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spiracy. With the Miamis, they favored casualties. Iloilo at the time of the bomthe English in the war of the Revolution, bardment was the seat of the so-called and joined in the treaty at Greenville in government of the Visayan federation. 1795. By the provision of treaties they Ilpendam, JAN JANSEN VAN, merchant; caded their lands, and a greater portion of appointed custom - house officer on the them went to a country west of the Mis- Delaware, and put in command of Fort sissippi, within the present limits of Kan- Nassau in 1640 by the Dutch governor sas, where they remained until 1867, when of New York. He tried to keep the Eng. they were removed to a reservation of 72,- lish colony from trading on the Delaware, 000 acres southwest of the Quapaws. In and his action in burning trading-houses 1872 the whole Illinois nation had dwin- and taking the traders prisoner involved dled to forty souls. This tribe, combined the governor of New York in difficulty with the Weas and Piankeshaws, num- with the government of New Haven. As bered only 160 in all.

the result, Ilpendam resigned, but conIloilo, the principal city and capital tinued to trade with the Indians. He of the island of Panay, and one of the died at Marcus Hook, Pa., in 1685. three ports of entry in the Philippine Imlay, GILBERT, author ; born in New group opened to commerce in 1899. It is Jersey in 1750; served throughout the situated 225 miles south of Manila, at Revolutionary War; was the author of the southeastern extremity of Panay, and A Topographical Description of the Westis built on low, marshy ground, the whole ern Territory of North America ; The Emiof which during a part of the spring is grants, or the History of an Exiled covered with water. The population in Family. 1900 was estimated at over 10,000. On Immigration. When the French doDec. 25, 1898, after General Rios, who minion in America was ended, the causes held the town with 800 Spanish troops, for war dismissed thereby, and the Indian heard that the Philippine Islands were to tribes on the frontiers were quieted, emibe ceded to the United States, instead of gration began to spread westward in New awaiting the arrival of the American England, and also from the middle coloforces, then on the way to take possession nies over the mountains westward. Many of the city, he turned it over to Vincente went from the other colonies into South Guies, the alcade. On the following day Carolina, where immigration was encourthat official surrendered it to 3,000 Fili- aged, because the white people pino insurgents. When Gen. M. P. Mil- alarmed by the preponderance of the slave ler, of the American army, reached the bay population. Bounties were offered to imon which the city is situated he found migrants, and many Irish and Germans General Lopez with 5,000 Filipinos in settled in the upper districts of that provpossession. The Filipinos would not sur- ince. Enriched by the labor of numerous render without instructions from Agui- slaves, South Carolina was regarded as the naldo, and General Miller made prepara- wealthiest of the colonies. Settlers also tions to take forcible possession, but on a passed into the new province of east Florpetition from the European residents no ida. A body of emigrants from the Roahostile move was made until Feb. 11, 1899, noke settled in west Florida, about Baton when the American commander demanded Rouge; and some Canadians went into the surrender of the city to the authority Louisiana, for they were unwilling to of the United States. After it became evi- live under English rule. A colony of dent that the insurgent-officer in command Greeks from the shores of the Mediterwould not peaceably accede to this de- ranean settled at what is still known as mand, the United States naval vessels the inlet of New Smyrna, in Florida. And Petrel and Baltimore opened fire upon the while these movements were going on city, which was soon evacuated by the in- there were evidences of a rapid advance surgents after being fired. The American in wealth and civilization in the older troops quickly landed and extinguished communities. At that time the population the flames, but not before considerable and production of Maryland, Virginia, damage had been done. During the en- and South Carolina had unprecedented ingagement the Americans suffered crease, and it was called their golden age.



Commerce rapidly became more diffused. declaration in its platform: “The Boston, which almost engrossed trade in portation of Japanese and other lak navigation, now began to find rivals in under contract to serve monopolistic New York, Baltimore, Norfolk, Charleston, porations is a notorious and flagran and little seaports on the New England lation of the immigration laws. W coasts; and its progress, which had been mand that the federal government arrested by these causes twenty-five years take cognizance of this menacing ev before, stood still twenty-five years longer. repress it under existing laws. We

