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§ 7. Schedule v. defining areas and boundaries of Boroughs with altered boundaries.

§ 8. Schedule vi. The Divisions of Boroughs, each returning 1 member. § 9. Schedule vii. List of Counties at large divided into the number of divisions corresponding to the representation, i.e. 2 members, 2 divisions, 4 members, 4 divisions, etc. Each division therefore is treated "as a separate county."

ENGLAND

C

AND WALES 94

SCOTLAND

IRELAND

The Changes of the Reform Acts in Diagram.

BEFORE 1832

1832

1867

302 5

B U TOTAL с B U TOTAL C B
415 4 513 159 336 4 499 186
30 15
62 35 1

45

30

23 1 54

33

25 2

100

64

39 2 105

64

39 2 105

658

253

398 7 658

283

366 9 658

C=COUNTIES; B=BOROUGHS; U=UNIVERSITIES.

TOTAL 188 465 5

U TOTAL C
493 253
60

1885

B U To

237 5 4

2 1

2 1

9

6

39 31

85 16 377 284

II. POOR LAW.

A. 13 & 14 CHARLES II. CAP. 12, 1662.

An Act for the better relief of the poor of this Kingdom.

Be it enacted . . . That whereas by reason of some defects in the law, poor people are not restrained from going from one parish to another, and therefore do endeavour to settle themselves in those parishes where there is the best stock . . . and when they have consumed it then to another parish, and at last become rogues and vagabonds. . . that it shall be lawful . . . within forty days after any such person or persons coming so to settle as aforesaid, in any tenement under the yearly value of ten pounds, for any two justices of the peace, whereof one to be of the quorum . . . by their warrant to remove and convey such person or persons to such parish where he or they were last legally settled, either as a native, householder, sojourner, apprentice or servant, for the space of forty days at least, unless he or they give sufficient security for the discharge of the said parish, to be showed by the said justices. . .

4. And for the further redress of the mischiefs... That from henceforth there... shall be, one or more corporation or corporations, workhouse or workhouses within the cities of London and Westminster, and within the boroughs, towns and places of the county of Middlesex and Surrey. . .

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6. That it shall be lawful to and for the said president and governors of the said corporation . . . to apprehend . . . any rogues, vagrants, sturdy beggars, or idle and disorderly persons within the said cities . . . and to cause them to be kept and set to work in the several and respective corporations or work-houses. .

19. That it shall be lawful for the churchwardens and overseers for the poor of such parish when any bastard child shall be born, to take and

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seize so much of the goods and chattels . . . pf such putative father or lewd mother, for or towards the discharge of the parish, to be confirmed at the sessions, for the bringing up and providing for such bastard child. . . .

B. (GILBERT'S ACT.) 22 GEO. III. C. 83, 1782.

Be it enacted. (2) that it shall . . . be lawful for . . . the visitors and guardians of any parish... to make agreement . . . for the diet or clothing of such poor persons who shall be sent to the house or house or houses provided under this act . . . (3) with the consent of twothirds of the rate payers at a public meeting and with the approval of two justices of the peace, 3 salaried guardians and 3 governors "of the poor house" may be appointed. (4) Two or more parishes may be united with the approval of two justices to carry out and benefit by this Act. (6) The voters at the public meeting to be owners or occupiers of property rated to the poor rate, not less than £5. (7) The Justices to appoint a guardian of the poor for every parish who except as regards making and collecting poor rate shall have the statutory powers of an overseer. (8) The churchwardens or overseers to receive the poor rate. (a) The Justices to appoint a paid governor of the poor house "who shall have the care, management and employment of the poor." (9) The guardians and justices to appoint a visitor to inspect and superintend the management of the poor house and control the Governor. (17, 18) The Guardians of the poor shall provide and fit up a poor house or poor houses situate within the parish or united parishes, at the expense of the parish. (21) The visitor and Guardians are "declared to be one body politic and corporate." (24) The poor to be maintained at the expense of the parish, the Guardians to have a monthly meeting for the transaction of all necessary business. (29) "That no person shall be sent to such poor house . . . except such as are become indigent by old age, sickness or infirmities, and are unable to acquire a maintenance by their labour: and except such orphan children as shall be sent thither by order of the guardians with the approbation of the visitor." (30) The Guardians are empowered to apprentice, or put out to service or trade, orphan children. (31) Idle and disorderly persons, able but unwilling to work, may be prosecuted by the Guardians. (32) The Guardians are empowered to provide work for the poor, able and willing to work, but who cannot get employment, and to maintain, or help in maintaining such persons until they are provided for. (35) A Justice of the peace when the Guardians have refused relief may order some weekly or other relief for such poor person or send him to the poor house, or order the Guardians to provide him with employment as provided by § 32. (39) "Nothing herein contained shall . . . extend to alter or affect the settlement of any person . . . or to give any illegitimate child (born in a workhouse) a settlement in the parish . . . but every such child shall be considered as settled in the parish to which the mother belongs. . . ."

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An act for the Amendment and better administration of the Laws relating to the Poor in England and Wales.

Be it therefore enacted . . . that it shall be lawful for his majesty to appoint three fit Commissioners to carry this Act into execution.

II. That the said Commissioners shall be styled "The Poor Law Commissioners for England and Wales" (to sit as a Board, with power to examine witnesses and call for papers, on oath).

