« AnteriorContinuar »
Sf. origl. -man-, Lat. -men-, is common; e.g. ger-men (ntr. germ, shoot), ger, origl. ghar (be green); *gnō-men (nō-men, co-gnō-men name), √gno, origl. gan (know); sẽ-men (seed), √sa (sow), teg-men, teg-i-men (covering), teg (cover); ag-men
(troop, crowd), vag (drive); solā-men (solace), verb-stem sola(solari console); certa-men (contest, match), verb-stem certa(certare struggle); moli-men (effort), verb-stem moli- (moliri undertake), etc.
This sf. is lengthened into -mōn-, e.g. in ser-mōn- (n. sermo masc. speech), √ ser (arrange, put together; in ser-o, ser-tum); ter-mōn-, cf. ter-men, ter-min-o- (border), √ter, Sk. and origl. tar (exceed, come to the end); often moreover increased by -to-, e.g. in co-gno-mento-, in-cre-mento, teg-i-mento-, aug-mento-beside aug-men, seg-mento- beside seg-men, etc.; this -mento- is particularly common in case of derived verbs, e.g. arma-mento-, nutrī-mento-, experi-mento-, etc. (ntr., n. acc. sg. -mentu-m); to this sf. -mōn- was added the suffix origl. -ya- also, likewise attended by lengthening (or step-formation), whereby consequently arose sf. -mōnio-, f.f. -mānya-, which is mostly a secondary suffix, e.g. quer-i-mōnia (complaint), quer-or (complain); acri-mōnia (sharpness) from stem ācri- (ācer, ācri-s sharp); testi-mōnio(testimony) from testi-s (witness); mātri-mōnio- (wedlock) from stem mātri-, from māter-, origl. mātar- (mother), etc.
Participial suffix -mana-.
Indo-European. -mana-, in the function of forming participles, appears originally annexed to the stems of the present, future (formed indeed by means of a present), aorist, and perfect, thus e.g.√dha, pres.-stem dhadha-, dhadha-mana-(Tiðé-μevo-), fut. dhā-sya-mana (Oŋ-σó-μevo-), aor. dha-mana- (dé-μevo-), perf. (from √dha this part. would coincide with the pres. part. in form), e.g. bha-bhar-mana- or bhabhār-mana- from √bhar, perfect-stem bhabhar-, bhabhār-.
Sanskrit. This sf. is here sounded -māna-, wherein we recognize an unoriginal lengthening or step-formation of origl.
-mana- (cf. Zend -mna-, Gk. -μevo-, Lat. -mino-, -mno-, all with § 91. vowel unraised), just as in Lat. -mōn-, -mōn-ia-, Gk. -μwv- stand contrasted with sf. -man-, which is proved to be the original form by the correspondence of the languages. It occurs as part. med. and pass., added to present- and future-stems as well as to the perfect-stem (the latter however almost exclusively in the earlier stage of the language). Instead of this -māna- there mostly appears in those present-stems which do not end in stemformative a (except na), and in the perfect, a form -āna-, which appears to be a later, secondary form for -mana-, just as -ē for -mē, origl. -mai, in 1 sg. med., -a for -ma in 1 sg. act. pf. (v. post. Personal-terminations of the verb). The possibility that -āna- for earlier -ana- may be a sf. distinct from -mana- cannot nevertheless be denied, only in that case -na- would be expected rather than -āna-.
Examples. 1. Sf. -māna-, e.g. pres. bhára-mana-, pres.-stem bhāra-bhar (bear); nahyá-mana-, pres.-stem nahya-, in pass. function, med. on the other hand náhya-māna-, pres.-stem náhya-, √nah (tie), etc. Fut. dāsyá-māna-, fut. stem dă-syá-, √ da (give); perf. sasr-mäná-, perf. stem sasar- √sar (go); iýa-māna- (Vēd.) with stem-termination a affixed to perfect-stem, according to analogy of other tense-forms; perf.-stem here iga- for iģ- from iyag-, yayag- (§ 6), √yag (offer, worship).
2. Forms with -āna-, e.g. pres. lih-aná-, root and pres.-stem lih- (lick); çáy-āna-, pres.-stem cay-, çē- (çé-tē he lies), √ çi; kinv-āná-, pres.-stem ki-nu-, √ki (gather); yunāná- from *yu-na-āna-, pres.-stem -yuna-, vyu (join); dádāna-, pres.-stem dada-, dad-, √ da (give), etc.; perf. dádrç-āna- (Vēd.), perf.-stem dadarç-, √darç (see); çiçriy-āná-, perf.-stem çiçri-, √çri (go); bubhuģ-āná, √bhuģ (bend), etc.