The leading political parties in recent ther pledge ourselves to strive foj years have made almost identical declara- enactment of more stringent laws fo tions in their national platforms. At the exclusion of Mongolian and Malayai beginning of the campaign of 1896 the migration;" and the Silver Repul Democratic National Convention, which party declared: “We are opposed to nominated Mr. Bryan, ignored the sub- importation of Asiatic laborers in ject; but the Free-Silver wing of the petition with American labor, and fa party, in convention in Chicago, declared : more rigid enforcement of the law.. * We hold that the most efficient way of lating thereto." protecting American labor is to prevent Immigration Statistics. — During the importation of foreign pauper labor period 1789–1820, when no thorough . to compete with it in the home market, sight was exercised, it is estimated and that the value of the home market to the number of immigrants into the U our American farmers and artisans is States aggregated 250,000; and di greatly reduced by a vicious monetary the period 1820–1900 the aggregate system which depresses the prices of their 19,765,155. The nationality of i products below the cost of production, grants in the fiscal year ending Jun and thus deprives them of the means of 1900, was as follows: Austria-Hun purchasing the products of our home 114,847; German Empire, 18,507; ] manufactories; and as labor creates the including Sicily and Sardinia, 100 wealth of the country, we demand the pas- Norway, 9,575; Sweden, 18,650; R sage of such laws as may be necessary to nia, 6,459; Russian Empire and Fin protect it in all its rights;" and the Re- 90,787; England, 9,951; Ireland, 35. publican National Convention declared: Scotland, 1,792; Wales, 764; JA “For the protection of the quality of our 12,635; Turkey in Asia, 3,962; American citizenship, and of the wages of Indies, 4,656; all other countries, 20, our workingmen against the fatal com- total, 448,572. petition of low-priced labor, we demand High-water mark was reached in 1882, that the immigration laws be thoroughly when the immigrants numbered 788,992. enforced, and so extended as to exclude In 1892 the steady decline was checked, from entrance to the United States those with a total of 623,084. The lowest who can neither read nor write.” In the number of arrivals in the period of 1867– campaign of 1900 the Democratic Na- 1900 was 141,857 in 1877, and in the tional Convention called for the strict en period 1880–1900, 229,299 in 1898. forcement of the Chinese exclusion act Immigration Act of 1891.—This measand its application to the same classes of ure, “in amendment of the various acts all Asiatic races; the Republican Na- relative to immigration and the importational Convention pronounced: “In the tion of aliens under contract or agreefurther interest of American workmen we ment to perform labor," was introduced favor a more effective restriction of the in the House by Mr. Owen, of Indiana, immigration of cheap labor from foreign and referred to the committee on immilands, the extension of opportunities of gration and naturalization.

It was education for working children, the rais- ported back, discussed, and amended. and ing of the age limit for child labor, the passed the House Feb. 25, 1891, a's folprotection of free labor as against con- lows: tract convict labor, and an effective sys- Be it enacted, etc., that the followtem of labor insurance;" the People's ing classes of aliens shall be excluded party (Fusion wing) inserted this from admission into the United States,



in accordance with the existing acts regu- “ Sec. 4. That no steamship or translating immigration, other than those con- portation company or owners of vessels cerning Chinese laborers: All idiots, in- shall, directly, or through agents, either sane persons, paupers or persons likely by writing, printing, or oral representato become a public charge, persons suffer- tions, solicit, invite, or encourage the iming from a loathsome or dangerous con- migration of any alien into the United tagious disease, persons who have been States except by ordinary commercial convicted of a felony or other infamous letters, circulars, advertisements, or oral crime or misdemeanor involving moral representations, stating the sailings of turpitude, polygamists, and also any per- their vessels and the terms and facilities son whose ticket or passage is paid for of transportation therein; and for a viowith money of another or who is assisted lation of this provision any such steamby others to come, unless it is affirma- ship or transportation company, and any tively and satisfactorily shown on special such owners of vessels, and the agents by inquiry that such person does not belong them employed, shall be subjected to the to one of the foregoing excluded classes, penalties imposed by the third section of or to the class of contract laborers ex- said act of Feb. 26, 1885, for violations cluded by the act of Feb. 26, 1885. But of the provisions of the first section of this section shall not be held to exclude said act. persons living in the United States from * Sec. 5. That section 5 of said act of sending for a relative or friend who is Feb. 26, 1885, shall be, and hereby is, not of the excluded classes, under such amended by adding to the second proviso regulations as the Secretary of the Treas- in said section the words 'nor to minisvry may prescribe; Provided, that noth- ters of any religious denomination, nor ing in this act shall be construed to persons belonging to any recognized proapply to exclude persons convicted of a fession, nor professors for colleges and political offence, notwithstanding said po- seminaries,' and by excluding from the litical offence may be designated as a second proviso of said section the words

felony, crime, infamous crime or mis- 'or any relative or personal friend.' demeanor involving moral turpitude' by “Sec. 6. That any person who shall the laws of the land whence he came or bring into or land in the United States by the court convicting.

