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(split); çúk-í (adj. pure), √ çuk (shine); bódh-i- (adj. wise), §88a. √budh (know); gir-i (masc. mountain), √gar (be heavy), etc.; with reduplicated root, e.g. gá-gm-i- (going, hastening), √gam (go); ga-ghn-i- (striking, slaying), √han, i.e. ghan (slay); sā-sah-í(bearing), sah (bear), etc.

Greek. e.g. *ok-- (ntr. eye); retained in dual oσσE=*оKYE, oσσe=*ỏкye, *ỏкte), √ origl. ak (be sharp, see); Tóλ-- (fem. city), origl. √par (fill, be full); τρox-ɩ- (masc. runner), √τрEX (Tрéx-w I run), etc. Latin. scob-i (scobis, scobs, fem. sawdust, shavings), scab (scabo scrape); trud-i- (trudis fem. punting-pole), √trud (trūdo push); ou-i- (ouis fem. sheep, cf. öF-ı-s, Sk. áv-i-s, Lith. av-ì-s) fr. a vu, av (perhaps in sense of 'clothe,' in which it appears in Lat. and Sclavonic), etc.

IV. Stems with suffix -u-.

This suffix, though not very common, is yet on the whole commoner than -i- ; in some languages it is much used, in others but little.

Indo-Eur. origl.-lang. ak-u- (adj. swift), vak (be sharp, swift); prat-u- (adj. broad), √prat; par-u- (adj. full), √ par (fill); svād-u- (sweet), √svad; ragh-u- (light), √ragh; pak-u(cattle), √pah (perhaps 'bind').

Sanskrit. The suffix -u- occurs very often, mostly in formation of adjectives, e.g. aç-ú- (swift), √aç (reach), origl. ak; prath-úusually prth-ú- (broad), √prath (extend oneself, spread); pur-ú (much) for *par-u-, √ par (fill; 1 sg. pres. pi-par-mi); svād-ú(sweet), √ svad (taste, smack); mrd-ú- (soft), √ mard (crush), etc. Similar adjectives from stems of desiderative verbs are especially common (§ 83), e.g. didŕkš-u- (wishing to see), cf. didrkša-te (wishes to see), darç (see), origl. dark; dits-ú- (wishing to give), cf. ditsa-ti for *di-da-sa-ti (wishes to give), √da, etc. Substantives: e.g. bándh-u- (masc. relative), bandh (bind); bhid-ú- (masc. thunderbolt), ✔bhid (split); tan-ú- (fem. body), √tan (stretch), etc.

Greek.

¿к-ú- (swift) = Sk. āç-ú-, origl. √ak; πλат-ú

§88b.

§88 b. (broad)=Sk. prth-ú-, origl. √prat; πoλ-ú- (much)=Sk. pur-ú-, origl. par-u-, √par; ñd-ú-=Sk. svād-ú-, √svad; Bap-ú- (heavy) =Sk. gur-ú- for *gar-u-, origl. √gar (be heavy); vék-v- (masc. corpse) = Zend naç-u-, origl. √nak (die); Opao-ú- (daring), √lapo, Opas (be bold; cf. Oápo-os boldness), etc.

$ 89.

Latin. These stems have generally been completely shifted to the analogy of the i-declension, by an i having simply been added to the originally final u- e.g. tenu-i- (tenuis thin) from *ten-u-, f.f. tan-u-, origl. √tan (stretch); breu-i- (short) for *bregu-i- (§ 73, 1) from *breg-u-, cf. Gk. ẞpax-ú-, root not otherwise traced; leu-i (light) for *legu-i- from *leg-u-=Gk. ẻ-λax-ú-, Sk. lagh-ú-, origl. √ragh (cf. Sk. √langh spring, despise; rãh haste), grau-i- (heavy) prob. for *garu-i- from *gar-u-, Gk. Bap-ú-, Sk. gur-ú-, origl. gar-u-; suāu-i- (sweet) for *suādu-i-, from *suād-u-, cf. Gk. d-ú-, Sk. and origl. svad-ú-. The uform has been retained in ac-u- (acus fem. needle), origl. vak (be sharp); id-u- (fem. the 13th or 15th day of the month), probably from origl. √idh (burn, in sense of 'be bright,' thus lit. 'full-moon') and other stems of somewhat obscure derivation.

