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§ 87. mah- (great), √ mah (mãh wax). Reduplicated roots without sf. are seen in Vēd. infinitive-stems such as çiçrath- (dat. çiçrath-ē), cf. reduplicated pres.-stem çiçrath-, √çrath (loosen). In the stems vak-š- (dat. vak-š-ē), √ vah (uehere); ģē-s(dat. ģē-š-ē) and ģi-s- (dat. ģi-š-e), √ ģi (conquer); stu-s- (dat. stu-š-ē), √stu (praise) aorist-stems in s have been rightly detected (Benfey, kurze Sanskritgrammatik, p. 236, § 402, 2)— partly, indeed, non-existent in these forms, but yet possible; cf. e.g. *á-stu-s-ma 1 pl. act. etc. The s is a relic of as (be, v. post. § 169) added to the root. We adduce here certain other similar infinitive-stems formed from tense-stems, belonging to the more archaic (Vēdic) language, although they partly retain suffixes or their remains; thus vyathišya- (dat. vyathišyāi) like fut. stem vyathisya-, √vyath (be vexed, afraid); here -ya- is a suffix (v. post. § 170, Future Tense); muńk- (acc. muńk-am), whose n comes from pres. stem muńka- (e.g. 3 sg. muńká-ti), √muk (loose, free).

Greek. The root appears as a noun in cases like Foπ- (n. sg. of voice) = origl. vāk-, Sk. and Zend vāk-, √ Feπ, origl. vak (speak); φλογ- (n. sg. φλόξ fame), ν φλεγ φλέγειν blaze); Zev-=*Ayev-, AF- (pr. n. of a god, origl. heaven; n. Zeú-s, gen. 4ɩF-ós), root origl. div, dyu (shine), cf. Sk. dyāu-, div-, etc. This happens more often at the end of compounds, as xép-viß(n. sg. Xépvi water for handwashing), √uß, origl. nig (višw, νίπτω wash); πρόσφυγ- (n. sg. πρόσφυξ fugitive), να φυγ (φεύγω fee); ψευσί-στυγ- (n. ψευσί-στυξ lie-hating), στυγ(OTVY-ÉW, E-OTVY-ov hate); dí-ğvy- (dí-çuğ double-yoked), √ Čvy (ζεύγνυμι I yoke, ζυγ-όν yoke); ἀπο-ῤῥώγ- (n. sg. ἀπο-ῤῥώξ for *ἀπο-Γρωγ-s fragment), V Fpay (break; cf. ῥήγνυμι, ἔ-ῤῥωγ-α),


Further, we might here adduce the infinitives of the compound aorist, as e.g. Avoαı, λéğaı, which should probably be taken as locatives of stems λῦσα-, λέξα-, i.e.*λεγ-σα- (cf. χαμαί, stem χαμα-, and infin. in -μévai, § 91, and in -évai, § 93, a), scarcely as datives

of stems Av-o-, λe§-, i.e. *Xey-s- (cf. Sk.); in any case however § 87. they contain the stem of the aorist compounded with origl. √as (be), (e.g. eλv-oa, e-λeğa, i.e. *ẻ-λey-σa) as the stem of a nomen actionis which is unused except in this particular case.

Latin. Stems like nec- (nex murder), nec; duc- (dux leader), √duc; with step-formation leg- (lex law), √leg; pāc- (pax peace), √pac; luc-, old Lat. louc- (lux light), √/luc, origl. ruk; uōc- (uox voice), √uoc; rēg- (rex king), √reg. Further, stems used at the end of compounds, e.g. iu-dic- (iudex judge), dic; con-iug(coniux mate), √iug; prae-sid- (praeses president), √sed (sed-eo); tubi-cin (tubicen trumpeter), can (can-o); arti-fic- (artifex skilled workman), √fac [on weakening of a to i v. § 32, 2; on e interchanged with i v. § 38], and others show the root as a noun-stem.

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II. Stems with suffix -a-.

This is one of the commonest formations; before the sf. -athe root is sometimes raised, sometimes unraised.

Indo-European original-language. Already plenty of stems in -a- were existent, as yug-a-, cf. Sk. yug-a-, Gothic yuk, etc., vyug; vid-a-, cf. Lat. vid-o-, e.g. pro-uidu-s; bhag-a(god), cf. Sk. bhaga-, Zend bagha-, Pers. baga-, O. Bulg. bogů, √bhag; bhar-a-, cf. Lat. fer-o-, e.g. ensi-feru-m; vark-a- (wolf), √vark; daiv-a- (shining, god), √div (shine), etc.

