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heroes); pád-vant- (having feet), stem pad- (foot). The sf. § 90. -mant- is employed in similar functions, e.g. Sk. agni-mánt(possessed of fire), v. post.

The sf. -vant- has also a special use in Sk., that of giving active force to past part., e.g. krtá-, (√kar, make)=‘made,' but krtá-vant- 'having made'; bhagná- (broken), √bhag, bhang, but bhagná-vant- 'having broken,' etc.

Greek. The suffix -vant- becomes -FEVT- (the digamma being retained; n. sg. masc. -Feis, ntr. -Fev), fem. -Feoσa, i.e. *-Feтya =Sk. -vatī, i.e. -vatyā, e.g. àμπeλó-Fevт- (having vines), äμπeλo(fem. vine); ixovó-Fevτ- (having fish), ix@ú- (masc. fish); μntió-FEVT- (having wisdom), μñτɩ- (fem. wisdom); vɩpó-Fevт- (snowy), st. vo- (snow, acc. vip-a), etc. Thus all stems follow here the analogy of stems in o-, origl. a-, which is also the case elsewhere in Gk. (e.g. in gen. dat., dual, v. post.); yet xapí-Fevτ(graceful), xápi- (fem. grace), and perhaps some few others.

In Latin -vant- has become -vans-, and passed over to the analogy of a-stems, so that we must here assume a f.f. -vansa-, from which -vonso- and -võso- must have arisen; this -vonso- has, however, throughout lost its v (the suffix could scarcely have been -ans-, since the loss of the v does not occur in this function of the suffix, and the existence of the full form of the sf. in the S.W. division of the Indo-European languages is moreover proved by the occurrence of the well-preserved form in Gk. -FEVT-); e.g. fructu-õso-, lumin-ōso-, *forma-ōso-, whence (§ 37) formonso-, later formōso-.

We must now treat of the employment of the sf. -vant- (-vans-) in forming past part. act.

Indo-European original-language. e.g. vivid-vant-, vid (see, know); dadha-vant-, √dha (set), etc. These stems coincided in the three genders.

Sanskrit. The origl. sf. -vant- appears before the different case-suffixes as -vat-, -vās-, i.e. -vāns- and -us- (v. post. Declension); -vans-, from origl. -vant-, became -vas- by loss of n

§ 90. before s, and this was weakened to -us- by loss of a (§ 6); -vās-, i.e. -vāns-, is a lengthening or step-formation of -vans-. The suffix is added to the reduplicated root, to the perf.-stem in its weaker form (v. post. 'Conjugation'), e.g. rurud-vánt-, √rud (weep), fem. rurud-úši, from *-vantyā, *-vansyā, *-vasyā, *-usyā ; tēn-i-vánt- from *tatn-i-vant-, with auxil. voweli, √tan (stretch); the shortened st.-forms have not this i, e.g. dat. sg. masc. tēnúš-ē; n. sg. fem. tēnúšī, etc.; vid-vánt (knowing, origl. ‘'having seen'), with loss of reduplication of √vid (see, know), etc.

§ 91.

Greek. The origl. final t of the sf. has been almost always preserved, while the n is lost; in masc. and neut. it is -Fóτ-=-va(n) t-; in n. sg. -Fós for *-FOT (§ 69), masc. -Fús for *-For-s with compensatory lengthening. The fem. is -vîa, i.e. -usyā (§ 65, 2, c) from -vasyā, and this from -vansyā, f.f. -vantyā. This sf. is added to all perf.-stems ending (1) in case of simple perfects in the final letter of the root, (2) in the case of compound perfects in r; e.g. (1) λελοιπότ-, n. sg. masc. λελοιπώς=λελοιπ-For-S, ntr. λελοιπός = *λελοιπ-For, fem. λελοιπ-υΐα = *λελοιπ-υσια, √λT (leave); likewise (2) *λeλʊк-Fот- (n. sg. masc. λeλvíós, etc.), √λv (loosen), etc. After roots ending in vowels perhaps the v of the sf. held its place longer; thus éσTA-FÓT- (Hom.) from perf.-stem éσта- (еσта-μev 1 pl.), vσra (stand); yeya-Fóτ-, perf.-stem yeya-, √ya, yev (pres. yiyvoμaι become), etc. must leave undecided the question whether the stems yeya-For-, TEON-FOOT-, etc., retain in ∞ a relic of the former n in *-FOUT-= -vant-, or whether we should see in it an unorigl. lengthening from -FOT-.


