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Potestne summus Pontifex, S. R. E. cardinales, quivis cœtus, aut individuum ecclesiæ catholicæ absolvere seu dispensare subditos Magnæ Britanniæ regis à juramento fidelitatis, eidem regi debito vel præstito?
Ex præjactis in precedenti responsione fundamentis, secundi hujus dubii solutio quasi sponte sua fluere videtur. Non hic refutare animus est quæ insipientes aliqui hominis qui somniarunt potiùs quam asseruerunt scilicet adventu Christi omnia orbis imperia cessasse, atque post Pontificiam dignitatem exortam, utrumque gladium spiritualem ac temporalem in ejus fuisse manu collocatum, regesque omnes Romani episcopi esse tantum vicarios, eorumque dominium ita esse in Papam translatum, ut principes etiam idololatras deponere, eorumque ditiones cui libuerit fidelium suo possit jure donare. Commentum hoc, admiratione dignissimum, vix unus aut alter ascruit; passinque juris atque theologiæ consulti explodunt et validissime confutant. Nec enim Christus, aut jure hæreditario, aut à Deo concessa potestate, aut quovis alio modo, regem temporalem habuit dignitatem, quam ad Petrum, ejus successores, reliquosque episcopos transmitteret: alioqui (quod monstro portentove simile foret) ipso divino jure solus Papa toto in orbe terrarum supremus esset dominus, suarum urbium atque pagorum episcopi; regesque non reges, non propria inataque majestate fulgerent sed precaria, adventitia, atque à christianis præsulibus derivata.
Verumtamen, et libris et annalibus ecclesiæ loquentibus, dissimulare, silentioque præterire neutiquam possumus, christianos aliquos jurisconsultos ac theologos id sibi persuassisse; et temporalia omnia spiritualibus subordinata esse, ad eaque ut ad finem referri, adeoque qui fini præsit mediis etiam præsse debere posseque et ea præcipere quæ fini adipiscendo concruant, et omnia removere impedimenta : atque propter apostasiam, heresim, et grave scelus quodcumque ecclesiæ animarumque saluti nocens, posse reges ab ecclesiastica communione seperari; quo facto, omni statim potestate ac dignitate ita destitui, ut nemini cum ipsis colloqui liceat nec quidquam habere commune.
Absit autem ut christianus populus fatalem hanc regum throno sententiain animo imbibat
nor any council, nor any individual in the catholic church, by virtue of their communion with that church, has any civil authority, power, jurisdiction or pre-eminence, in the kingdom of Great Britain.
Question the Second.
Can the Roman Pontiff, the cardinals of the holy Roman church, any council or individual of the catholic church, absolve the subjects of His Britannic Majesty from their oath of allegiance, or dispense with its obligations? Answer.
The solution of this second difficulty spontaneously arises from the principles laid down in the forgoing answer. We have no inclination to spend our time here in exposing the emptiness of the visions rather than reasons of some persons, who have asserted, that by the coming of Christ all earthly thrones were subverted, and that, after the establishment of the papal dignity, both the temporal and spiritual sword was put into the hands of the bishop of Rome, that all kings are only his vicegerents, and their dominion is so completely transferred to him, that he can of right depose even idolatrous princes, and confer their domains on any of the faithful at his pleasure. This absurdity, which we cannot think of without the utmost astonishment, has been defended by a very few individuals, but by the body of divines and canonists it is universally exploded and completely refuted. It is certain, that Christ never possessed, neither by inheritance nor by delegated power from God, nor by any other means, any temporal dignity which he could transmit to Peter, to his successors, and the other bishops; and from the idea that he bequeathed such dignity, this monstrous consequence would follow, that the Pope is by divine right supreme lord over all the earth, that the bishops are the princes of their cities and districts, that kings are not really kings, that they are not illustrated by native and inherent majesty, but a precarious adventitious dignity, derived to them from the christian prelates.
