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(v. supr.), by means of suffix -ni-, cf. -tă-ti- from -ta-; the sff. § 98. -na-, -ni-, often indeed run parallel to -ta-, -ti-. As -tā-ti- was shortened to -ta-t-, so was -tia-ni- to -tiō-n-; indeed in Latin the consonantal-stems are mostly like the i-stems.
XVII. Stems with suffix -tu- and kindred suffixes.
Stems in -tu- serve as verbal-substantives in Sk., Lat., Sclav., Lith.
Indo-European original-language. The suffix is § 99. undoubtedly original, and must probably have been in use in the case of each verb, as Sk., Lat., Lithuano-Sclav. testify to this employment, e.g. da-tu- or dā-tu-, √da (give); bhar-tu-, √bhar (bear), etc. These stems in -tu- were nomina actionis capable of complete declension.
Sanskrit. The suffix -tu- forms nomina actionis, with stepraising of root-vowel u, i, medially and finally, whilst a is rarely raised except when it is final; after the auxil. vowel i was often introduced before this suffix. These stems serve in ordinary Sanskrit in the accusative, but in the older language of the Vēdas, in the dat. and gen. sing. also, as Infinitive, e.g. dá-tu-m, √da (give); sthá-tu-m, √stha (stand); ģé-tu-m, √ģi (conquer); çráy-i-tu-m, √çri (enter); stó-tu-m, √stu (praise); bhác-i-tu-m, vbhu (become, be); vết-tu-m, Void (see); gốk-tu-m, √yuģ (join): pák-tu-m, √pak (cook); kár-tu-m, √kar (make); kórayi-tu-m, verbal-stem kōráya- (steal), etc.
Vēdic dat.; e.g. dá-tav-é, é-tav-ẽ, kár-tav-ē, etc.; there is found a dative form also in ai, e.g. ya-tav-ái (with two accents, a very exceptional circumstance), from √ya (go); kár-tav-ái, √kar (make); yám-i-tav-ái, √yam (subdue); moreover the gen. occurs, e.g. stha-tō-s, √stha; é-tō-s, vi (go); kar-i-tōs, √kar (go).
As ordinary nomina actionis there are in use e.g. r-tú (masc. definite time, season), var (go); gā-tú- (masc. going, place), √ga (go); gã-tú- (masc. singing), √ga (sing; 3 sg. gá-yati); ģan-tú- (masc. creation, being), vģan (beget).
From this abstract in -tu- a participium necessitatis is formed by means of -ya-, v. supr. § 89.
-tu- rarely forms nomina agentis, e.g. yã-tú- (wanderer), √ya (go); bhā-tú (sun), √bha (shine), etc.
Suffix -tra-, near akin to suffix -tu-, and perhaps sprung from it; cf. -tya- beside -ti-, -tra- beside -tar-, -anta- beside -ant-.
A gerundive in -trá (used in case of verbal-stems not compounded with prepositions) shows by its accent, and the weakening of the root-vowel, that it is formed from -tra-, not -tu-; it is an instrumental of a stem-form in -tva-. In the Ved. there appears also -tet, which must therefore be taken to stand for *tvya (§ 15, c), and this *-tvyā most prob. (Benfey, Kl. gr. § 389) by loss of a from *-tvayā, *tva-y-ā is however likewise only another form of the instrum. sing., i.e. one formed through y according to the frequent stem-extension. In the Vēd. also occurs the dat. from -tva-, viz. -tváya. Exx. sthi-tvá, √stha (stand; cf. infin. sthá-tu-m); dat-tvá, from present-stem dad, √da (give; cf. infin. dá-tu-m); ģi-tvá, √ģi (conquer, infin. ģé-tu-m); bhū-tvá, √bhu (be, infin. bháv-i-tu-m); uk-tvá, √vak (speak; infin. vák-tu-m); kr-tvá, √kar (make; infin. kár-tu-m); pak-trá, √pak (cook); the auxil. vowel i occurs, e.g. in vid-i-trá √vid (know; inf. vét-tu-m); likh-i-tvá, or lēkh-i-tvá, √likh (scratch, write); kōrayi-tvā, verbal-stem kōraya- (steal), etc.