Archaic forms show the root-vowel still un-raised, especially in fem. stems, e.g. Fidvia (usually eidvîa, st. *Feid-For-, from Foîda, f.f. vivaida 'I know,' vid, see, know), i.e. *vid-usyā=Sk. vidúši

from vivid-vant-yā.

Latin shows no such formation.

VII. Stems with suffix -ma-, and sff. whose first element is -ma- (-man-, -ma-na-, -mant-; on secondary sf. -ma- cf. § 107,

where also are treated the sff. ma-ma- and -ma-ta-, which all § 91. of them form superl.); and especially the participle in -ma-, -ma-na-, of passive and middle use.

Participles in -ma-na- appear in the Asiatic and S.-European division of the Indo-European, in the Sclavo-Teutonic -ma- replaces it. Both forms we hold to be original, since it is common enough to find a simple and a compound suffix used alike.

-ma- is a frequent element in stem-formation (in word-formation it indicates 1 pers.). As a secondary suffix we shall find it employed to express the superlative.

Primarily it occurs e.g.

Indo-European. ghar-ma- (warm, heat), √ghar; dhu-ma-, or probably dhau-ma- (smoke), √dhu.

Sanskrit. In tig-má- (adj. sharp, pointed), vtig (become sharp); bhi-má- (adj. fearful), √bhi (fear); idh-má- (masc. firewood), vidh (burn); ghar-má- (masc. warmth), √ghar; dhũ-má(masc. smoke), √dhu (move); yug-má- (ntr. pair), √yug (join),


Kindred to this is sf. -man-, which apparently must be separated into -m-an-, i.e. -m(a)-an-, and is accordingly closely parallel to the participial -ma-na-.

Indo-European. e.g. gnā-man- (name), √gna=gan (know); ak-man- (stone), √ak, etc.

Sanskrit. In ģán-man- (ntr. birth), ✔ýan (gignere); áç-man- (masc. stone), √aç; véç-man- (ntr. house), √viç (enter); ná-man- (ntr. name) for *gnā-man-, √gna=gan (know); úš-man(masc. summer), √uš (burn). With auxil. vowel i, in Vēd. also

(§ 15, f), it appears e.g. in star-i-mán- (masc. bed), star (sternere); dhar-i-mán- (masc. forma), √dhar (hold); ģán-i-man(ntr. birth) beside gán-man-, from which it is distinguished by the i alone. Side by side we find dhár-man- (masc. bearer; ntr. law) and dhár-ma- (masc. right, duty); é-man- (ntr. going) and é-ma- (masc. id.), vi (go), etc.


-mant- is a secondary suffix, e.g. yáva-mant- (possessing barley), yáva- (barley); mádhu-mant- (possessing honey), mádhu(honey); ģyótiš-mant- (shining), ģyótis (light), etc.

-min- also is secondary, e.g. vāg-min- (possessing speech, eloquent) for *vāk-min-, stem vāk- (speech); gō-min- (masc. cattleowner), gō- (cow, bullock) etc.

aç-man-ta- (ntr. furnace) must not be overlooked, from áç-man- (stone); cf. Lat sf. -men-to- and O.H.G. -munda-.

Greek. Sf. -ma-, e.g. in Oep-μó- (adj. hot), Oep-μń (fem. heat), veep (0ép-oμai grow hot), origl. ghar (§ 64, 2, n); pλoy-μó(masc. brand), √pλey (pλéy-ew burn); кevð-μó- (masc. lair), √кVO (KЄú0-w hide); κoμμó- (masc. planctus) for *KOπ-μо- (§ 68, 1, a), √кOT (KÓπ-TW, KE-KOTT-άs strike); av-e-μo- (masc. wind) with an inserted e (§ 29) from origl. van (blow); xv-μó- (masc. sap), √xv (xéF-w pour); Ov-μó- (masc. mind, spirit), √/0v (0ú-w fume); yvó-un (opinion), vyvo (y-yvά-σkw), origl. gan (to know); μνήμη (memory), νμνα (μι-μνή-σκω), origl. man (think); Ti-uń (price, honour), √TI (Tí-w (honour); oi-po- (masc. fem. way, course, stripe), vi (el-μi go), etc.