by vessel or. otherwise, or who shall aid “ Sec. 2. That no suit or proceeding for to bring into or land in the United violations of said act of Feb. 26, 1885, States by vessel or otherwise, any alien prohibiting the importation and migra- not lawfully entitled to enter the United tion of foreigners under contract or agree. States, shall be deemed guilty of a misment to perform labor, shall be settled, demeanor, and shall, on conviction, be compromised, or discontinued without the punished by a fine not exceeding $1,000, consent of the court entered of record or by imprisonment for a term not exwith reasons therefor.

ceeding one year, or by both such fine and “Sec. 3. That it shall be deemed a vio- imprisonment. lation of said act of Feb. 26, 1885, to “Sec. 7. That the office of superintendassist or encourage the importation or mi- ent of immigration is hereby created and gration of any alien by promise of em- established, and the President, by and ployment through advertisements printed with the advice and consent of the Senand published in any foreign country; ate, is authorized and directed to appoint and any alien coming to this country in such officer, whose salary shall be $4.000 consequence of such advertisement per annum, payable monthly. The supershall be treated as coming under a con- intendent of immigration shall. be tract as contemplated by such act; and officer in the Treasury Department, under the penalties by said act imposed shall be the control and supervision of the Secre. applicable in such a case; Provided, this tary of the Treasury, to whom he shall section shall not apply to States, and im- make annual reports in writing of the migration bureaus of States, advertising transactions of his office, together with such the inducements they offer for immigra- special reports, in writing, as the Secretion to such States.

tary of the Treasury shall require. The



Secretary shall provide the superintendent cers and agents of such vessel to adopt with a suitably furnished office in the due precautions to prevent the landing city of Washington, and with such books of any alien immigrant at any place or of record and facilities for the discharge time other than that designated by the of the duties of his office as may be inspection officers, and any such officer necessary. He shall have a chief clerk, or agent or person in charge of such vesat a salary of $2,000 per annum, and two sel who shall either knowingly or neglifirst-class clerks.

gently land or permit to land any alien “ Sec. 8. That upon the arrival by wa- immigrant at any place or time other ter at any place within the United States than that designated by the inspection of any alien immigrants it shall be the oflicers, shall be deemed guilty of a misduty of the commanding officer and the demeanor and punished by a fine not exagent of the steam or sailing vessel by ceeding $1,000, or by imprisonment for which they came to report the name, na- a term not exceeding one year, or by both tionality, last residence, and destination such fine and imprisonment. of every such alien, before any of them “ That the Secretary of the Treasury are landed, to the proper inspection offi- may prescribe rules for inspection along cers, who shall thereupon go or send com- the borders of Canada, British Columbia, petent assistants on board such vessel and Mexico so as not to obstruct, or unand there inspect all such aliens, or the necessarily delay, impede, or annoy pasinspection officer may order a temporary sengers in ordinary travel between said removal of such aliens for examination countries: Provided, that not exceeding at a designated time and place, and then one inspector shall be appointed for each and there detain them until a thorough customs district, and whose salary shall inspection is made. But such removal not exceed $1,200 per year. shall not be considered a landing during “ All duties imposed and powers conthe pendency of such examination.

ferred by the second section of the act of The medical examination shall be Aug. 3, 1882, upon State commissioners, made by surgeons of the marine hospital boards, or officers acting under contract service. In cases where the services of a with the Secretary of the Treasury shall marine hospital surgeon cannot be ob- be performed and exercised, as occasion tained without causing unreasonable de. may arise, by the inspection officers of lay, the inspector may cause an alien to the United States. be examined by a civil surgeon, and the “Sec. 9. That for the preservation of the Secretary of the Treasury shall fix the peace and in order that arrest may be compensation for such examinations. made for crimes under the laws of the

