Imágenes de páginas

§101. (bear); starna-nt-, pres.-stem star-na-, √star (strew, sternere),
etc.; future dasya-nt-, future-stem dā-sya-, √da (give); simple
aorist varaka-nt-, aorist-stem vavaka- √vak (speak); compound
aorist diksa-nt-, aorist-stem diksa-, dik (show), etc.
stems served originally for all genders.


Sanskrit. -ant- is added also to the pres.-stem in -nu-(-u),

The formation from

whilst to other vowel-stems -nt- is added.
aorist-stems is unknown except to the earliest language. Re-
duplicated-stems lose the n of the suffix, and thus end in -at-,
-t-. In fem., as frequently, a stem further formed by -ya- is
used, and this -ya-—in fem. therefore -yā-—is not seldom con-
tracted to i (cf. § 15, c).

Examples: ad-ánt-, root and present-stem ad- (eat); s-ant-, root
and present-stem as-, the initial a is lost also in other forms of
this root; kinv-ánt-, √ki (gather), present-stem kinú-; tudá-nt-,
√tud (strike), present-stem tudá-; náhya-nt-, √nah (tie), pre-
sent-stem náhya-; yuná-nt-, √yu (join), present-stem yuná-;
but dádha-t-, √dha- (set), present-stem dádha-, etc.
The n
which is lost in most cases never appears at all in neut., e.g.
ad-át, etc.; fem. ad-atí, s-atí, kinv-atí, tudá-ntī or tuda-tí,
náhya-nti, etc.

Future -syá-nt-, neut. -syá-t-, fem. -syá-ntì or -sya-tí; e.g. karišyá-nt-, fem. karišyá-nti or karisya-ti, kar (make), futurestem karišyá-, i.e. kar+auxil.-vowel i (§ 15, f) and present

stem in -ya- of vas (be).

Examples of 2 aor. are (acc. to Benfey) e.g. vrdhá-nt-, √vardh (wax), aor.-stem vrdha-; sanišá-nt-, √san (uphold, love), aor.stem saniša-, i.e. √san, aux.-vowel i and past tense of vas.

In nandaya-ntá-, verbal-stem nandaya-, al. lect. nanda-ntá-, present-stem nanda-, √nand (rejoice); gaya-ntá (nom. propr. and in other meanings), present-stem gaya-, √ģi (conquer, capture), is probably a further formation of this suffix by means of a; the same holds good of dánta- beside dant- (tooth; yet probably from da 'cut,' 'part,' not from vad ‘eat'), and

[ocr errors]

of ragatá (white, neut. silver), cf. argento-, √ rag, f.f. rag, arg § 101. (gleam).

Greek. -Ovт- and -vт-; the v is here fixed, and never lost; fem. *-ovτya, *-VTуα, which in obedience to sound-laws becomes *-ουσα, -ουσα, -σα, with compensatory lengthening of the preceding vowel; e.g. ẻóvτ- (later ővπ-), i.e. *èσ-ovπ-, fem. ¿oûσa= *ἐσ-οντ-ψα, νἐς (be), present-stem ἐσ- ; φέρο-ντ-, fem. φέρουσα from *pepo-voa, *þeрo-vтyα, √ pep (bear), present-stem pepo-, φερε-; τιθέ-ντ-, νθε (set), present-stem τίθε-; διδό-ντ-, δο (give), present-stem Sído-; iσrá-vт-, √σта (stand), present-stem ἵστα- ; δεικνύ-ντ-, ν δικ (show), present-stem δείκνυ-, etc.

Likewise in the future, e.g. Xvoo-vт-, √λv (loosen); futurestem Xûoo-, etc.

Simple aorist, e.g. Øé-vï-, root and aor.-stem e-, (set); dó-vт-, root and aorist-stem So- (give); σтá-VT- root and aorist-stem στα- (stand) ; φυγό-ντ-, ν φνγ (fee), aorist-stem φυγο-, φυγε-,


Compound aorist, e.g. Xûoa-vr- √λu, aor.-stem Xûoa-, etc.

The further formation in -ya which occurs in fem., appears also in the noun subst. yepovoía (senate) =*yepovт-ia, from stem γέροντα (v. sqq.).

