Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the History of the American Industrial Enterprise

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Beard Books, 2003 - 463 páginas
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Investigates the changing strategy and structure of the large industrial enterprise in the United States
 

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EL DESCUBRIDOR DE LA ESTRATEGIA
Este libro de 1962 está próximo a cumplir 50 años en 2012 y hay pocos textos en la historia de la gestión que aguanten un examen tan prolongado. Desgraciadamente hoy
los textos de gestión (especialmente de los llamados "gurus") tienen una vida mucho más breve, lo que no deja de ser un indicativo tenebroso. En esta obra de "Strategy and Structure", Alfred Chandler hace varias cosas de gran calado: (1) porque se permite un ejercicio académico, hasta entonces inédito, de escribir una historia comparada sobre cómo diferentes organizaciones ejecutan una misma actividad; (2) porque escoge la administración (hoy la llamaríamos "gestión") como esa actividad a ser historiada comparativamente en diferentes empresas, y por ello define al paso qué es la gestión con extraordinaria sencillez y claridad; (3) porque centra lo esencial de la gestión en la dualidad entre estrategia y estructura, introduciendo así (¡nada más y nada menos!) la palabra "estrategia" en el ámbito de la gestión; y (4) porque atribuye a la estrategia la cualidad anterior e independiente que condiciona luego a la estructura, posterior y dependiente, formulando la brevísima tesis "structure follows strategy", esto es, que la estructura se deriva de la estrategia.
El libro tuvo un efecto demoledor. De la ley de Chandler se derivaba que la gestión dejaba de ser simplemente una teoría de la organización, vinculada a la estructura, a la concepción y gestión de estructuras humanas, para pasar a ser una tensión entre estrategia y estructura. La estructura no sólo no era el único tema sino que era la variable dependiente de la ecuación. La estrategia era el nuevo factor independiente. Y todo ello extraido de un minucioso estudio de historia comparada por confrontación entre cuatro excelentes grandes empresas americanas en sus momentos de expansión internacional: la química DuPont, la industria del automóvil General Motors, la petrolera Standard Oil de los Rockefeller y los grandes almacenes Sears.
No deja de ser curioso que el padre de la estrategia en la gestión sea este muy cultivado y longevo historiador, fallecido en 2007, distinguido promotor del Business History Group en el seno de Harvard Business School. De ahí luego la eclosión del Business Policy Group también en Harvard a principios de los 70s, cuyo último valedor es nada menos que Michael Porter, y la universalización por todo el mundo de que la estrategia debía ser el foco (incluso académico) de la gestión.
El brevísimo Prólogo es de lectura imprescindible. Una joya maestra. Enjoy.
 

Índice

Wording Out the New Structure
218
Some Final Considerations
223
SEARS ROEBUCK AND COMPANYDECENTRALIZATION PLANNED AND UNPLANNED
227
Initial Strategy and Structure
228
The New Strategy
235
Structural Strains Created by the New Strategy
239
Abortive Decentralization
243
The Frazer Committee
244

Creating the Multidepartmental Structure
59
Structural Modifications 19031919
64
Further Centralization 1919
69
The Strategy of D1versificat1on
80
Initial Steps Toward Diversification
81
Intensified Pressures for Diversification
85
The Final Definition of the Strategy of Diversification
90
New Structure for the New Strategy
93
New Problems Created by New Strategy
94
The Problems Analyzed
96
A New Structure Proposed and Rejected
98
A Compromise Structure Adopted
102
Crisis and the Acceptance of the Multidivisional Structure
106
GENERAL MOTORSCREATING THE GENERAL OFFICE
116
The Sources of Durants Strategy
117
The Creation of General Motors
120
The Storrow Regime
122
Durants Return and Renewed Expansion and Integration
124
Du Pont Contributions to Durants Organization
127
The Crisis of 1920
130
The Sloan Structure
132
The Organization Study
135
Minor Modifications
142
Putt1ng the New Structure 1nto Operat1on
144
The Development of Statistical and Financial Controls
147
Defining the Role of the Advisory Staff
155
The Role of the Executive Committee
159
The Finished Structure
160
and du Pont
163
STANDARD OIL COMPANY NEW JERSEY AD HOC REORGANIZATION
165
Structure and Strategy before 1925
166
The Strategy of Vertical Integration and Continued Expansion
172
Vertical Integration and the Creation of New Functional Departments
174
Expansion and the Older Departments
177
The Growth of Staff Departments
179
The Board
183
Initial Awareness of Structural Weaknesses
184
The In1t1al Reorgan1zat1on 19251926
187
Teagles Troubles
188
The 1925 Program
190
The Coordination Department and Committee
191
The Budget Department and Committee
195
Reorganizing the Marketing Department
198
Reorganizing the Manufacturing Department
201
The Creat1on of the Mult1d1vis1onal Decentral1zed Structure
207
The 1927 Changes
210
The Committees Proposals
245
Carrying Out the Committees Proposals
251
Frazer Reviews the New Structure
254
Continuing Conflict and Resulting Proposals
255
The Territorial Organization Scrapped
262
Evolut1onary Decentral1zat1on
263
Decentralization of the Retail Organization
267
The Growth of Local Regional Administrative Units
269
The Return to the Territorial Organization
270
The Final Structure
278
ORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATIONA COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
285
The Adaptive Response
286
Building the Functional Departments
287
Building the Central Office
292
The Creat1ve Innovat1on
301
The Process of Innovation
305
The Significance of the Innovation
311
Organ1zat1onal Innovators
316
An Organization Builders Personality and Training
317
Sources of Information
322
THE SPREAD OF THE MULTI DIVISIONAL STRUCTURE
326
Industr1es Not Accept1ng the New Structure
328
Copper and Nickel
329
Steel
333
Aluminum
339
Materials
342
Industr1es Part1ally Accept1ng the New Structure
344
Processors of Agricultural Products
346
Rubber
352
Petroleum
354
Industr1es W1dely Accept1ng the New Structure
364
Electrical and Electronics
365
Power Machinery and Automobiles
372
Chemicals
376
Var1at1ons on Structural Chance
380
Summary of the Process of Structural Change within the Enterprise
382
CONCLUSIONCHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF THE GREAT INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE
385
The First Chapter Accumulating Resources
388
The Second Chapter Rationalizing the Use of Resources
389
The Third Chapter Continued Growth
392
The Fourth Chapter Rationalizing the Use of Expanding Resources
395
NOTES
399
NOTES
401
INDEX
457
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Página 15 - Strategy can be defined as the determination of the basic long-term goals and objectives of an enterprise, and the adoption of courses of action and the allocation of resources necessary for carrying out these goals.
Página 27 - house" had its storage plant and its own marketing organization. The latter included outlets in major towns and cities, often managed by Swift's own salaried representatives. In marketing the product, Swift had to break down, through advertising and other means, the prejudices against eating meat killed more than a thousand miles away and many weeks earlier. At the same time he had to combat boycotts of local butchers and the concerted efforts of the National Butchers' Protective Association to prevent...
Página 23 - But with the completion of the great east-west trunk lines early in the 1850's administration became a full-time task in American business. The Erie, the New York Central, the Pennsylvania, the Baltimore & Ohio, and the western roads completed in that same decade, such as the Illinois Central, the Michigan Central, and the Michigan Southern...
Página 16 - Structure can be def1ned as the design of organization through which the enterprise is administered. This design, whether formally or informally defined, has two aspects. It includes, first, the lines of authority and communication between the different administrative offices and officers and, second, the information and data that flow through these lines of communication and authority.

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