“The inspection officers and their as. States where the various United States sistants shall have power to administer immigrant stations are located, the offioaths, and to take and consider testimony cials in charge of such stations, as occatouching the right of any such aliens to sion may require, shall admit therein the enter the United States, all of which shall proper State and municipal officers charged be entered of record. During such inspec- with the enforcement of such laws, and tion after temporary removal the super- for the purposes of this section the jurisintendent shall cause such aliens to be diction of such officers and of the local properly housed, fed, and cared for, and courts shall extend over such stations. also, in his discretion, such as are delayed “ Sec. 10. That all aliens who may unin proceeding to their destination after lawfully come to the United States shall, inspection.

if practicable, be immediately sent back “ All decisions made by the inspection on the vessel by which they were brought officers or their assistants touching the in. The cost of their maintenance while right of any alien to land, when adverse on land, as well as the expense of the reto such right, shall be final unless appeal turn of such aliens, shall be borne by the be taken to the superintendent of immi- owner or owners of the vessel on which gration, whose action shall be subject to such aliens came; and if any master, review by the Secretary of the Treasury. agent, consignee, or owner of such vessel It shall be the duty of the aforesaid offi- shall refuse to receive back on board the


vessel such aliens, or shall neglect to de. the United States gives the House of tain them thereon, or shall refuse or neg. Representatives sole power to impeach the lect to return them to the port from President, Vice-President, and all civil which they came, or to pay the cost of officers of the United States by a numeritheir maintenance while on land, such cal majority only. It also gives the Sen. master, agent, consignee, or owner shall ate sole power to try all impeachments. be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and The Senate then sits as a court, organizshall be punished by a fine not less than ing anew, Senators taking a special oath $300 for each and every offence; and any or affirmation applicable to the proceed. such vessel shall not have clearance from ing. From their decision there is no any port of the United States while any appeal. A vote of two-thirds of the Sensuch fine is unpaid.

ate is necessary to convict. When the “ Sec. 11. That any alien who shall come President is tried the chief-justice preinto the United States in violation of law sides. The punishment is limited by the may be returned, as by law provided, at Constitution (1) to removal from office; any time within one year thereafter, at (2) to disqualification from holding and the expense of the person or persons, ves. enjoying any office of honor, trust, or sel, transportation company or corpora- profit under the l'nited States government. tion bringing such alien into the United Important cases: (1) William Blount, States, and if that cannot be done, then United States Senator from Tennessee, for at the expense of the United States; and conspiring to transfer New Orleans from any alien who becomes a public charge Spain to Great Britain, 1797–98; acwithin year after his arrival in quitted for want of evidence. (2) John the United States from causes existing Pickering, judge of the district court of prior to his landing therein shall be New Hampshire, charged with drunkendeemed to have come in violation of law ness, profanity, etc.; convicted March 12, and shall be returned as aforesaid.

1803. (3) Judge Samuel Chase, impeach“ Sec. 12. That nothing contained in this ed March 30, 1804; acquitted March 1, act shall be construed to affect any pros- 1805. (4) James H. Peck, district judge ecution or other proceeding, criminal or of Missouri, impeached Dec. 13, 1830, for civil, begun under any existing act or arbitrary conduct, etc.; acquitted. (5) acts hereby amended, but such prosecution West H. Humphreys, district judge of or other proceeding, criminal or civil, Tennessee, impeached and convicted for shall proceed as if this act had not been rebellion, Jan. 26, 1862. (6) Andrew passed.

Johnson, President of the United States, “ Sec. 13. That the circuit and district impeached “of high crimes and misdecourts of the United States are hereby meanors,” Feb. 22, 1868; acquitted. (7) invested with full and concurrent juris- W. W. Belknap, Secretary of War, imdiction of all causes, civil and criminal, peached for receiving money of postarising under any of the provisions of traders among the Indians, March 2, 1876; this act; and this act shall go into effect resigned at the same time; acquitted for on the first day of April, 1891.".

want of jurisdiction. The measure passed the Senate Feb. “ Impending Crisis," the title of a 27, and was approved by the President book written by Hinton R. Helper, of March 3, 1891.

North Carolina, pointing out the evil efImmigration, RESTRICTION See fects of slavery upon the whites, first LODGE, HENRY CABOT.

published in 1857. It had a large sale Impeachment. The Constitution of (140,000 copies) and great influence.





Imperialism. The Hon. William A. The arraignment of the national adPeffer, ex-Senator from Kansas, makes ministration by certain citizens the following important contribution to charge of imperialism, in the execution the discussion of this question:

of its Philippine policy, brings up for

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