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§ 97. formations also from this root; éxé-Tλn (plough-tail), verbalstem exe- (cf. exe-Te), vex (have, hold); yevé-0λn (birth), stem γενε- (cf. γένεσις, γενέσθαι, etc.), V γεν, must be treated as parallel forms of the above.
Latin. Words expressing kinship have suffix -ter-, whose e is lost in almost all cases; the nomina agentis in -tor-, with step-formation of original -tar-, like Greek -Tnp-; for the periphrasis of the future is used the suffix -tūro- from *-tōro-, f.f. -tāra-, raised from original -tar- and + suffix -a-, as in suffix -tro-, f.f. -tra-, likewise frequently used. The suffix *-tūrooccurs as fem. -tūra in forming nomina actionis as well. The fem. -tric is a further formation by means of -c-, and perhaps presupposes tria-; a similar further formation is found in -tri-no-, -tri-na-; cf. with -tr-i-c- such formations as -i-uo-, -i-no-.
1. Words of kinship, e.g. pa-ter, mā-ter, frä-ter (but sorōrfrom *sosōr-, and this from *sos-tōr-, *svas-tār-, as in Sk. svá-sar-, acc. svá-sār-am); 2. nomina agentis, e.g. uic-tōr-, √uic (uinco, uic-tus); censōr- for *cens-tōr-, √cens (censeo); sponsōr- for *spond-tōr- (§ 77, b), √spond (spondeo); balnea-tōr-, verbalstem *balnea, which is not used, however; moni-tōr-, √moni-tus (monere); da-tōr-, √da, etc.
Suffix -tāra-, forming fut. part., e.g. da-tūro-, √da; uic-tūro-, √uic, etc.; as a fem., forming nomina actionis, e.g. sepul-tūra-, cf. sepul-tus (sepelio bury); ūsūra (use, interest) for *ūt-tūra (§ 77, 1, b), cf. út-or (use); censūra for *cens-tūra, √cens, etc.
Suffix -tro- (cf. Corssen, Krit. Beitr. 366 sqq.), e.g. in rōs-tro(rostrum beak) for *rōd-tro- (§ 77, 2), √rōd (rōdo gnaw); claus-tro- (lock, barrier) for *claud-tro- (§ 77, 2), vclaud (claudo shut); ara-tro- (plough), verbal-stem arā- (plough), √ar, etc.; this suffix seldom appears as fem., as in fulgē-tra- (Plin.=fulgor brightness), verbal-stem fulge- (shine, gleam).
Further formations of this suffix original -tar-. 1. Through -ya-, esp. -trio- and -torio, e.g. in pa-tr-io- from pa-ter; audi-tōr-io- from audi-tōr-; lēgā-tōr-io- from lēgā-tōr-; uic-tōr-ia
from uic-tōr-, etc. 2. Through -ic-, e.g. uic-tr-ic- from uic-tor-, § 97. or rather from an older unraised form of the suffix original -tar-, which lost its vowel before -ic-; impera-tr-ic- from imperā-tōr-; ex-pul-tr-ic- likewise from an unused *ex-pultōr- ; pis-tr-ic- from pis-tōr-, √pis (pinso, pistus), etc. 3. Through -īna, e.g. pis-tr-īno- (pistrinum), pis-tr-īna from pis-tōr-, √pis; doc-tr-ina from doc-tōr-, √doc, etc.