V. Stems with suffix -ya-.

This suffix is very common; it occurs in all Indo-European languages. In Sanskrit by means of it the participium necessitatis is formed.

Like most stem-formative suffixes of Indo-European, the common primary and secondary relative suffix -ya- appears in several functions (cf. pronominal-root ya with demonstr. and relative function, e.g. in nom. sg. masc. Sk. ya-s qui, Lith. jï-s ille, is). Indeed the stem-formative elements of the more simply organized languages are applied in more ways than one; as also are the auxiliary roots which are loosely added to the end of the meaning-sounds (simple roots) of monosyllabic languages. The suffix -ya- has, of course, belonged, even in early times, to the Indo-European.

In Sk. this suffix forms regularly a participle of necessity; § 89. a function of which traces only are found in the other languages. It is a frequent phenomenon to find a certain suffix developing itself in a particular language, so as to become a regular kind of formation, with a peculiar function, whilst in the kindred languages it is otherwise employed; thus e.g. -yaas the formation of the passive in Sk.; the nasalized presentstems in Sclavonian, Lith., and Gothic as intransitives and passives; -la-, origl. -ra-, as past part. act. in Sclav., etc. 1. -ya- as a primary suffix.

Indo-European original language.

It is hard to find examples which can with certainty be traced to the origl. lang. A perfectly trustworthy example of this suffix -ya- would be seen in madh-ya-, if it were certain that madh is the root of Sk. mádh-ya-=Gk. μéooo- for *μe0-yo-, Lat. med-io-, Goth. mid-ja-. If we may venture to draw an inference for the origl. lang. from the correspondence of Greek and Sanskrit, we may ascribe to it yag-ya- also (to be revered, holy), √yag (revere).

This sf. is common in verb-stems, as e.g. in stems of derived verbs (§ 84) ending in -a-ya-, e.g. bhāra-ya-, √bhar; here belong all optative-stems in -ya- (mostly raised a step to -yā-), e.g. stem as-ya- (§ 162), root and pres.-stem as; moreover many present-stems (§ 165 V.), aš e.g. svid-ya-, √svid.

Sanskrit. The function of this sf. -ya- as a primary sf. is by no means exclusively that of a part. necessitatis, cf. e.g. vid-yá (fem. knowledge), √vid (know); vāk-yd- (ntr. speech), √vak; etc. As a rule 1st step-formation of root-vowel occurs before this sf. when it forms a part. necessitatis, e.g. ké-ya-, √ki (gather); yōg-yd and yōg-yà, √yug (iungere); pāk-yà- and pāk-yà-, √pak (cook); hār-yà-, √har (take); garg-yà-, √garģ (roar), etc.; but vŕdh-ya-, √vardh (wax); gúh-ya- and goh-ya-, √guh (hide), etc. Instead of the regular contraction to ē, ō, there occurs, in many roots in -i, and in all roots in -u, an unusual

§ 89. loosening of ai, au, into ay, av; e.g. gáy-ya-, √ģi (conquer); kšáy-ya-, kši (destroy) and stáv-ya-, stáv-ya- (2nd step), √stu (praise). For details of this formation see special Sk. gramm.

Stems of derived-verbs in -aya- only show the root-vowel raised before sf. -ya-, while the sf. of the verb-stem disappears, e.g. kōr-ya- fr. verb-stem kōraya- (steal), etc.

Greek possesses no regular participle in -ya-; -ya- as a primary suffix, not uncommonly in the same function as in Sk., nevertheless occurs in cases like åy-to- (holy), f.f. yag-ya-, cf. Sk. yāģ-yd- (uenerandus), √yag (worship); στúy-10- (detestable), ν στυγ (ἔ-στυγ-ον I detested); πάγ-ιο- (firm), νπαγ (πήγνυμι fasten; Tay-os, masc. thing fixed, hill, frost); épeiπ-10- (ntr. ruins), ν έριπ (in ἐρείπ-ω, ἐρ-έριπ-το destroy); γλῶσσα (tongue) for *γλωχ-να- (§ 68, 1, e, β), cf. γλωχίν, gen. γλωχίνος (point), μοίρα: =*μop-ya (§ 26, 3; part, share), v/mar, cf. μép-os (part); ooσa (voice), i.e. *Fox-ya (§ 68, e) origl. vrak, etc.