These formations have sometimes no corresponding verbs extant, e.g. yép-ovт- (old), √yep, Sk. ýar, original gar (grow old); EK-óvT-(willing), věk, Sk. vaç, original vak (will); aк-OVт(masc. dart), √åk (be sharp), cf. åк-ý, åк-wк-ý, åк-μý (point); ỏ-SózT- (tooth)=Sk. dant-.

Latin. -ent-, earlier *-ont-, -unt-, but mostly -nt-, because almost all present-stems in Latin end in vowels. The same stem serves for all genders; e.g. (prae)s-ent- (present) for *-es-ent, root and present-stem es; i-ent-, -e-unt-, i.e. *e-ont-, vi (go), present-stem ei-; *uol-ont, uol-unt-, present-stem and Vuol (uol-t he wills), is retained in uolunt-arius beside the ordinary uol-ent-; uehe-nt-, √ueh (carry), present-stem uehe-, etc. Like all consonantal stems, these also in most cases revert

§ 101. to the analogy of the i-stems (uehentē-s, uehenti-bus, etc.). The further stem-form in -ya-, found in Sk., Zend and Gk. as fem., and possessing a yet wider range in Sclav. and Lith., is found substantively used in Latin, e.g. silent-iu-m, sapient-ia, licent-ia, abundant-ia, lubent-ia, prudent-ia, Constant-iu-s, Fulgent-iu-s, Florent-ia, Leuces-io-s=*Leucent-io-s (present *leuco, √luc, v. § 36), Prudent-iu-s, etc. No verbs are found parallel to such formations as frequent-, recent-, petulant-, dent-=Sk. dant- (tooth). Here belongs also parent-, as the aorist, to which its form and function point us (cf. § 36), is no longer extant (cf. parientfrom the present stem).

§ 102.

The further formation by means of suffix -a-, Lat. -0-, is seen in argent-o- (neut. silver)=Sk. raga(n)tá-; unguento- (neut. ointment), cf. unguent- part., from present ungui-t, ungi-t (he anoints); fluento- (neut. stream), beside participle fluent-, present flui-t (flows).

XX. Stems with suffix -as-.

Stems in origl. -as-, common to all Indo-European languages, serve mostly as neutral nomina actionis, more rarely as nomina agentis.

This suffix forms Infinitives in Sanskrit and Latin.

Indo-European original-language. e.g. gan-as (genus), √gan (beget); ap-as (opus), vap (do); man-as (mind), √man (think); nabh-as (cloud, sky), √nabh; vak-as (voice), √vak (speak); krav-as (utterance, word), √kru (hear), etc.

Sanskrit. Substantives in -as-, before which root-vowels i and u are raised a step, e.g. ģán-as (genus), vģan (beget); mán-as (mind), √man (think); sád-as (seat), √sad (sit); vák-as (speech), √vak (speak); vás-as (garment), √vas (clothe); két-as (mind), √kit (think); çráv-as (ear), √çru (hear); áp-as (work), √ap, etc.

These substantives are mostly neut., like the above, but there occur also nomina agentis, e.g. uš-ás- (fem. dawn), √uš (burn); this stem had in the earlier language step-formation of the


suffix besides, e.g. acc. sg. us-ás-am (the instr. pl. ušád-bhis § 102. arises from another stem of the same meaning, ušat-, ušant-; § 101). In the earliest Sanskrit adjectives of this form also occur (nomina agentis), e.g. tar-ás- (quick) beside tár-as (neut. quick advance), √tar (arrive at); ap-ás- (active) beside áp-as (work), etc. This formation is founded on the present-stems of verbs; if they end in a, -s- only is added for -as-, i.e. the final a of the present-stem serves at the same time for the initial of the suffix (cf. the formation of pres. participle act., the 3 pl. pres., etc.); present-stems which do not end in a retain -as-. This form in dat. is used as infinitive, e.g. ģīvá-sē from pres.-stem ģíva-, 3 sg. pres. ģíva-ti, √ģīv (live); kára-sē, 3 sg. pres. kára-ti, √kar (go); dhruvá-se, 3 sg. pres. dhruvá-ti, ✔dhru (be firm); kákšas (lustre, glance, eye), dative infinitive kákšas-ē, pres.-stem kákša-, √ kakš (see); pušyás-e, 3 sg. pres. púšya-ti, √puš (nourish; but in the pres. formation adduced, thrive'); rúģás-ē, pres.-stem ŕŕģa-, √arģ (strive), etc.; but áy-as-é, pres.-stem ai-, 3 sg. éti for *ai-ti, vi (go).