In nom. sing. these sff. are masc. -māna-s-, āna-s; ntr. -māna-m, -ana-m; fem. -mānā, -ānā.
In Greek we find everywhere -μevo-origl. -mana- (n. sg. masc. -μevo-s, ntr. -μevo-v, fem. -μevn), and this in regular use after
§ 91. pres.-, fut.-, perf.-, and aor.-stems; e.g. pres. peρó-μevo-, pres.stem pepe-, pepo-, origl. bhara-, bharā-, √ pep, origl. bhar (bear); διδό-μενο-, pres.-stem διδο-, ν δο, origl. da (give); δεικνύ-μενο-, pres.-stem deɩkvó-, √ dik (show), etc.; fut. Swoó-μevo-, fut.-stem δωσο-, ν δο; perf. λελυμένο-, perf.-stem λελυ, γλυ (loose); λελειμμένο- for *λελειπ-μενο-, perf.-stem λελειπ, γλιπ (leave); simple aor. δό-μενο-, aor.-stem and V δο- ; λιπό-μενο-, aor.-stem λιπε-, λιπο-, γλιπ; compound aor. λῦ-σά-μενο, aor.-stem λύσα-, Vλv, etc.
The sf. origl. -mana- appears in early Gk. (Hom.) also in the function of a nomen actionis or infinitive in loc. sg. fem. -μevai (cf. xauai loc. from stem xaua-), shortened to -μev (also in Dôr. and Aiol. in verbal stems after the root-termination and aor. pass.), e.g. pres. ed-μevai, f.f. of stem ad-mana-, root and earlier pres.stem ed-, origl. ad (eat; the pres.-stem in use is ¿de-, édo-); ἀμυνέμεναι, ἀμυνέ-μεν, pres.-stem άμυνε- (ward off); φορή-μεναι, f.f. of stem bhāraya-mana-, pres.-stem popn-, popee-, f.f. bhāraya-; fut. å§é-μevai, å§é-μev, f.f. of stem agsya-mana-, fut.-stem å§e-, i.e. *ἀγσε-, * ἀγσψε-, f.f. ag-sya-, Vay, origl. ag (agere); pf. τεθνάμεναι, τεθνά-μεν, pf. stem τεθνα-, γθνα=θαν (die); Fίδμεναι with lost reduplication, as Foîda, f.f. (vi) vāida, f.f. of particip.-stem thus vivid-mana-, √ Fid (know); aor. simpl. Sóμevai, aor.-stem and √do- ; εἰπέμεναι, εἰπέ-μεν, aor.-stem είπε-, f.f. vavaka-, V Few, origl. val (speak); ἐλθέμεναι, ἐλθέμεν, aor.-stem έλθε- (ἦλθον, ἤλυθο-ν), γελυθ (come); aor.-pass. μιχθή-μεναι, μιγήμεναι, pavý-μevai, etc. Cf. also § 93, a.
Note. The (Ved.) forms adduced by Benfey (Or. u. Occ., i. 606; ii. 97. 132) in Sk., such as dá-man-ē, cf. Só-μevai, vid-mán-ē, cf. Fid-μevai, as also the Zend çtao-main-ē (√ çtu praise), are indeed datives of a neut. subst. stem Sk. dá-man- (gift), vid-mán-, Zend çtao-man- (praise); notwithstanding which we believe that we must adhere to our explanation as regards Gk., on account of the parallel participles in -μevo-, and moreover from want of evidence for the dat. sf. at belonging to consonantal stems in Gk. It is possible that the Gk. sf. -μava- stands parallel to the
Aryan sf. -man-, besides the examples adduced-at least the two § 91. which I have met with (dámane and çtaomaine)-do not by any means correspond with the Gk. infin. in function.
Latin. The sf. origl. -mana- is retained only in relics, which yet show that it was once more generally used, and perfectly in accordance with Gk. analogy.
