild-pig, drying the meat, they catch turtle and tripang, they cut down the forest and plant rice or maize, and are altogether remarkably energetic and industrious. They are very fine people, of light complexion, tall, and with Papuan features, coming nearer to the drawings and descriptions of the true Polynesians of Tahiti and Owyhee than any I have seen.
During this voyage I had several times had an opportuni
ty of seeing my men get fire by friction. A sharp-edged piece of bamboo is rubbed across the convex surface of another piece, on which a small notch is first cut. The rubbing is slow at first, and gradually quicker, till it becomes very rapid, and the fine powder rubbed off ignites and falls through the hole which the rubbing has cut in the bamboo. This is done with great quickness and certainty. The Ternate people use bamboo in another way. They strike its flinty surface with a bit of broken china and produce a spark, which they catch in some kind of tinder.
On the evening of October 21st we reached our destination, having been twelve days on the voyage. It had been fine weather all the time, and, although very hot, I had enjoyed myself exceedingly, and had besides obtained some experience in boat work among islands and coral reefs, which enabled me afterward to undertake much longer voyages of the same kind. The village or town of Batchian is situated at the head of a wide and deep bay, where a low isthmus connects the northern and southern mountainous parts of the island. To the south is a fine range of mountains, and I had noticed at several of our landing-places that the geological formation of the island was very different from those around it. Whenever rock was visible, it was either sandstone in thin layers, dipping south, or a pebbly conglomerate. Sometimes there was a little coralline limestone, but no volcanic rocks. The forest had a dense luxuriance and loftiness seldom found on the dry and porous lavas and raised coral reefs of Ternate and Gilolo; and hoping for a corresponding richness in the birds and insects, it was with much satisfaction and with considerable expectation that I began my explorations in the hitherto unknown island of Batchian.
OCTOBER, 1858, TO APRIL, 1859.
I LANDED opposite the house kept for the use of the Resident of Ternate, and was met by a respectable middle-aged Malay, who told me he was secretary to the Sultan, and would receive the official letter with which I had been provided. On giving it him, he at once informed me I might have the use of the official residence, which was empty. I soon got my things on shore, but, on looking about me, found that the house would never do to stay long in. There was no water except at a considerable distance, and one of my men would be almost entirely occupied getting water and firewood, and I should myself have to walk all through the village every day to the forest, and live almost in public-a thing I much dislike. The rooms were all boarded, and had ceilings, which are a great nuisance, as there are no means of hanging any thing up except by driving nails, and not half the conveniences of a native bamboo and thatch cottage. I accordingly inquired for a house outside of the village on the road to the coal-mines, and was informed by the secretary that there was a small one belonging to the Sultan, and that he would go with me early next morning to see it.
We had to pass one large river by a rude but substantial bridge, and to wade through another fine pebbly stream of clear water just beyond which the little hut was situated. It was very small, not raised on posts, but with the earth for a floor, and was built almost entirely of the leaf-stems of the sago-palm, called here "gaba-gaba." Across the river behind rose a forest-clad bank, and a good road close in front of the house led through cultivated grounds to the forest about half a mile on, and thence to the coal-mines four miles further. These advantages at once decided me, and I told the secretary I would be very glad to occupy the house. I therefore sent
my two men immediately to buy "ataps” (palm-leaf thatch) to repair the roof, and the next day, with the assistance of eight of the Sultan's men, got all my stores and furniture carried up and pretty comfortably arranged. A rough bamboo bedstead was soon constructed, and a table made of boards, which I had brought with me, fixed under the window. Two bamboo chairs, an easy cane chair, and hanging shelves suspended with insulating oil-cups, so as to be safe from ants, completed my furnishing arrangements.
In the afternoon succeeding my arrival the secretary accompanied me to visit the Sultan. We were kept waiting a few minutes in an outer gate-house, and then ushered to the door of a rude, half-fortified whitewashed house. A small table and three chairs were placed in a large outer corridor, and an old dirty-faced man with gray hair and a grimy beard, dressed in a speckled blue cotton jacket and loose red trowsers, came forward, shook hands, and asked me to be seated. After a quarter of an hour's conversation on my pursuits, in which his Majesty seemed to take great interest, tea and cakes-of rather better quality than usual on such occasions — were brought in. I thanked him for the house and offered to show him my collections, which he promised to come and look at. He then asked me to teach him to take views-to make maps -to get him a small gun from England, and a milch-goat from Bengal; all of which requests I evaded as skillfully as I was able, and we parted very good friends. He seemed a sensible old man, and lamented the small population of the isl and, which he assured me was rich in many valuable minerals, including gold, but there were not people enough to look after them and work them. I described to him the great rush of population on the discovery of the Australian gold-mines, and the huge nuggets found there, with which he was much interested, and exclaimed, “ Oh! if we had but people like that my country would be quite as rich!"
The morning after I had got into my new house I sent my boys out to shoot, and went myself to explore the road to the coal-mines. In less than half a mile it entered the virgin forest at a place where some magnificent trees formed a kind of natural avenue. The first part was flat and swampy, but it soon rose a little, and ran alongside the fine stream which