Amongst verb-stems here belong all conjunctive-stems (§ 161), e.g. as-a-, pres. stem and vas; moreover simple aorist-stems (§ 164), as bhug-a-, bhug; vavak-a-, vak; so too pres.-stems (§ 165) like bhar-a-, √bhar (I. b); srav-a-, √sru (II. b); thus here also, as in the case of noun-stems, partly with, partly without, raising of root-vowel.

Sanskrit. Stems in -a-, identical with verb-stems, are frequently used as nouns, e.g. nomina actionis like bháv-a- (masc. being, origin; cf. 3 sg. pres. bháva-ti), √bhu (become, be); bhár-a- (masc. burden; 3 sg. pres. bhára-ti), √bhar (ferre); ģáy-a- (masc. victory; pres. ģáya-ti), √ģi (conquer); bódh-a

§ 88.

§ 88. (masc. knowledge; pres. bódha-ti), √budh (know); bhóg-a- (masc. use, enjoyment; a pres. *bhoga-ti or *bhoga-ti does not occur), √bhuý (enjoy); bhed-a- (masc. splitting), √bhid (split), etc. The datives of these nomina actionis serve for infinitives, e.g. bharāya, etc.; the accusatives, mostly repeated, for gerunds, e.g. gámagamam (ever going), fr. gam-a-, √gam (go); so bódh-a-m, √budh (know); bhéd-a-m, √bhid (split); stáv-a-m, √stu (praise); kár-a-m, √kar (make, e.g. svādū-káram bhuňktē 'having sweetened he eats'), etc.

Nomina agentis of similar form are found in e.g. plav-á(masc. boat; pres. pláva-tē), √plu (float); kar-á- (adj. going; pres. kára-ti), √kar (go); vah-á- (adj. carrying; pres. váha-ti),

vah (uehere); dev-á- (shining, god), √div, dyu (shine); ģīv-á(living; pres. ģiva-ti), √ģī (live), etc. This kind of stemform is preserved most frequently at the end of compounds or words syntactically combined, as arin-damá- (ari-m acc. sg.; foesubduing), dam, etc.

In composition with su- (ev-) and dus- (Svo-) adjectives of this kind act like participia necessitatis, e.g. su-kár-a- (easy to be made), duš-kár-a- (difficult to be made), √kar (make), etc.

Feminines of the same kind are e.g. bhid-á (splitting), √bhid (split; 3 sg. simple aor. á-bhida-t); kšudh-á (hunger), √kšudh (hunger); mud-á (joy), √mud (enjoy oneself); mrgaya (hunt), verb-stem mrgaya-, 3 sg. pres. mrgaya-tē (track, seek), etc.

Such noun-stems in -a- serve for periphrasis of the perfect, and in Ved. also of the aorist, in many verbs, especially all derived verbs, by being placed, in the acc. sg. fem., before the perfect, in Vēd. also before the aorist of an auxiliary verb (kar make; bhu become, be; as be), e.g. st. bubōdhiša-, 3 sg. pf. babōdhiša kakāra or babhūva or āsa, cf. 3 sg. pres. búbōdhiša-ti, intensive √budh (know); st. bōdhaya- (e.g. bōdhaya kakāra, 3 sg. perf.), 3 sg. pres. bōdháya-ti, caus. √budh ; st. vida- (3 sg. perf. vida kakāra, Vēdic aor. vidām akar), √vid (see, know), etc.

Greek. Here also nouns in -a- are common, as Fépy-o- (neut. § 88. work), Fepy (épy-áo-paι I work); pop-ó- (adj. bearing), þóp-o(tribute), pop-á (fem. payment; quick motion), √pep (ferre); Tóμ-o- (masc. cutting, piece), Toμ-ń (cutting, stump), √τeμ (Téμ-vw, ě-teμ-ov cut); (vy-ó- (neut. yoke), √Sʊy (bind together); φυγή (fem. fight), ν φνγ (φεύγ-ω, ἔ-φυγ-o-v fee); πλοF-o- (masc. voyage), √/πλʊ (πλéƑ-w sail); poF-ń (stream), √¡v, origl. sru (péF-w, origl. srav-āmi flow); σπoʊd-ý (haste), voπud (σπeúdw hasten); λoπ-ó- (adj. remaining), √/XIT (XEÍπT-W, E-XIπ-ov leave); ȧк-wк-ý (point) reduplicated √å (be sharp), etc.

