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§ 94. belong adjs. like e.g. oeuvó- for *σeß-vó- (§ 68, 1, c) 'revered,' ν σε σέβομαι revere); ἁγνό- (worshipper, hallowed), νἁγ (άζομαι revere); στυγνό- (hated, detested), Vστυγ in ἔ-στυγ-ον (στυγ-εῖν hate) ; στεγνό- ‘covered, στέγ in στέγ-ω (cover); Sel-vó- 'feared,' vd (fear, cf. de-λó-s cowardly, dé-doi-κa); TOOEL-vó- 'longed-for,' verb-stem TоƉEе- (πоléw long for), etc. Substantivally used is Ték-vo- 'thing born, bairn,' √τεк (bear, cf. ἔ-τεκ-ον, τέ-τοκ-α).

§ 95.

Latin. Not as regular participial formation. Relics are e.g. ple-no- (filled) √ple=pla, origl. par (fill); mag-no- ‘increased,' mag Sk. mah (wax); dō-no- 'gift,' √da (give); reg-no- ruled thing,' √reg (rule), etc.

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XII. Stems with suffix -ni-.

Sf. -ni- is much like -ti- in use and function, but rarer. Like -ti- it appears added to other sff. (cf. § 98, Lat. sf. -tiō-ni-). Generally speaking, there stand side by side the suffix-scales -na-, -ni-, -nu-, and -ta-, -ti-, -tu-. Sf. -ni- is origl.

Indo-Eur. ag-ni- (fire), √ag?, is the only trustworthy example; yet it is highly probable that abstracts in -ni- were formed before the division of languages, because they occur in all Indo-Eur. languages.

Sanskrit. E.g. glá-ni- (fem. fatigue, exhaustion), vgla (lose strength); há-ni- (fem. abandonment), √ha (leave); ģír-ni(weakness from age) for *gar-ni- (§ 7), vgar (to age), etc., which all form their p.p. pass. in -ná-: all, however, do not take sf. -ni-, the majority take -ti-, e.g. khin-ná- (splitten), but Khit-ti- (splitting, n.), √khid.

The datives of these abstracts in -ni-, like those in -ti-, can serve as infinitives.

Greek. Sf. -ni- is rare in Gk.; e.g. μô-vi- (μñvi-s, g. unvi-os, fem. wrath), √origl. ma (think); σπá-v- (fem. want),


Note.-Benfey, followed by Leo Meyer (Vgl. Gramm. ii. 141), explains the much-debated Gk. forms in -, such as such as ἠχ-ώ (echo),

TELO- (persuasion, earlier w), etc., voc. Teiloî, g. Telloûs from § 95. *TЄLoos, etc., as stems in -ovi-, f.f. thus -ani- (*TELO-ove, whence TELO-oî, as e.g. μew from μeisova); G. Curtius (Erläuterungen, p. 50 sqq.) on the other hand, as stems in -oFi-, probably rightly (cf. their Iôn. acc. in -ovv).

Latin. Masculines only, e.g. ig-ni- (ignis fire)=Sk. ag-ni- ; pā-ni- (bread), √pa (cf. pa-sco); pē-ni- for *pes-ni- (§ 77, 1, a), ✔origl. pas (gignere ?), cf. Sk. pás-as (ntr. pēnis), Gk. πéos for *Teσ-os, M.H.G. vis-ellin (penis); probably also cri-ni-, fū-ni-, fi-ni- and lē-ni-, seg-ni-, the roots of which are difficult to trace. XIII. Stems with sf. -nu-.

Indo-Eur. ta-nu- (stretched; body), vta (stretch); su-nu- §95a. (one born, son), √su (bear, beget). The stems in -nu- are also used as pres.-stems (§ 165, iv. a), e.g. ta-nu-, √ta; ar-nu-, √ar.

Sanskrit. ta-nú- (thin; fem. body), vta; sú-nú- (son), √su; bhā-nú- (sun), bha (shine); tras-nú- (fearful), √tras (tremble); grdh-nú- (greedy, eager), √gardh (seek, strive), etc.

Greek. Sf. -nu- is very rare, e.g. Opñ-vv- (footstool), √Opa (Opn-oaola seat oneself; Opâ-vo-s seat), origl. dhra, dhar (set, fix); λy-vú- (fem. smoke, mist), root doubtful.

Latin. Sf. -nu- very rare, as in Gk.; te-nu-i-, like adj.stems in u- generally (§ 88, b), has passed into the i-form; *te-nu-=origl. ta-nu-. Probably ma-nu- (fem. hand) belongs here, origl. ma (measure, shape).

