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stanced, in proof of it, his permission of the synodical meeting of the catholic clergy, the duke frankly declared, that "his aim, in permitting that meeting, "was to work a division of the Romish clergy.”

-How very different, in 1791, was the conduct of Mr. Pitt;--who, in that year when a division had broken out in the catholic body, then petitioners to parliament for relief, nobly composed the difference, and annihilated the subject of contention!

Biographical Memoir of Father Walsh.

THE writer feels it incumbent on him to apprise his readers, that his account of the Remonstrance is taken, almost entirely, from the history published of it by father Walsh. The title of his work is, "The history and vindication of the Loyal Formu

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lary, or Irish Remonstrance, so graciously re"ceived by his Majesty, anno 1661,—against all "Calumnies and Censures. In several Treatises, "with a true account and full discussion of the Delusory Irish Remonstrance, and other papers framed and insisted on, by the National Congrega"tion at Dublin, anno 1666; and presented to his Majesty's then Lord Lieutenant of that kingdom, "the duke of Ormond; but rejected by his Grace. "To which are added Three Appendixes: Whereof "the last contains, the Marquis of Ormond Lord "Lieutenant of Ireland, his long and excellent Let"ter of the 2d of December 1650. In answer to

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"both the Declaration and Excommunication of the Bishops, &c at James Town. The author, Father "Peter Walsh of the Order of St. Francis, Pro fessor of Divinity. Melior est Contentio Pietatis "causá suscepta, quam vitiosa concordia. Greg. "Nazian. Oratio I. pro pace. Printed Anno 66 MDCLXXIV."

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Two other works of father Walsh are in the possession of the writer:-" Causa Valesiana, epistolis ternis prælibata: in antecessum fusioris Apologiæ. Quibus accesserunt appendices duæ; una instrumentorum: altera de Gregorio VII, additamentum. Authore J. Petro Valesio. Ord. S. Francisci Stricti Obser.S. T. Professore." 1684. 8vo.-It is followed by an Additamentum de Carono-containing a short account of the life and last hours of father Caron, the collaborator of Walsh, in his efforts to obtain signatures to the Remonstrance. The other work of father Walsh possessed by the writer, is his Four Letters on several Subjects, to Persons of Quality. The fourth being an Answer to the Lord Bishop of Lincoln's Book, intituled, Popery, &c. By Peter Walsh of St. Francis's Order, Professor of Divinity," 1686. 8vo. Each of these works is extremely curious, and extremely rare. Father Walsh also published, "A more ample Account" of the proceedings respecting the Irish Remonstrance, and "A Prospect of the State of Ireland from the "Year of the World 1156, to the Year of our Lord "Christ 1682;" but he brought it down no further than the year of the world 1652.-It was printed in 1682. An account of his life is given by sir

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James Ware, and, from him, by Mr. Chalmers; in his General Biographical Dictionary. Frequent mention of him is also made by Dr. O'Conor, in his letters of Columbanus ad Hibernos.

Walsh was born at Moortown in the county of Kildare, in the early part of the 17th century. He entered into the Franciscan order, and was professor of divinity at Louvaine. The principal event in his life, was the part which he took in the proceedings respecting the Irish Remonstrance. For this, he and all who signed it were persecuted; and he, father Caron, and other signing friars, were cited to Rome; but father Walsh and father Caron were ordered by his majesty not to quit the kingdom. Speaking of those who signed the Remonstrance, Carte mentions "that they were denounced, ex"communicated, and persecuted with so much "violence and fury, that they were on the point of starving in their own country †."

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* Life of Ormond, vol. ii. p. 414.