We cannot, however, think of dissembling, by passing over in silence a fact, to which several publications, now extant, and the annals of the church, bear testimony, viz. That some christian divines and canonists have persuaded themselves, that all temporal concerns were subordinate to the spiritual, and were to be referred to them as to their ultimate end; that he who has power over the end, must have power over the means also, and a right to command whatever is conducive to the end, and a right to remove whatever might oppose its attainment; that, consequently, on account of apostacy, heresy, or any grievous crime which brings mischief on the church, or is detrimental to the salvation of the faithful; kings might be cut off from the communion of christians, and that this being done, they were so divested of all power and dignity, that no one could conscientiously have with them any sort of in
bat: absit ut unquam amplectatur opinionem, toti incognitam antiquitati, cujus nullum firmum vestigium in divinis litteris extat, et quæ horrenda bella civilesque discordias semper et ubique excitavit. Nec enim rem tantam prætermisisse dicendus est Christus, si ecclesiæ à se institutæ conveniens atque utilis foret, ipsaque doctrinæ novitas in theologico negotio certissimum est falsitatis argumentum. Qui enim hoc asserunt, non aliis momentis suam potuerunt fulcire sententiam, nisi vel alegoriis, quæ quidem rem aliunde stabilitam confirmant, ipsæ per se conficere non possunt; vel contortis aliquibus scripturæ locis; vel illationibus longe petitis; vel factis denique ac exemplis, quæ utinam in Christi ecclesia nusquam fuissent audita, utpoteque vetustis aliis factis atque exemplis repugnant. Conati sunt utique Romani pontifices, à sæculo undecimo usque ad præsens, regna aliquoties anathemati subjicere, principesque supremos imperii dignitate privare sed irito fere semper conatu: id fortassis Deo permittente, ut experimento ipso omnibus patefiat, christianæ reipublicæ causam non esse castrorum more defendendam; ovesque Christi non civilibus necessario exorituris bellis pascendas; non armorum strepitu in ordinem redigi debere: sed consiliis, exhortationibus, divini verbi prædicatione, aliisque mediis à domino ecclesiæ pastoribus commendatis. Et quidem reges posse per episcopos, justis de causis, ab ecclesiæ membris abscindi, animamque eorum tradi Satanæ, eodem jure quo reliqui inferioris sortis fidelis, extra omnem controversiam positum esse debet: quamvis fortasse convenientiùs consultiùsque foret nunquam vulneribus summorum imperantium extrema hæc adhibere remedia. Verum, et tunc temporis eamdem omnino authoritatem, idem jus erga subditos habebunt, ac dum sacris omnibus communicabant; istique æqualem subjectionem, simile prorsus obsequium eis exhibere tenebuntur: nisi aperte injusta præcipiant, vel in crimine, ob quod a cætu fidelium segregati sunt, velint ut secum habeatur commercium; tunc enim divinum illud monitum præ oculis semper habendum, obedire oportet Deo magis quam hominibus. Hoc est profecto quod ex Christi institutione dimanat, hoc majorum nostrorum verba atque exempla confirmant. Desipiunt revera, qui aliam sibi christianam rempublicam effingunt animoque informant, ab illa vel minimun diversam quam legifer noster instituit; nam Christi ecclesiam inter scopulos ac syrtes perpetuo versaturam, in ca oportere hæreses esse, semper inter nebulas ac turbines viguisse, et numquam summa pace ac tranquillitate gavisam, nec nisi in patria fruituram; hospes omnino et peregrinus erit in sacra doctrina atque in ecclesiastica historia, si hæc aliquis ignoraverit.
kingly government; far be it from them to embrace an opinion unknown to all antiquity, for which there is not any solid foundation in the sacred writings, and which, at all times, and in every place where it has been suffered to prevail, has been the execrable parent of wars and civil discords. If such an arrangement had been suitable and useful to the church which Christ came to establish on earth, without doubt, he would have settled a matter of such importance with particular attention; and the very novelty of a doctrine in religious concerns, is ever a certain argument of its falsehood. The votaries to this opinion have no other principles on which to rest their cause, but either certain allegories, which, though they may confirm a doctrine already established, of themselves can afford no evidence of truth, or distorted passages of scripture, or far fetched inferences, or facts and precedents, which, it were to be wished, the christian church had never heard of, as they are all in direct opposition to other facts and precedents of high antiquity. From the eleventh century to the present, the bishops of Rome have sometimes endeavoured to anathematize kingdoms, and to depose princes from their sovereign dominion; but vain have been their efforts in almost every instance, perhaps by the particular disposition of the Divine Providence, that experience itself might convince mankind, that the christian republic is not to be defended by a military force; and the sheep of Christ are not to be fed in pastures obtained for them by wars and civil contests; are not to be composed into order by the clangor of arms, but by counsels, exhortations, the preaching of the divine word, and other such means recommended by our lord to the pastors of the church. That kings, as well as the faithful of inferior rank, are so far subject to the power of the bishops, that by them they may be separated from the church, and delivered to Satan if their crimes provoke such severity, is a truth which must not be called in question; although it would perhaps be more expedient and more discreet, never to apply such desperate remedies to the wounds of those who are invested with sovereign power. But princes, even when thus excommunicated, possess the same authority, the same right to govern as when they participated the sacred rites; and their subjects are bound to pay them equal homage, submission, and obedience, unless their orders be evidently unjust, or unless they insist that their subjects shall join them in the guilt, for which they are deprived of ecclesiastical communion; for in that case, we must never lose sight of the divine admonition, God is to be obeyed rather than man. This is the system established by Christ Jesus, and confirmed by the writings and examples of our forefathers. They are indeed, deluded, who picture to themselves any form of a christian republic, which differs in the least degree from that which has been framed by our great lawgiver; and he must be little conversant in sacred literature and ecclesiastical history, who is yet to be informed, that the church will ever be tossed about amongst rocks and shelves; that it is necessary that heresies should exist in it, that it
Appendix, No. XXII.