[ocr errors]

Greek. μév-eo-, μév-os (mind, bravery, anger), √μev, origl. man; yév-eo-, -os (race), √yev, original gan (beget); Féπ-eσ-, os- (word), √ Feπ, original vak (speak); ed-eσ-, -os (seat), √ed, original sad (sit); λéƑ-eσ-, -os (sound, glory), λu original kru (hear); πáð-eσ-, -os (suffering), √πа (-πað-ov suffer); μήκ-εσ-, -ος (length), ν μακ (in μακ-ρό- long); ἔρευθ-έσ-, -ος (redness), √épv✪ (épv✪-pó- red), original rudh (be red), etc.

The Sanskrit and Zend stem uš-as-, uš-ās- (dawn), corresponds in like function, however, with the raised stem of the Gk. stem f.f. aus-õs- (fem.), Lesb. Aiol. n. sg. auws, with regular loss of s, Dôr. ȧús, Ep. nós from *åF-ws, av-ws, and this from *avo-ws, with lengthened a after the loss of the following sound, Att. és without this lengthening, and with the asp. prefixed to the beginning (§ 65, 2).

The suffix -éo-forms adjectives (nomina agentis), e.g. Yeudés-, n. sg. masc. fem. Yevdýs, neut. fevdés (untrue), these adjectives

§102. appear especially as the second member of compounds, e.g. ὀξυδερκέσ- (sharp-sighted), νδερκ, original dark (δέρκ-ομαι, Sé-Sорκ-а see); ȧ-λnéo- (not hidden, true) beside λeo-, -os (forgetfulness), √λal (ë-λaß-ov, escape notice), etc.

In ἀ-λήθεια (truth), i.e. *ἀ-ληθεσ-ια ; εὐ-μένεια, Ιon. εὐμενέη (goodwill), from *ev-μeveo-ia, f.f. asu-man-as-yă, cf. μév-os, origl. man-as, and the like, we see a further formation of the suffix by means of -ya-.

Latin. E.g. gen-us (race), early Lat. *gen-os, Sk. ģán-as, √gen (gignere); op-us (work), early *op-os=Sk. áp-as; corp-us (body), root Sk. karp; foed-us, early foid-os (treaty), √fid (fido); iūs (right), f.f. *iou-os, √iu (join); pūs (matter), f.f. *pou-os, √pu (be foul; on these formations cf. § 36), etc.

Here also belong rōb-ur (strength), early rob-us, gen. rōb-or-is =Sk. rádh-as, gen. rādh-as-as (vigour, wealth), cf. rõbus-tus, with change of s to r, etc. Fems. Ven-us, Cer-es, and probably also masc. cin-er- (ash), n. sg. cin-is; pulu-er- (dust), n. sg. pulu-is, as also adj. uet-us (old), gen. ueter-is.

Moreover the numerous masculines in -ōr, as sop-ōr- (sōp-īre), root original svap; od-or, vod (ol-ere for *odere § 72, 2), with lengthening or raising of the suffix (on r=s cf. 77, 1, e), f.f. e.g. of sop-or- is therefore svap-as-, etc. This -or- is also used as a secondary suffix, e.g. albōr- (whiteness) from albo- (white), etc.

In aurora (dawn), i.e. *aus-ōs-a, the suffix original -as-, Latin -ōs-, -ōr-, is still further formed through -a- (cf. Greek *av-owo-, Sk. uš-ás-, uš-ás-).

In nom. sg. alone the suffix is retained in fem. forms like sēdēs (seat), i.e. *sēdes-s (§ 39, 1), cf. sed-eo; caed-és (overthrow, slaughter), cf. caed-o; lab-es (slip, fall), cf. lab-i, etc. In most cases there are i-stems underlying these words (e.g. acc. sēde-m, gen. pl. sedi-um), a very favourite formation in Latin. This explanation of the n. sg. is supported above all by the parallel sēd-es-, Gk. ed-eo- and Sk. sád-as-. In Sclav. also and Teutonic the as-stems show parallel forms without this suffix; the Sclav.

« AnteriorContinuar »