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provide on the basis of his privilege against self-incrimination, such order to become effective as provided in section 6002 of this part.

(b) An agency of the United States may issue an order under subsection (a) of this section only if in its judgment

(1) the testimony or other information from such individual may be necessary to the public interest; and

(2) such individual has refused or is likely to refuse to testify or provide other information on the basis of his privilege

against self-incrimination. (Added Pub. L. 91-452, title II, § 201(a), Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 927.)

8 1341. Frauds and swindles

Whoever, having devised or intending to devise any scheme or artifice to defraud, or for obtaining money or property by means of false or fraudulent pretenses, representations, or promises, or to sell, dispose of, loan, exchange, alter, give away, distribute, supply, or furnish or procure for unlawful use any counterfeit or spurious coin, obligation, security, or other article, or anything represented to be or intimated or held out to be such counterfeit or spurious article, for the purpose of executing such scheme or artifice or attempting so to do, places in any post office or authorized depository for mail matter, any matter or thing whatever to be sent or delivered by the Postal Service, or takes or receives therefrom, any such matter or thing, or knowingly causes to be delivered by mail according to the direction thereon, or at the place at which it is directed to be delivered by the person to whom it is addressed, any such matter or thing, shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 763; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, § 34, 63 Stat. 94; Aug. 12, 1970, Pub. L. 91-375, $ (6)6)(11), 84 Stat. 778.) 8 1342. Fictitious name or address

Whoever, for the purpose of conducting, promoting, or carrying on by means of the Postal Service, any scheme or device mentioned in section 1341 of this title or any other unlawful business, uses or assumes, or requests to be addressed by, any fictitious, false, or assumed title, name, or address or name other than his own proper name, or takes or receives from any post office or authorized depository of mail matter, any letter, postal card, package, or other mail matter addresed to any such fictitious, false, or assumed title, name, or address, or name other than his own proper name, shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 763; Aug. 12, 1970, Pub. L. 91-375, § (6))(12), 84 Stat. 778.) 8 1343. Fraud by wire, radio, or television

Whoever, having devised or intending to devise any scheme or artifice to defraud, or for obtaining money or property by means of false or fraudulent pretenses, representations, or promises, transmits or causes to be transmitted by means of wire, radio, or television communication in interstate or foreign commerce, any writings, signs, signals, pictures, or sounds for the purposes of executing such scheme or artifice, shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. (Added July 16, 1952, ch. 879, § 18(a), 66 Stat. 722, and amended July 11, 1956, ch. 561, 70 Stat. 523.)

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CHAPTER 229–FINES, PENALTIES AND FORFEITI RES

8 3623.1 Alternative fines

(a) An individual convicted of an offense may be fined not more than the greatest of

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1 Effective November 1, 1946, chapter 29 s repealed and the fewlbere. Buper 2008 apply to fines: 8 3571. Sentence of fine

(a) IN GENERAL-A defendant who has been found guilty of at offers may be mntenueat to pay a fine. b) AUTHORIZED FINES. -Except as otherwise provided in the chapter, the authorized fines (1) if the defendant is an individual -

(A) for a felony, or for a misdemeanor resulting in the loss of human life, not more than $250,000, (B) for any other misdemeanor, not more than $25,000, and

(C) for an infraction, not more than $1,000, and (2) if the defendant is an organization

(A) for a felony, or for a misdemeanor resulting in the loss of human life, not more than $500,000;

(B) for any other misdemeanor, not more than $100,000, and

(C) for an infraction, not more than $10,000 § 3572. Imposition of a sentence of fine

(a) FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED IN IMPOSING FINE — The court, in determining whether to impose a fine, and, if a fine is to be imposed, in determining the amount of the fine, the time for payment, and the method of payment, shall consider

(1) the factors set forth in section 35534a), to the extent they are applicable, including, with regard to the characteristics of the defendant under section 35531a), the ability of the defendant to pay the fine in view of the defendant's income, earning capacity, and financial resources and, if the defendant is an organization, the size of the organization;