Appendix, No. XXII.
(C.) Miscellaneons PAPERS.
Quod autem aiunt christi rempublicam perfectam non fore, sibique non sufficere, nisi et temporalia omnia spiritualibus subordinentur, et propter graviora scelera principum, ipsi postquam sacris interdicti sunt deponantur, atque a jurejurando fidelitatis præstito absolvantur et subditi; extra evangelium antiquamque ecclesiæ praxim positum
Ab ipsa enim origine et Petrus, nulla
Inter fidei catholicæ articulos inveniturne ullus, qui catholicos eximat a fide servanda cum hæreticis, aut aliis quibuscumque personis ab ipsis, in rebus quæ ad religionem pertinent dissentientibus?
Nedum inter fidei catholicæ articulos nullus invenitur qui catholicos eximat à fide
has ever flourished amidst clouds and storms. never enjoyed a compleat tranquillity and peace, nor will enjoy it till settled in the heavenly paradise.
That the christian republic would not be perfect nor independent in its operations, unless all temporal rights were subordinate to the spiritual, and unless excommunicated princes were deposed, and their subjects absolved from their allegiance, is a pretence which receives no countenance either from the gospel, or from the ancient practice of the christian church. In its very origin, Peter making no mention of a doctrine of such weighty consequence as that would be, commands the faithful to pay obedience and reverence to kings and governors; and Paul will have every soul subject to the higher powers, and declares, that he who resists the powers resists the ordinance of God; and christians in the succeeding ages endured hunger, thirst, exile, and every extreme calamity, rather than depart from their allegiance to Julian, Constantius, Valens, and other Roman emperors, who were heretics, and protectors of heresy. But some divines and canonists, having their minds filled with magnificent ideas from beholding the present pomp, riches, and power of the church, have forgotten its former state of subjection, poverty, obedience, and misery. Therefore, the republic of Christ is perfect and completely independent, not because it can remove every obstacle to the salvation of man; for it cannot soften obdurate siuners to repentance, nor entirely take away the occasions of sin, nor avoid heresies and schisms, nor a variety of other things which are detrimental to its subjects: but it is independent and perfect, because it has received. power from God to conduct men to eternallife, and likewise the means for accomplishing its object; but then these means are of the same nature and kind with the end proposed, viz. spiritual not temporal means, which, we are decidedly of opinion, our Redeemer never thought of employing. Seeing therefore that the oath of allegiance, which binds subjects to their princes, refers to temporal rights only, and may be, and frequently is, imposed equally on believers and unbelievers; and since the Popes, when they have granted to any subjects a dispensation fromit, have always aimed at depriving their rulers of their dominion, which, as we have demonstrated, cannot be done without a violation of civiĺ and natural right, we without any hesitation declare, that neither the Roman Pontiff, nor the cardinals of the holy Roman church, nor any council, nor individual of the catholic church, can absolve the subjects of His Britannic Majesty from their oath of allegiance, or dispense with its obligations.
Question the Third.
Among the articles of the catholic faith, is there any which teaches that catholics are not bound to keep faith with heretics, or persons of any other description, who dissent from them in matters of religion?