Note.-In some cases at least Lat. -bro- appears to be=Gk. -Opo- (medial b corresponds of course by rule to Gk. 0; cf. § 77, 1, c), which, as we saw, arose from -Tрo-, -tra- (cf. Leo Meyer, Vergl. gr. der griech. u. lat. Sprache, ii. 235, 241; Ebel, zeitschr. xiv. 77 sqq.; Kuhn, ib. p. 215 sqq.). If this assumption is well founded, this -bro-=f.f. -tra- has become mixed in Lat. with -bro- f.f. -bhra- (bhar bear; cf. supr. § 89, n. 2), precisely as in Lat. the root original dha has become confounded with root original da (§ 73, 2). As examples of Lat. -bro-=-trawe adduce cri-bro- (cribrum sieve), √kri (cf. κpí-vw, kpi-oi-s)= O.H.G. hri-tara, M.H.G. rei-ter, f.f. therefore krai-tra-; tere-bra (fem. borer), cf. Téρe-Tρо-v (id.); palpe-bra (eyelid) bes. earlier and more vulgar palpe-tra, as in Gk. pépe-Opo-v bes. pépe-Tро-v; tene-brae (darkness) for *tenes-brae, *temes-brae (§ 77, 1, a), *temes-Orae, =Sk. támis-ra (dark) for *tamis-tra-O.H.G. dins-tar, M.H.G. dims-ter, dins-ter (Kuhn, Zeitschr. xv. 238), f.f. tams-tra- from tamas-tra-. The mainstay of these explanations lies in consobrino- (consobrinus cousin on mother's side), which is explained as from *sosbrino-, *sos@rīno-, *so-str-ino-, from stem *so-stor-= original sva-star- (sister). So that in consobrinus the t of svastar- would be retained, which is lost in soror=*sosor. Corss. (Krit. Nachtr. 186 sqq.), however, does not allow Lat. -bro-= -tro-; he explains -sobrino- from *-sor-brī-no- (§ 77, 1, a), and this from *soror-bri-no- (§ 77, 2). This view is supported by the Keltic, cf. siur, which points to an Italo-Keltic form *svasarwithout t. This difficult question has been handled at length by Ascoli, Studj. crit. ii. p. 33 sqq.; he pronounces in favour of Lat. -bro-original -tra-. Cf. § 89, Lat. n.
XVI. Stems with suffix -ti-.
The suffix -ti- is often used to form verbal-substantives, which serve in several languages (Sanskrit, Zend, Sclavonian, Lithuanian) as infinitives and gerundives in certain cases.
§ 98. suffix -ti- has besides-like suffix -a--the function of forming nomina agentis, but is more rarely so employed. The suffix is at home in all Indo-European languages, and was therefore already in existence in the original-language. It occurs also as a secondary suffix, cf. tā-ti- (§ 90), tū-ti- (§ 99) and the numeral (§ 109 sqq.).
Indo-European original-language. From each verbalstem might perhaps have been formed a nomen in -ti-, e.g. ma-ti- (thought), √ma; bhu-ti- (þú-oi-s), √bhu (become, be); kak-ti- (coc-ti-o), √/kak (cook); mar-ti- (death), √mar (die), etc. In the function of a nomen agentis a certain example in the original-language is found in pa-ti- (lord), √pa (protect).
1. Nomina actionis feminina, e.g. má-ti- (meaning, thought), ma (man think); sthi-ti- (stand), √stha (stand); çrú-ti(hearing), √çru; bhú-ti- (being), √bhu (be); pák-ti- (coctio), √pak (cook); úk-ti- (speech),; √vak (speak); yúk-ti- (iunctio), vyug (join), etc.
Infinitive functions are found in the dative of these nomina actionis in -ti-, thus yúk-tayē, etc.
2. Nomina agentis, e.g. pá-ti- (masc. lord), pa (protect); ģná-ti- (masc. kinsman), ✔ģna from ģan (gignere).
A shortening of this -ti- (cf. suffix -tā-t-=-tā-ti- § 96) is found in suffix -t-, which occurs especially in those roots which terminate in a short vowel, e.g. mahi-kši-t- (ruling the land), √kši (rule); sarva-ģi-t- (conquering all), vģi (conquer); likewise -sru-t- (flowing), √sru; -kr-t- (making, fashioning), √kar (make), etc.
In gerundive use we find a shortened instrumental from nomina actionis in -ti-, i.e. -ty-a (from -ty-ā, v. post. Declension), which originally had probably a wider employment, but is confined in the actual state of the language to roots in i, u, and ar, and is moreover only used where prepositions have become welded on before them, e.g. sã-çrú-tya, √çru (hear);
vi-gi-tya, √ģi (conquer). If the root end in other sounds, the § 98. t of suffix -ti- is lost, so that -ya only remains; the cause of this loss may possibly be seen in the frequent position of t after consonants, and the weakened termination of the word due to the prefixed, originally adverbial, elements (the prepositions). A similar unusual loss of consonants in the case of person-terminations (v. post. in loco). E.g. a-dá-ya from ā-da (take), √da (give); ni-viç-ya from ni-viç (settle down), √viç (go in), etc. Stems in -aya- lose this first a of the suffix, e.g. pra-bōdh-ya from stem pra-bōdhaya- (awaken, remind). Details of this formation would be out of place here.