(2) the nature of the burden that payment of the fine will impose on the defendant, and on any person who is financially dependent upon the defendant, relative to the burden which alternative punishments would impose;

(3) any restitution or reparation made by the defendant to the victim of the offense, and any obligation imposed upon the defendant to make such restitution or reparation to the victim of the offense;

(4) if the defendant is an organization, any measure taken by the organization to discipline its employees or agents responsible for the offense or to insure against a recurrence of such an offense; and

(5) any other pertinent equitable consideration. (b) LIMIT ON AGGREGATE OF Multiple Fines.--Except as otherwise expressly provided, the aggregate of fines that a court may impose on a defendant at the same time for different offenses that arise from a common scheme or plan, and that do not cause separable or distinguishable kinds of harm or damage, is twice the amount imposable for the most serious offense.

(c) EFFECT OF FINALITY OF JUDGMENT.-Notwithstanding the fact that a sentence to pay a fine can subsequently be

(1) modified or remitted pursuant to the provisions of section 3573;
(2) corrected pursuant to the provisions of rule 35 and section 3742; or

(3) appealed and modified, if outside the guideline range, pursuant to the provisions of

section 3742; a judgment of conviction that includes such a sentence constitutes a final judgment for all other purposes.

(d) TIME AND METHOD OF PAYMENT.–Payment of a fine is due immediately unless the court, at the time of sentencing

(1) requires payment by a date certain; or

(2) establishes an installment schedule, the specific terms of which shall be fixed by the court. (e) ALTERNATIVE SENTENCE PRECLUDED.-At the time a defendant is sentenced to pay a fine, the court may not impose an alternative sentence to be served in the event that the fine is not paid.

(f) INDIVIDUAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR PAYMENT.-If a fine is imposed on an organization, it is the duty of each individual authorized to make disbursement of the assets of the organization to pay the fine from assets of the organization. If a fine is imposed on an agent or shareholder of an organization, the fine shall not be paid, directly or indirectly, out of the assets of the organization, unless the court finds that such payment is expressly permissible under applicable State law.

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Part B-FEDERAL, STATE, AND PRIVATE PROGRAMS OF Low-INTEREST

INSURED LOANS TO STUDENTS IN INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION

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STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION

SEC. 439. [20 U.S.C. 1087-2] (a)

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(1) All obligations issued by the Association including those made under subsection (d)(4) shall be lawful investments, and may be accepted as security for all fiduciary, trust, and public funds, the investment or deposit of which shall be under authority or control of the United States or of any officer or officers thereof. All stock and obligations issued by the Association pursuant to this section shall be deemed to be exempt securities within the meaning of laws administered by the Securities and Exchange Commission, to the same extent as securities which are direct obligations of, or obligations guaranteed as to principal or interest by, the United States. The Association shall, for the purposes of section 14(b)(2) of the Federal Reserve Act, be deemed to be an agency of the United States. The obligations of the Association shall be deemed to be obligations of the United States for purposes of section 3701 of the Revised Statutes (31 U.S.C. 742). For the purpose of the distribution of its property pursuant to section 726 of title 11, United States Code, the Association shall be deemed a person within the meaning of such title. The priority established in favor of the United States by section 3466 of the Revised Statutes (31 U.S.C. 191) shall not establish a priority over the indebtedness of the Association issued or incurred on or before September 30, 1988.

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PART E-DIRECT LOANS TO STUDENTS IN INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER

EDUCATION

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DISTRIBUTION OF ASSETS FROM STUDENT LOAN FUNDS

SEC. 466. [20 U.S.C. 1087hh] (a) (1)

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(4) Obligations of the Secretary issued pursuant to this section shall be lawful investments, and may be accepted as security for all fiduciary, trust, and public funds the investment or deposit of which shall be under the authority or control of the United States or any officer or officers thereof. All stock and obligations issued by the Secretary pursuant to this section shall be deemed to be exempt securities within the meaning of laws administered by the Securities and Exchange Commission, to the same extent as securities which are direct obligations of, or obligations guaranteed as to principal or interest by, the United States.

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