Latin likewise has no regular participle in -ya-. The suffix appears often primarily, e.g. in ad-ag-io- (adagium proverb), √ag (say, cf. aio for *ag-io; § 39); ex-im-io- (eximius excelling), √em, im (ex-im-o pick out); gen-io- (genius), in-gen-io- (ingenium), pro-gen-ie- (progenies offspring), √gen (gen-us, gi-g(e)no-); in-ed-ia (fasting), √ed (ed-o); per-nic-ie- (destruction), √nec (nec-are, noc-ere); fluu-io- (river), √flu (flu-o); con-iug-io (coniugium wedlock), √iug (iung-o, iug-um); ob-sequ-io- (obsequium obedience), √sec, sequ (sequ-or); od-io- (odium hatred), √od (ōd-i); sacri-fic-io- (sacrificium sacrifice), fac; ob-sid-io(obsidium siege); in-sid-ia (insidiae ambush), sed (sed-eo), etc. These formations are sometimes hard to distinguish from secondary ones, e.g. con-iug-io-, which has to be traced back to the noun con-iug- (n. sg. con-iux spouse), rather than to √iug.

The suffix -iō-ni-, -iō-n- is probably a further formation made by means of sf. -ni-, e.g. leg-iōn-, leg-iōni-, fr. √leg (legere); reg-iōn-, reg-iōni- (direction, region), √reg (reg-ere make straight); ob-sid-iōn-, ob-sid-iōni-, beside the above-mentioned

ob-sid-io-; con-tag-iōni-, -iōn-, beside con-tag-io- (touching), § 89. √tag (tangere touch), etc. Cf. suffix -tiōn-, -tiōni- under -ti(§ 98).

2. -ya- as a secondary suffix.

-ya- is frequently used as a secondary suffix in every IndoEuropean language, and hence must have existed as early as the date of the original-language.

Sanskrit. E.g. div-ya- (adj. heavenly), st. div- (heaven); çún-ya- (canine), st. çun- (dog); pítr-ya- (fatherly), st. pitár(father); rahas-ya- (secret), st. ráhas- (ntr. secrecy). Stems in -a lose their final a before -ya-, e.g. dhán-ya- (rich), st. dhána(ntr. riches), etc. By means of step-formation of the underlying stem are formed stems like rtav-yà- (adj. seasonable) from rtù- (season); mádhur-ya- (ntr. sweetness), st. madhurá- (sweet); kāur-ya- (ntr. theft) st. kōrá- (masc. thief), etc.

This sf. is added to a nomen actionis in -tu- (v. post.); this -tu- is thereupon mostly raised to -tav-, but more rarely remains unraised. Thus by the raising of -tu- arises the compound suffix -tav-ya- so commonly used; with unraised -tu- arises the form -trya-, which occurs in the more archaic period; from this latter there arises, by evaporation of the v from the group toy, the sf. -tya- used in certain cases in the ordinary lang.; by loss of the y arises the form peculiar to the Vedic lang. -tva-. These sff. -tav-ya-, -tv-ya-, -t-ya-, tv-a-, originally identical, have the same function as simple -ya-, namely that of a participium necessitatis.

Before -tav-ya- (or -táv-ya-) most root-vowels are raised, thus all final vowels, and also medial i and u, e.g. da-tavya-, da (give); ē-tavya-, √i (go); stō-tavya-, √stu (praise); khēttavyafor *khed-tavya-, √khid (split); yōk-tavya- for *yog-tavya-, √yug (iungere); but pak-tavya-, √pak (cook); kar-tavya-, √kar (make), etc., without step-formation of root-vowel, because in Sk. a was felt to be a raised vowel, in contradistinction to its weakenings (§ 6). There is found also, in certain cases, the auxiliary vowel

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