So far are we from admitting, as an article of our religious creed, any tenet which authorizes
cum alterius sectæ hominibus servanda, quin potiùs scimus Paulum admonere frequenter ut cum omnibus, quantum in nobis sit, pacem atque charitatem habeamus. Neque enim Neque enim Christus per legem doctrinamque suam vetus naturæ jus abolere studuit sed stabilire bonaque in luce collocare. Nil autem humanæ menti altiùs insculptum, quam homines omnes quamtumvis in religione sibi mutuo adversentur ejusdem, omnino conditionis, æquales prorsus inveniri dum de pactis, societatibus, atque commerciis pertractant. Frequentissima sunt pacta quæ Hispani nostri, nulli sub cœlo nationi concedentes in fide catholica sarta tecta servanda, cum Anglis ipsis aliisque vel Lutheranis, vel Calvinistis populis, et in commerciis, et in pace firmanda contraxerunt: quæ quidem, nisi per summam injuriam atque calumniam, dici non potest fuisse unquam à nobis pretextu religionis violata. Quin et optimæ memoriæ, et numquam satis lacrymis prosequendus, nunc recens vita functus religiosissimus princeps noster Carolus tertius, non tantum cum hæreticis hominibus, verum et cum ipsis Africanis et Turcis qui Mahummedis deliria atque somnia fanatico quodam furore veluti e coelo delapsa venerantur, statim ac innatam animi ferociam vetusque adversus christianos odium deponere vel saltim remittere voluerunt, et bellorum inducias et fœdera etiam in æternum duratura celebravit. Quod sane rex sapiens, suorum populorum amantissimus, Christique ecclesiæ semper defensor strenuus, non ex recenti aliqua institutione, non ex sæculi nostri genio, sed ex avita pietate, atque ex christianæ religionis indole ac natura peregit. Neque enim quia catholici sumus, persecutionis spiritu agitari necesse est erga omnes in religione nobis adversantes; contrarium potius ex ipsa religionis tèssera charitate scilicet ac mansuetudine, atque ex veterum monumentis eruitur. Constans namque est plures, eosque sanctissimos, antiquitatis episcopos sacra vasa aliquoties, reliquamque ecclesiasticam supellectilem vendidisse, ut cujuscumque generis homines, sive paganos sive christianos, e servitute atque captivitate redimerent. Tantum abfuit ut viri illi beatissimi fidem cum ipsis non esse servandam in commerciis aliisque civilibus rebus do
Neque confundenda est unquam, ut ab aliquibus imperitis catholicorum osoribus frequenter confunditur, tolerantia hæreticorum religiosa cum eorumdem tolerantia civili. Revera, qui sibi in concussis fundamentis persuasum habent veram Christi ecclesiam tantum apud ipsos permanere; definita à pastoribus dogmata ita certa esse ut pro eorum veritate sanguis sit data occasione fundendus; omnemque hominem in altero pervicaciter contradicentem, fidem amittere fierique omnium rerum; numquam cum alterius cujuscumque sectæ hominibus, communionem ecclesiasticam religiosamque concordiam habebunt. Aliter tamen de communione cum hæreticis, aliisque fidei catholicæ adversantibus, in civilibus negotiis sentiendum: si
thorizes breach of faith to persons of a different persuasion, that we know we are frequently admonished by St. Paul, as much as it is possible, to have peace and charity with all men. The natural rights of men were not intended to be abridged by the law and doctrine of Christ, but to be confirmed and illustrated. Now nothing is more clearly engraven on the minds of men by the law of nature than this principle, That all men, however discordant their religious tenets, are, to every intent and purpose, in a state of equality with respect to negotiations, alliances, and compacts. The Spaniards, who, in point of zeal for the defence and support of the catholic faith, will yield to no nation under heaven, have entered into contracts relating both to commerce and to the establishment of peace with the English themselves, and with other Calvinist or Lutheran states; and it would be an atrocious injury and a vile calumny, to assert that such contracts have at any time been violated under pretence of religion. pretence of religion. Moreover, our late most religious prince Charles the Third, of blessed memory, whose death can never be sufficiently lamented, made treaties of peace and perpetual alliances, not only with heretics but with the Africans, and with the Turks themselves, who, with wild fanaticism, venerate the dreams and ravings of Mahomet as revelations from heaven, as soon as he found them disposed to lay aside, or at least to soften, their innate ferocity and inveterate hatred of the christian name. That wise prince, the loving father of his people, and strenuous defender of the church of Christ, did not act thus in consequence of any recent institution, not in conformity to the temper of this age, but moved by the antient spirit of genuine piety, and the very nature and genius of the christian religion. Because we are catholics, it is not necessary that we should be actuated by a persecuting spirit against those who are adverse to our religion; meekness and charity, its great characteristics, and the example left us by our forefathers, recommend to us a contrary conduct. conduct. For it is an incontestible fact, that many most holy bishops, in antient times, sold the sacred vessels and ornaments of the church, that they might redeem men of all denominations, whether pagans or christians, from captivity and slavery, so far were those venerable men from teaching that faith was not to be kept by them in compacts and other civil negotiations.