XIV. Stems with sf. -ta-.

The participle in origl. -ta-, the past part. pass. comes under special notice here.

The element -ta- (cf. the pronominal root of like sound), one of the commonest sff. of our language, is multifariously used in stem- and word-formation (for the formation of the 3 pers. of the verb, probably also for the ablat. sg., as case-sf.). The sf. -ta- forms not only the adj. discussed hereafter, which must probably have had a more general meaning originally (cf. e.g. Sk. stem sthi-tá- 'standing,' √stha stand, like Gk. σтa-Tó-; çak-tá'powerful, mighty,' √çak 'be able, capable'), and have been

§ 96.

§ 96. hardened into a regular means of expressing p.p. pass. only at a later period of the Indo-Eur. lang.—but nouns also substantivally used are formed by -ta-, e.g. Gk. кoî-тo- (masc. couch, bed), κoi-τŋ (fem. id.), √/kɩ (keî-Taι lies); póρ-To- (masc. load, burden), pep (pép-w bear); TÓ-TO- (masc. draught), √πO (drink); apo-To- (masc. ploughing), stem ȧpo- (plough); here belong nomina agentis masc., with stem termination raised to -τη-, as κριτής (n. κριτής judge), γκρι (κρί-νω sift); δέκ-τη(receiver), ν δεκ (Ion. δέκομαι beside δέχομαι, receive); ποιη-τή- (maker, poet), verb-stem ποιη- (ποιέω make); προ-on-T- (prophet), vpa (pn-μí say); TO EU-Tý- (bowman), verbstem ToğЄU- (Tоğeuw shoot arrows), etc., which end in -Ta, sometimes in nom. case, in Hom.; Latin noxa (hurt), i.e. *noc-ta, √noc (nocere hurt); sec-ta (mode of action, sect), √sec (sequi follow); and in Zend, Scl., and Lith.

As a secondary sf. -ta- often occurs, thus in function of forming superl. (v. post. § 106), moreover in Gk. -7- (as primarily), forming nomina agentis, e.g. Tо§ó-Tη- (bowman), Tó§O(bow, ntr.); iππó-тη- and -тα (horseman), ππо- (horse); TOM-Tη- (burgher), Tóλ- (fem. city), etc.; further often forming fem. abstracts, e.g. Sk. prthu-tā (breadth), prthú- (broad); Gk. Bio-Tη (life), Bío- (masc. life); Scl. and Goth.

Sf. -ta- forms moreover one kind of pres.-stem (§ 165, vii.), e.g. Gk. TÚTT-TE-, TUTT; often it stands combined with other sff. also added. These combinations will be collected at the end of

this section.

Indo-Eur. The sf. -ta-, forming the p.p. pass., occurs immediately at the end of the fundamental form of the root in case of stem-verbs, in case of derived verbs at the end of the verb-stem, e.g. da-ta- (datus), n. sg. masc. da-ta-s, ntr. da-ta-m, fem. da-tā, √da (give); kru-ta- (*clutus), √/kru (hear); kak-ta(coctus) kak (cook); sadaya-ta- (fixed, set), stem sadaya-, √ sad (sit), etc.

Sanskrit. Sf. -tá-, n. sg. masc. -tá-s, ntr. -tá-m, fem. -tá,

e.g. çru-tá-, √çru (hear); ma-tá-, √ma, man (think); ģńā-tá-, § 96. ✔ýna (know); bhr-tá-, √bhar (bear); yuk-tá-, √yuģ (join); bad-dhá- for *badh-ta-, √badh, bandh (bind); lab-dhá- for *labh-ta-, √labh (get); višṭá- for *viç-tá-, √ viç (enter), etc. The contact of the sf. with consonantal root-terminations brings many sound-laws into play (cf. §§ 58, 59, for details a Sk. special grammar). Several roots have auxil.-vowel i (§ 15, f), e.g. pat-i-tá-, √pat (fall); rarely i, e.g. grh-i-tá-, √grah, grabh, (seize, grasp); stems in -aya- always have i, which is probably a relic of -ya-, e.g. vēdi-tá-, stem vēdaya-, or perhaps from a stem *red-ya- (make known) √vid (perceive).

Roots ending in nasals, which did not become amalgamated with the origl. root vowel-termination till a later date, show their shorter primitive form before the sf., e.g. ga-tá-, √ga (go), which appears mainly as gam; ta-tȧ-, √ta, which appears mostly as tan (stretch), etc. On the other hand, e.g. kan-tá-, with nasal retained and root-vowel lengthened, ✔/kam (love).