Substantives like alu-mno-, fem. alumna (nursling); uertu-mno(Vertumnus, name of a god), probably from early Lat. *alo-meno-, val (nourish); *uerto-meno-, √uert (turn), have lost the e of -meno-=-μevo-=-mana-; the ending is here regularly added to the pres.-stem, just as in Sk. and Gk. The termination is added immediately to the final of the root in ter-mino- (bound), √origl. tar; also fé-mina (woman) belongs here, though there may be some doubt as to the root of the word; further, da-mno- (damnum loss; Ritschl, Rhein. Mus. für Philol. N. F. xvi. pp. 304-308), pres.-stem and da (da-mus, etc.; the change of meaning is shown by Ritschl in the passage quoted; perhaps also da (cut) or dha (set, make) and not da (give), may here be fundamental, so that this has no bearing on the explanation of the form given by Ritschl).
The nom. pl. masc. of the sf., thus -mini- from earlier *-menei, *-menei-s (v. post. Declension), has remained as a periphrastic 2 p. pl. of med. pass., with auxil. vb. lost; the i for e (cf. Gk. -μevo-) is probably caused by following ni (§ 38), and here we find Lat. i corresponding to Gk. e, as not unfrequently, e.g. in forms like homin-is, flămin-is, and Toμév-os. Accordingly Lat. feri-mini corresponds exactly to Gk. pepó-μevol, f.f. of the stem bhara-mana-, pres.-stem feri-, origl. bhara-, √fer, origl. bhar. This mini is simply added to tense- and mood-stems, also in the latest new-formations, e.g. pres. ind. ama-mini, monē-mini, audi-mini; opt. and conj. fera-mini, moneā-mini, amē-mini, etc.; ama-ba-mini, ama-rē-mini, ama-bi-mini, etc.
The singular of this kind of the middle form, which in an earlier stage of the language probably coexisted with the other
§ 91. (v. post.) in all forms (thus e.g. a *feriminos sum, — es, etc.), has been retained as 2 and 3 p. sg. imper. of the earlier lang., where it ends, however, not in os, but in o, probably after the analogy of the other real imperative endings in o (final s may be lost in Old-Lat., v. supr. § 79); e.g. fă-mino, frui-mino, progredi-mino, arbitrā-mino, profitē-mino, to which we must supply es or esto: thus the underlying forms are probably such as *faminos esto, etc.
VIII. Stems with sf. origl. -ra-.
Noun-stems with sf. -ra-, -la-, occur in the separate Indo-Eur. languages, and consequently it is certain that this formation belonged to the period of origl. language. To show that is a particularly common element in sff., it is enough to mention the diminutives in 7 (for Lat. and Gk. cf. L. Schwabe, de deminutivis Graecis et Latinis liber, Gissae, 1859). On -ra- as compar. sf., v. § 105.
Indo-Eur. origl.-lang. rudh-ra- (red), √rudh (become red); sad-ra- (seat), vsad (sit); ag-ra- (masc. field), √ag.
Sanskrit. Sf. -ra-, -la-, sometimes occurs with auxil. vowel i (§ 15, f). rudh-i-rá- (v. supr.); dīp-rá- (shining), √dip (shine); kid-rá- (pierced; ntr. defect, flaw), kid (split); ág-ra- (masc. plain, field), ✔aģ (go, drive); an-i-lá- (wind), √an (blow), etc.
Greek. épve-pó- (red); λаμπ-рó- (shining), λáμπ-w (shine); φαιδρό- (bright), cf. φαίδιμο- (gleaming); λυπ-ρό- (grievous), √λUπ (Úπ-ŋ grief); ǎk-po- (highest, topmost; ntr. ǎк-po-v top, point; åk-pa fem. top), √/origl. ak (be sharp); πтe-ρó- (ntr. feather, wing), Tет (TÉт-оμаι fly); ȧy-pó- (masc. field), vảy; Sŵ-po- (ntr. gift), √do (give); ed-pa (fem. seat), √éd (ëÇoμai sit), etc.; Sun-pó- (thirsty), verb.-stem Siya- (dupáw thirst); σιγηλό (silent), verb-stem σιγα- (be silent); ἀπατηλό- (deceitful), verb-stem åπата- (cheat); deɩ-λó- (timid), √/dɩ (fear, e.g. δέ-δι-μεν, δέ-δοι-κα) ; μεγάλο- (big), Vorigl. mag or magh (wax, thus origly.grown'); oμix-λn (mist), √ migh (moisten); Bŋ-λó- (threshold), √ßa (go); þû-λo- (ntr. race), pū-λý (tribe),