A distinction must always be made between the civil and the religious toleration of heretics, a distinction which is frequently not attended to by some ignorant revilers of the catholic church. Undoubtedly those who, grounded on certain and immovable principles, are persuaded that theirs is the only true church of Christ; that the doctrines defined by their pastors are so infallibly certain, that they are bound, when circumstances require it, to spill their blood in their defence; that every man who obstinately rejects one article loses his faith, and becomes guilty of all, can never hold ecclesiastical communion nor religious concord with men of any other sort or persuasion. But it is far otherwise with respect to 6 X
Appendix No. XXII. (C.) Miscellaneous
Appendix, No. XXII. enim primaria ea excipiantur officia quæ na(C.) turalis hominum ratio constanter decernit, in Miscellaneous reliquis et concordiam respuere, et concorPAPERS. diam habere poterimus, prout magis e re nostra fuerit. Sane in Hispania nostra, tercentis, abhinc annis nemo militare, nemo perpetuo domicilio frui permittitur, qui catholicæ ecclesiæ aperte inimicus censeatur : scilicet principes nostri satius duxerunt aliquo fortassis commodo carere, ex commerciis artibusque hominum dissentientium proveniente, quam vel fidem labefactare, vel imperium suum frequentibus ob religionem contentionibus atque dissidiis exponere. Verum fidem in rebus civilibus, cum ecclesia hostibus quicumque illi sint, non esse servandam, numquam catholica nostra religio præcepit, numquam apud nos creditum est præcepisse. Inter fidei ergo catholicæ, nullus articulos invenitur, qui catholicos eximat a fide servanda cum hæreticis, aut aliis quibuscumque personis ab ipsis, in rebus quæ ad religionem pertinent dissentientibus.
Appendix, No. XXII.
(D) Miscellaneous PAPERS.
communion with heretics, and other enemies of the catholic faith, in civil transactions; for if we except the first natural duties, by which every man is bound to his fellow man, in other matters we are at liberty either to unite with them or separate from them, as shall appear most conducive to our own interests. In Spain, indeed, for these three hundred years past, no one is permitted to hold any military office, nor to enjoy a perpetual settlement, who is considered as an avowed enemy to the catholic church; because our princes have thought it more eligible to forego certain advantages, which might perhaps be derived from commercial intercourse with men of different persuasions, or from their improvements in the arts, than either to endanger the faith of their subjects, or expose their empire to frequent broils and contentions about the doctrines of religion. But it uever was the doctrine of the catholic church, nor was it ever believed by us to be her doctrine, that faith was not to be kept with the enemies of the church, whatever may be their denomination; therefore, among the articles of the catholic faith, there is none which teaches that catholics are not bound to keep faith with heretics, or with persons of any other description, who dissent from them in matters of religion.
Given in the University of Salamanca, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-nine.
Signed in the name of the whole University, by the Rector and the six deputed Members.
Signed by the Rector, the Regius and Public Professors of Theology, the Professors of Canon, Ecclesiastical and Civil Law, and the Greek Professor; and countersigned by order of the University, by its Secretary.
Official Papers relating to the Roman Catholics of Ireland; printed by Order of the House of Commons.
Copy of a Letter from the Reverend Daniel Murray, President of the Royal College, Maynooth, dated the 23d of April 1813; to William Gregory, Esq.
Ordered, by the House of Commons, to be Printed, May 4, 1813.
Royal College of St. Patrick, Maynooth, 23d April 1813.
IN N obedience to your letter of the 20th, accompanying two Orders of the House of Commons of the 13th and 14th instant, and requiring me to transmit to you the returns therein desired, that they may be forwarded and laid before the House; and also duplicates of said returns, for Mr. Peel's information; I have the honour to transmit herewith the returns so demanded.
No. 1.-Contains, as required by the Order of the 13th instant, copies of the dogmatical and moral treatises taught in the royal college of St. Patrick, Maynooth, during the last year: These treatises are,
1st. Doctor Delahogue's "Tractatus de Sacramentis in genere, & de Eucharistia," named in the Order of the House of Commons of the 14th instant.
2d. The following moral treatises, extracted from the Works of the Rev. Paul Gabriel Antoine-1. De Legibus-2. De Justitia Jure, &c.-3. De Contractibus. On the reverse of the title-page of the accompanying quarto volume, the necessary references are made to the different parts of the work, in which these treatises will be found.
These latter treatises were explained by the Rev. Doctor Anglade, professor of moral divinity, and accommodated to the laws of these countries, by occasional references to the Commentaries of Judge Blackstone.