Vēdic forms in -tvi are found in e.g. kr-tví, √kar (make); Vēd. dat. e.g. ga-tráya, √ga (go); dat-tváya (cf. supr. dat-tvá), √da (give); kr-tváya, √kar (make), etc.
Suffix -tva- appears also in the function of forming a participium necessitatis (Benfey, Volst. gr. § 904; also in Böhtlingk and Roth's Dictionary), e.g. kár-tva- (to be made; neut. work to do, task), √kar (make); ģé-tva- (to be gained, captured), √ģi (conquer); vák-tva-, √ vak (speak); sná-tva-, √ sna (bathe), etc.
The suffix -tvá- (neut., n. sg. -tvá-m) is very frequent as secondary suffix, forming abstracts, e.g. nag-na-tvá- (nakedness)
from nagná- (naked); pati-tvá- (wedlock), from páti (lord, § 99. husband); panka-tvá- (Tevτás) from pankan- (five); bahu-tvá(plurality) from bahú- (many), etc.
In Vēd. is also found -tva-ná- (neut.), a further formation by means of suffix -na-, in a like employment, e.g. sakhi-tvaná(friendship) from sákhi- (friend); vasu-tvaná (wealth), stem vasu- (id.), etc.
Also suffix -tvan- occurs in stems which serve as adjectival nomina agentis, e.g. kŕ-tvan- (causing, effective, active), kar (make); another stem, whose f.f. is kar-tva-rya-, serves as fem., nom. sing. kŕ-tvari; both stems occur side by side in ģí-tvan-, ģi-tvara-, fem. ģi-tvarī, i.e. *ģi-tvaryā (victorious), √ģi (conquer); i-tvan-, i-tvara-, fem. i-tvari (going), √i (go).
Greek. Nomina actionis fem. like Spw-rú- (food), vẞpo (cf. βρω-τός, βρώμα, βι-βρώσκω, βρώ-σομαι); βοη-τύ- (fem. crying), verbal-stem βοα-, βοη- βοάω, βοήσομαι cry); ἐδη-τύ(food), √ẻd (eat), originally from a stem ẻde-, which also occurs elsewhere; γελασ-τύ (laughter), stem γελας- (cf. γελαστός, éyéλao-oa); Fáo-TV (city), root original vas (dwell), etc.
-σú-vn stands for *-Tuvn (like σú for Tú; cf. § 68, 1, c) as a secondary suffix, cf. Vēd. -tva-na-, Zend -thwa-na-, e.g. Sikaioδικαιο-σύνη (justice) from δίκαιο- (just); μνημο-σύνη (memory), stem μvμov- (n. sg. masc. μvýμwv mindful), which has lost its final n before suffix -σvvn, as occurs in other cases also, etc.
Latin. The suffix -tu- is a very favourite one, and serves regularly to form a nomen actionis (masc.), which is called supine in acc. and abl. sg., e.g. stå-tu-, n. sg. sta-tu-s (standing), acc. as supine sta-tu-m, abl. sta-tū, √sta (stare, sistere); i-tu-, vi (go); dic-tu- dic (say); uic-tu- (as subst. victuals), √uiu, uig (uiuo live); tac-tu- (subst. touch), √tag (tango touch); cur-su- for *cur-tu- (subst. course), cur (curro run); aes-tu- for *aed-tu- (heat, tide), root original idh (burn); ūsufor *ut-tu- (as subst. use), cf. üt-or (use); gressu- for *gred-tu(as subst. going, step), √grad, gred (gradior step); căsu- for
§ 99. *cad-tu- (as subst. fall),
cad (cado fall), etc. Sound-laws of combination of t with other consonants are stated § 77, 1, b, 2. appară-tu-, magistrā-tu-, son-i-tu-, audi-tu-, etc., are referred to derived verbs, which are moreover partly not in use.
Suffix -tva- is rare, e.g. mor-tuo- (dead), √mor (mori die); mu-tuo- (borrowed, interchanged), probably from a √mi (exchange), therefore for *moi-tuo-, which may be traced in other languages (e.g. Old Bulgarian me-na change, Lith. mai-na-s exchange); sta-tua (fem. statue), √sta (stand); fă-tuo- (foretelling), fa (fari utter).