+ Five excommunications are mentioned in this chapter :The first by the nuncio, against those who adhered to the treaty made with the marquis of Ormond, for a cessation of arms; the second, also by the nuncio, against those who adhered to the peace made with the earl of Inchiquin ;—the third, by the bishops assembled at Jamestown, against those who adhered to the peace finally concluded with the marquis; -the fourth, against those who signed the Irish Remonstrance; the fifth, against father Walsh, father Caron, and others, who signed that instrument, and did not obey the decree which cited them to Rome. Other excommunications were issued: "The nuncio," says Carte, (Life of Ormond, vol. ii. p. 33), made his spiritual censures cheap, by thundering them

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out on trifling occasions, in civil matters, and even in his

When this happened, the duke of Ormond, who had then quitted the lieutenancy of Ireland, "in

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own private concerns;-particularly for bringing the cap. "tain of his own vessel to account, for the prizes he had taken " in a piratical way of cruising at sea," Of all the excommunications which we have mentioned, the first was the most solemn. An application to Innocent the tenth, for its removal, was unsuccessfully made in 1648. Pope Alexander the se venth, by a brief, dated the 27th of August 1655, authorized the bishops of Raphoe, Laughlin, Clonfert, and Corke, or any of them, to absolve, from Rinuccini's apostolical censures, all who were subject to them. It has been asserted, that the absolution was to be granted on the humiliating condition, that the parties should submit to prostrate themselves on the ground, and receive a flagellation on their bare shoulders; but for this, there seems to be no ground. The brief is printed at length in the supplement to Burke's Hibernia Dominicana, p. 919. It imposes no such condition, and only requires that the absolution should be solicited with humility; and that some kind of penance, at the discretion of the delegates, should be imposed impositá singulis, aliquá, arbitrio vestro, pænitentiâ salutari. It has also been said, that an unconditional absolution was not granted till 1698 †.

These abuses of church authority, it is painful to relate: but, when the integrity of history requires the mention of them, or even the mention of the failures of the supreme pastor of the church, it becomes an historic duty: "An historian," says Cicero, "should be equally fearful of suppressing "what is true, and of writing what is false."-The examples of the sacred penmen show, that this is as much a rule of christian morality, as a precept of sound criticism. If the evangelists did not throw a veil over the crime and frailties of Peter, nothing makes it our duty to throw a veil over the crimes or failings of Peter's successors. It must be added, that where the rule, laid down by Cicero, is not observed, the

+ If even then. See Macpherson's State Papers, vol. i. p. 576.

"vited Walsh," says Dr. O'Conor*, " to his house "and settled upon him a pension, during life, of writer may be a useful partisan, or indite edifying tales, but cannot claim for his writings the praise of authentic history.

In the course of this work the writer has frequently cited the Hibernia Dominicana of father Burke, a former catholic bishop of Ossory. It is a quarto of 797 pages, and is followed by a supplement, which begins at page 801, and extends to page 949. inclusivley. In most copies, the pages from 136 to 147 have been taken out. The only copy seen by the present writer, which contains these pages, is in the possession of lord Arundell of Wardour, and it could not be in more liberal hands. The Hibernia Dominicana is a curious and important work,-the fruit of great research, and written with elegance and method. ---But ultramontanism, often in its extreme bearings, too frequently appears. It gave great offence; and the catholic bishops of Munster, assembled at Thurles, in July 1775,together with the bishop of Tuam, then casually in that city,— signed a declaration, expressing " their entire disapprobation "of the work and the supplement, because they tended to "weaken and subvert that allegiance, which catholics acknow"ledge themselves to owe, from duty and from gratitude, to "king George the third." Before this time, father Burke had incurred much blame by his violent reprobation of an oath of allegiance, required of the roman-catholic clergy, by an act of the year 1756-7, and sanctioned by all the other catholic prelates in Ireland.

In 1775, the doctors of the faculty of divinity at Paris, were consulted by the catholic prelates of Ireland, on the form of an oath, then proposed to be taken by the general body of Irish catholics. It consisted of four articles; the persons taking it, were made,—by the first, to profess that the pope neither had, nor ought to have, directly or indirectly, any temporal or civil power in Ireland ;-by the second, to disclaim the doctrine, that it is lawful to kill, destroy, or break faith with heretics ;by the third, to reject the opinion, that princes excommunicated by the pope, or any other authority, may be deposed or

Columbanus, No. ii. p. 260.

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