As secondary sf. also -μo- occurs, e.g. äλki-μo- (strong), ảλêý (strength); voor-μо- (belonging to return), vóστo- (masc. return); púğı-po- (whither one can flee, avoidable), púğı- (fem. flight), etc.

The sf. origl. -man- appears in Gk. as -μov- and -μev-, e.g. åк-μov- (masc. n. sg. äî-μwv anvil)=Sk. áç-man-, beside åк-μý (point, sharpness); id-μov- (adj., n. sg. masc. id-μwv, ntr. id-μov, skilful, belonging to later period), √Fid, origl. vid (see, know); TλĤ-μOV- (n. sg. Tλý-μwv suffering, wretched), √τλa (endure, cf. τέ-τλα-θι, τλήσομαι); γνώ-μον- (masc., n. sg. γνώ-μων knower), Αγνο (γιγνώσκω), origl. gan (know), cf. γνώμη; μνη-μον(mindful), cf. μvý-μn, √μva, origl. man (think), etc. In the form -μwv- we recognize an unorigl. lengthening of the same sf., cf. кeve-μóv (masc., gen. sg. кeve-μŵv-os lair), √кue, raised to κευθ (κεύθ-ω, ἔ-κυθ-ον hide), cf. κευθ-μό-ς; θη-μών (masc., gen. sg. θη-μων-οs, heap), νθε τί-θη-μι), etc.


Sf. -μev-, e.g. in Tʊ0-μév- (masc., n. sg. πve-μýv bottom, foun- § 91. dation), √πve, cf. O.H.G. bod-am; πоɩ-μév- (masc., n. sg. πoɩ-μýv shepherd)=Lith. pë-men- (n. sg. pě-mů), root accordingly pi, perhaps a weakening from pa (protect).

Closely connected is the sf. -μovn, e.g. þλey-μový (inflammation), ν φλεγ φλέγω burn); χαρ- μονή (joy), ν χαρ (χαίρω rejoice), etc.

Here too probably belong sff. -μi-v- and -μi-vo-, e.g. ¡ny-μîv(masc., gen. sg. ¡ny-μîv-os surf, breakers), √pay (in pýy-vvμı break); vo-μîv- (dat. sg. vo-μîv-1) and vo-μívn (strife), √¿0, Sk. and origl. yudh (strive); also as secondary sf., e.g. in kukλá-μīvo- (masc. and neutr., name of a plant, cyclamen), from κύκλο- (κύκλο-s circle).

Also the very common sf. -μaт- (ntr.) is related to the sff. above named; e.g. eî-μaт- (garment), Aiol. Féμμat-, i.e. *Feo-μaτ-, √ Fes (évvvμɩ, i.e. *Feσ-vvμɩ clothe); öμμaт-, i.e. *ὀπ-ματ- (eye), Aiol. ὄπ-πατ-, ν ὀπ (ὄψομαι, ὄπωπ-α see); cf. Séo-μaт- (bond) beside deo-μó- (masc. id.) and deo-μń (bundle), ν δε, δες (δέω bind); βαδίσματ- (going) beside βαδισμό- (masc. id.) from βαδίζω (step, go); χάρ-ματ (joy) beside χαρ-μονή (v. supr.); pîy-μat- (fracture) beside дny-μîv- (v. supr.); eî-μatbeside ἀν-ε-μον (garmentless); πραγματ- (deed), ν πραγ (πράσσω), beside πολυ-πραγ-μον- (busybody); μνῆματα (memorial) beside μνήμη and μνη-μου- (v. supr.); σπέρματα (seed), ν σπερ (σπείρω sow), beside σπερ-μαίνω, i.e. *σπερ-μαν-ψω (sow), and the like.

In Latin also the sf. origl. -ma- occurs, as Lat. -mo- (-mu-) in an-i-mo- (n. sg. animus spirit), origl. van (blow); fù-mo(fumus smoke), origl. √dhu (move); fir-mo- (firmus firm), probably Sk. √dhar (hold; cf. frē-n-um bridle, from same root); for-mo- (formus warm), fer (fer-ueo); al-mo- (almus nourishing), √al, nourish; an-i-ma (life), cf. an-i-mo-, origl. √an (breathe, blow); fă-ma- (fame)=Gk. pý-μn, √ fa (fa-ri say); for-ma (form), cf. Sk. dhar-i-mán- (v. supr.), etc.

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