In the earlier language this formation of the gerundive occurs also in case of uncompounded verbal-stems; on the other hand there are traces of the more complete -tya-, even after consonantal root-terminations (cf. post. -tvā used with uncompounded verbal-stems).
Perhaps -tya-, fem. -tyā, is a further formation of the suffix -ti-, e.g. in kr-tya (deed, doing), √kar (make); i-tyá (going), √i (go); ģi-tyá (gain, victory), vģi (conquer); ha-tyá (slaying), √ha, han (kill), etc.
Greek. The suffix -T-, regularly -o- (§ 68, 1, c), which has arisen from the earlier -7- (preserved in Dôric), is frequently used, and forms nomina actionis fem. from verbalstems, e.g. μñ-tɩ- (wile), √ma (think); pá-τ- (speech, report), √pa (say), beside pá-o- (speech, saying); þú-oɩ- (nature), √ou (be, grow); Té-, i.e. *TET-σ- from earlier *TET-T(coctio), TETT (cook); Çeûçı-, i.e. *Çevy-σɩ- (joining), √Çʊy (join); yvŵ-σɩ- (knowing), √yvo, etc.
Nomen agentis, e.g. πó-σ- (lord)=Sk. and original pá-ti-, √pa; μáv-тi- (seer), √man (think).
Tonly has remained in po-ẞpw-T- (raw-eating), Bpo, Bop (Bi-ẞpá-σkw eat, Bop-á food), and perhaps in a few others.
-ola fem. is a further formation through combination of a with -σ-=-T1-, e.g. Ov-oía (sacrifice), √Ov (sacrifice); Sokiμa-ola
§ 98. (test), verbal-stem Sokiμad- (Sokiμáłw for *Sokiμadyw test), etc.
Cf. Sk. -tyā.
Latin. The primary suffix -ti- has mostly been shortened to -t- in consequence of the confusion of the i-forms and the consonantal stems, e.g. dō-ti- (dos dower), √da (give); men-ti(mens mind), men (think, cf. memin-i); mor-ti- (mors death), √mor (mori); the i is retained e.g. in messi-, i.e. *met-ti- (harvest, § 77, 1, b), √met (metere); ues-ti- (cloak), root original vas (clothe).
Suffix -ti- appears as forming nomina agentis here too, in po-ti-, nom. sg. poti-s (powerful, capable), which however serves for all genders, Sk. and origl. pá-ti-, Gk. πó-oσɩ-; cf. the compound of this poti-, com-po-ti- (compos), im-po-ti- (impos); further in super-sti-t- (superstes remaining over), √sta; sacer-dō-t- (sacerdos), root probably original dha (set, do), which is confused in Lat. with da (give; thus 'sacrificium perficiens' or 'dans'; cf. Benfey in Kuhn's Zeitschr. ix. p. 106); com-i-t(comes, mate), vi (go), etc. -ti- is kept whole in uec-ti- (masc. lever), which can scarcely have been derived from any other root except √uch (originally carry), and originally probably meant something like uector (bearer, carrier).
A further formation of -ti- is -tio- neut., -tia fem., both generally secondary; thus here an o, origl. a, has been added to the earlier suffix, cf. Sk. -tyā; e.g. stem ini-tio- (beginning), primary formation from √i (go); but serui-tio- (slavery) from stem seruo(slave); iusti-tia (justice) from iusto- (just); duri-tia and duri-tië-, stem duro- (§ 38; on weakening of final -o to -i, § 40), etc.
For the formation of abstracts the suffix -ti- has regularly given way to -tion-, earlier prob. -tiōni-, e.g. coc-tiōn-, collisionfrom *lid-tion (§ 77, 1, b; cf. collid-o), sta-tiōn-, nä-tiōn-, etc. Note also the diminutives in -tiun-cula formed from these stems, e.g. ora-tiun-cula, sessiuncula, i.e. *sed-tiun-cula.
The suffix -tiōn-, -tiōni-, is probably (Leo Meyer, Or. und Occ. ii. p. 586) a further formation from -tyā-, Lat. -tiō-, -tia