Before this sf. weakening or loss of root-vowel a is very common, e.g. kr-tá-, √kar (make); prš-tá-, √prakh (ask); sthi-tá-, √stha (stand); hi-tá- for *dhi-tá-, √ dha (set); př-tá-, √pa (drink), etc.; dattá- for *dad-ta- retains pres.-reduplication (cf. 1 pl. pres. dad-más damus), da (give). Particulars of this formation would be out of place here.

Greek. Sf. -Tó-, n. sg. masc. -Tó-s, ntr. -Tó-v, fem. -Tý; e.g. KλV-тó-, √KλU (hear); step-formn. of root-vowel remains the same as in pres.-stem, peux-тó-, 1 sg. pres. peúy-w, √puy (flee), at an earlier period pux-тó- still existed; Meπ-тó-, pres. λeiπ-w, λείπ-ω, VT (leave); other pres. formns. however are not retained in Κλιπ these forms ; σπαρ-τό-, ν σπερ (sow), pres. σπείρω="σπερ-ψω ; στα-τό-, νστα (stand), pres. ἵστημι; θε-τό-, νθε (set), pres. τί-θη-μι; γνω-τό-, γνο (know), pres. γιγνώσκω ; Fρηκ-τό-, V Fρακ (break), pres. Γρήγνυμι ; τιμη-τό-, verb-stem τιμη(honour), pres. Tμáw, etc. Acc. to Leo Meyer (Vgl. gr. ii. 318 sqq.) in like compound forms there occurs -7- also, instead of

§ 96. complete -To-, e.g. å-yvŵτ- (n. ȧyvós, gen. åyvŵτ-os unknown), cf. γνω-τό- ; ἀβλής, ἀβλή-τ- beside ἀβλητό- (unstruck), and a few similar cases, wherein τ follows a long root-vowel.


Latin. Sf. -tu-, earlier -to-, n. sg. masc. -tu-s, earlier -to-s,
ntr. -tu-m, earlier -to-m, fem. -ta, e.g. da-to-, √da (give); sta-to-,
√sta (stand); i-to-, vi (go); di-ru-to-, √ru (destroy); in-clu-to-,
√clu (hear); but ex-u-to-, vu (put on; ex-u-o put off), im-bū-to-,
etc.; coc-to-, coc (cook); rup-to-, √rup (break); strā-to-, √ster,
stra (spread); passo- for *pas-to- for *pat-to-, √pat (suffer), etc.;
(the sound-laws in cases where final consonants of roots come
into contact with t of sf. -to- are treated of in § 77, 1). With
active function, a tolerably common use of this sf., pō-to-
(drunken), po, origl. pa; pranso- for *prand-to- (having dined),
√prand (prandere), etc. These participles are often used sub-
stantivally, e.g. stems dic-to- (dic-tu-m saying), gnā-to- (nā-tus
son), fae-to-, uo-to-, etc.

Screip-to- (cf. Umbr. screih-to-) may come from the pres.
screib-o, scribo (write), like iunc-to- from iung-o (join). The
lengthening of vowel in ac-to-, lēc-to-, strūc-to-, iùnc-to-, etc.,
not universally marked in pronunciation (Corssen, Aussprache
und Betonung, i. 156, 158, sqq.), is a late-formation in Latin,
or perhaps nothing more than a result produced by the influence
of grammarians upon the language.
the language. In secũ-to-, √sequ, sec,
origl. sak, Sk. sak, etc. (follow); locu-to-, √loqu, origl. rak
(speak); has been developed out of the v following guttural
k (§ 71, 1), after the analogy of derived verbs; the origl.
*sec-to- occurs clearly in e.g. sectari (Pauli, Geschichte der La-
teinischen Verba in -uo, Stettin, 1865, p. 17).

Not unfrequently there occurs the auxiliary vowel i (§ 43),
e.g. in uom-i-to-, √uom (spue), beside em-p-to-, √em (buy; for
-p- v. § 77, g); gen-i-to-, √gen (produce), 1 sg. pres. gi-g(e)n-o;
amā-to-, sopi-to-, acu-to-, from verb-stems amā-, sopī-, acu-, but
mon-i-to-, auc-to-, etc., according to the class of stem-verbs, not
*monē-to-, *augē-to- (moneo, augeo), yet dēlē-to-, suě-to-, etc.

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