These forms

are mostly not distinguished from the pres.-stems ḍepe-, Neiπe-, πλεƑε-, except by the stronger step-formation of the root-vowel (perhaps in an unoriginal manner, cf. e.g. Sk. bhara- plava-, etc.).

In compounds also these nouns with suffix origl. -a-, are used, as in Sanskrit, e.g. iππó-daμ-o- (masc. horse-taming); even the peculiar relation of these noun-stems after duo- and ev- is not wanting, e.g. dúo-pop-o- (hard to bear)=Sk. dur-bhar-a(cf. supr.).

Concerning the infinitives of the aorist, as e.g. Aûoai, Xéğai, which must be taken as locatives from stems like λûσa- and Xéğa-=*Xey-σa, v. supr. § 87.

Latin. Suffix -a- is found in uad-o- (ntr. uadum ford), √uad (go); fid-o- (fidus faithful), √ fid; iug-o- (iugum yoke) Viug; son-o- (sonus sound), son; coqu-o- (coquos cook), coqu; merg-o- (mergus gull), √merg; užu-o- (adj. living), √uiu (live; 3 pres. uiui-t); diu-o- (godlike), deo- (god) fr. *dēu-o-, *deiu-o-, origl. √div (shine); rūƒ-o- (red), √rub, ruf, origl. rudh (be red),


A great many nouns of this sort occur at the end of compounds, as causi-dic-o- (causidicus), √dic; miri-fic-o- (mirificus), √fac; male-uol-o (maleuolus), √uol; ensi-fer-o- (ensifer), √fer; armi-ger-o- (armiger), √ger, ges, etc.

Not unfrequently stems of this kind appear with lengthened

§ 88. stem-terminations, although expressing masculine relations, as colleg-a beside sacri-leg-o- (sacrilegus), leg; trans-fug-a beside pro-fug-o (profugus), √fug; parri-cid-a, √caed; ad-wen-a, √uen; indi-gen-a-, √gen; agri-col-a, √col, etc. In Gk. a perfectly corresponding formation is e.g. evρú-oπ-a. Feminines of this sort are mol-a (mill), mol (molere grind); tog-a (upper garment),


√teg (tegere cover), etc.

As a secondary suffix -a- occurs, mostly accompanied by step-formation of the stem-vowel, e.g. Sanskrit stem āyasá(adj. iron), stem áyas- (iron); çaivá- (masc. Çiva-worshipper), stem siva, (nom. propr. of the god); the secondary suffix -abecomes amalgamated with final a when the underlying stem ends in a, so that practically no fresh suffix is here added; dāuhitrá- (masc. daughter's-son), stem duhitár- (daughter); mānavá- (masc. man), stem manú- (masc. prop. noun of the primeval man), etc.

Greek. eg. in yeμóvn (leader fem.), stem yeμóv- (masc. ἡγεμών leader); ὄ-πατρο- (having same father), stem πατέρ-; here, as often, shortened to warp- before suffix -o-; ȧσT-ó- (masc. citizen, burgher), ao-Tu (city), which has lost its termination before suffix -a-, etc.

Latin. Here belong cases like decoro- (decoru-s graceful, decent, adj.) fr. decus, gen. decor-is (ornament, dignity); honōro(honourable) fr. honōs, gen. honōr-is (honour), and their like. III. Stems with suffix -i-. Suffix -i- is on the whole rare. capable of proof, vak (be sharp, see; cf. Joh. Schmidt, d. wurzel AK, Weimar, 1865, p. 38); agh-i- (snake; cf. Sk. áh-i, Zend, až-i-, Gk. ex-i-, Lat. angu-i-, Lith. ang-i-), vagh.

In Indo-Eur. ak-i- (eye) is

Sanskrit. Nomina actionis and agentis, without, and more rarely with step-formation, also with weakening of root-vowel, e.g. kŕš-i- (fem. ploughing), √karš (plough); sák-i- (fem. friendship), √sak (follow); lip-i- (fem. writing), √lip (smear); yáģ-i(masc. sacrificer), √yag (sacrifice); khid-i- (fem. axe), √ khid

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