As a secondary suffix, in formation of abstracts is found not -tu-, but -tū-ti- and -tū-don-, -tū-din-, further formation from -tu(the latter is obscure in its second element), both fem., e.g. serui-tūti- (fem. slavery), stem seruo- (slave), gen. pl. serui-tūti-um (Plaut.); senec-tuti- (old age), stem senec- (senex old man); iuuen-tūti- (young age), stem iuuen- (earlier than iuueni-s youth, cf. Sk. stem yuvan-); uir-tūti- (manhood, valour), probably from *uiri-tuti-, stem uiro- (uir man). Concerning this suffix cf. Karl Walter, Zeitschr. x. 159. -tūdin- is more common, e.g. alti-tūdo (height), alto- (high); turpi-tudo (loathsomeness, ugliness), stem turpi- (hateful, loathsome); consuetudo for *consuēti-tudo (§ 77; wont), stem consuēto- (wont), etc.
XVIII. Stems with suffix -dhi-.
Not vouched for except in Aryan and probably in Greek; it is therefore doubtful whether it can be ascribed to a date so early as that of the original-language.
Sanskrit. In the earliest period of the language only a dat. fem. (v. post. Cases) of the suffix -dhi-, -adhi-, i.e. -dhyāi, -adhyāi, is added to the verbal-stem of the present; where this ends in a, -dhyāi only is added, in the other cases -adhyāi; e.g. yága-dhyai, pres.-stem yaga-, √yag (sacrifice); sáha-dhyāi, pres.stem sáha-, sah (subdue, endure); piba-dhyai, pres.-stem piba-, √pa (drink); mādayá-dhyāi, verbal- and present-stem mādáya(cheer), mad (rejoice); prná-dhyāi, present-stem prná-, √par
(fill); duh-ádhyāi, present-stem duh- (3 sg. med. dug-dhé for § 100. *duh-tē), √duh (milk); çay-ádhyāi, present-stem çé-, çay- (3 sg. med. çé-të), vçi (lie, rest); varrdh-ádhyai, intensive-stem vāvrdh-, √vardh (wax), etc.
The suffix appears added to the aorist-stem in gará-dhyāi, cf. 3 sg. aor. á-gara-t, vģar (become rotten, grow old; 3 sg. pres. ģírya-ti, grná-ti); huvá-dhyāi, aorist-stem huva- (present-stem Vēd. hava-), √hu (cry); probably also gamádhyai, aorist-stem gama- (á-gama-t, present-stem gákkha-, √ga, gam (go).
These forms serve as infinitives.
Greek. -o0a corresponds to this -dhyai; it is, however, difficult to decide whether the s has here been tacked on at the beginning, or whether it has been lost in Aryan, in which case -sdhyai would be the general fundamental form; the y is lost, as frequently, in Greek. It is not unlikely that the σ in -oba owes its origin to the analogy of the medial forms in σ0 (-σ0e, -σθον, -σθην, -σθων); besides σ is a very favourite sound before dentals in Greek. Also as regards the final at, which does not appear elsewhere in Gk. as the dative suffix of i-stems, we may fall back on the analogy of the infinitive -eval, -μeval. This form serves for the med. In Greek -σeat only appears as a suffix, not -eσai (cf. the perfect), as in Sk. -adhyāi. This -obaι is added to the different tense-stems; e.g. pres. pépe-σ0ai=Sk. bhara-dhyai; τίθεσθαι, δίδοσθαι, aor. θέ-σθαι, δό-σθαι ; fut. δώσε-σθαι, Sk. *dasya-dhyai; perf. λελείφθαι for *λελειπ-σθαι, f.f. *riraik-dhyai, etc.
XIX. Stems with suffix -ant-, -nt-.
The suffix -ant-, when added to vowel-stems -nt-, forms active participles from the present-stems, and therefore also from the stems of the future (which is formed by means of a present-form of vas), and of the aorist. The suffix -ant-, -nt-, occurs in all Indo-European languages.
pres.-stem and vas (be); bhara-nt-, pres.-stem bhara-, √bhar