VII. The said Commissioners .. are hereby empowered . . . to appoint such persons as they may think fit to be Assistant Commissioners.

XV. That ... the administration of relief to the poor throughout England and Wales according to the existing laws . . . shall be subject to the direction and control of the said Commissioners . . . and they are . . . hereby required . . . to issue all such rules, orders and regulations for the management of the poor, for the government of workhouses and for the guidance and control of all guardians, vestries and parish officers...

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C. THE POOR LAW AMENDMENT ACT.
4 & 5 WILLIAM IV. C. 76, 1834.

XXIII. That it shall be lawful for the said Commissioners . . . with the consent of a majority of the guardians of any union . . . to direct the overseers or guardians of any parish . . . to build a workhouse. . . .

XXVI. It shall be lawful for the said Commissioners . . . to declare so many parishes as they may think fit to be united for the administration of the laws for the relief of the poor, and such parishes shall thereupon be deemed a union. . . .

XXVII. It shall be lawful for any two of his Majesty's Justices of the peace.. to direct... that relief shall be given to any adult person

unable to work, without requiring that such person shall reside in any workhouse.

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XXXVIII. That a board of Guardians of the poor for such union shall be constituted . . . and the workhouse or workhouses shall be governed, and the relief of the poor . . . be administered, by such board of guardians: and the said guardians shall be elected by the ratepayers and every justice of the peace residing in any such parish . . . shall be an ex officio guardian of such united or common workhouses.

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(XXXIX. A similar board for single parishes.)

XL. No person shall be deemed a ratepayer, or be entitled to vote unless he shall have been rated to the relief of the poor for the whole year immediately preceding . . . and shall have paid the parochial rates. . .

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XLIII. It shall be lawful . . . for any justice of the peace acting in and for the county. to visit, inspect and examine such workhouse .. for the purpose of ascertaining whether such rules . . . have been duly observed. . . .

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XLVII. That all overseers . . . having the collection, receipt or distribution of monies. assessed for the relief of the poor . . . shall, make and render to the guardians

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once in every quarter a full and distinct account in writing of all monies . . . committed to their charge.

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LII. That it shall be lawful . . . for the said Commissioners . . to declare to what extent. . . relief to be given to able-bodied persons or their families . . . may be administered out of the workhouse . . . and all relief. . . contrary to such orders . . . shall be . . . unlawful. . . . (But overseers may delay the operation of such regulations under special circumstances.)

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LIV. That . . . the giving of all relief to the poor . . . shall appertain and belong exclusively to such guardians of the poor or select vestry ... and it shall not be lawful for any overseer to give any further . . relief... than such as shall be ordered by such guardians. (Except in specified cases of urgent necessity.)

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LV. The master of every workhouse . . . shall . . . register in a book to be provided at the expense of the parish . . . the name of every person. . . in the receipt of relief at or in such workhouse . . . and in like manner . . the overseer of the poor shall . . . register in a book ... the name of every person then in the receipt of relief in such parish out of the workhouse (and in both cases particulars as to family, settlement, previous employment are to be added as required).

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LXIV. No settlement shall be acquired. . . (by hiring, service, occupation, except by paying poor rate for one year, apprenticeship in the sea service, by possession of an estate within a parish except during residence within 10 miles).

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(LXIX. repeals the Acts imposing liability and punishment of the putative father and punishment of the mother of illegitimate children.)

LXXI. Every child which shall be born a bastard shall . . . follow the settlement of the mother . . . until such child shall attain the age of sixteen or shall acquire a settlement in its own right . . . and such mother, so long as she is unmarried or a widow shall be bound to maintain such child as a part of her family (until it is 16). . . provided that such liability. . shall cease on the marriage of such child, if a female.

(The remainder of the Act deals with the duties of officials, jurisdiction, appeals, penalties for contravening the Act, prohibition of introducing alcoholic liquors into workhouses, forfeitures, etc.)

(See Fowle, P.L. passim; Redlich and Hirst, E.L.G. i. 98-134, ii. 203– 319; Gneist, E.C. 723-748; Rogers, P.L. iii. 145–152.)

III. LOCAL GOVERNMENT.

A. (MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS) 5 & 6 WILLIAM IV. Cap. 76, 1835.1 An act to provide for the Regulation of Municipal Corporations in England and Wales.

I. Be it therefore enacted . . . that [all laws, customs and charters inconsistent with the act repealed]. . . .

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II. That every person who now is or hereafter may be an inhabitant of any borough . . . and any freeman or burgess . . . shall have and enjoy the same share and benefit of the lands. . . of any borough . . . as he or she might . . . have enjoyed in case this Act had not been passed. . . . III. That no person . . . shall be . . . made a burgess or freeman of any borough by gift or purchase.

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IV. That every person. . . who . . . would have enjoyed... the right of voting in the election of a member to serve in Parliament . . . shall enjoy. . . such right for the future. . . .

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VI. That . . . in any borough the body. . . corporate . . . shall take . . the name of the mayor, aldermen and burgesses of such borough. . . . IX. That every such person of full age. . . who shall have occupied any house. or shop within any borough during that year and the whole of each of the two preceding years and . . . shall have been an inhabitant householder . . . shall... be a burgess of such borough... provided always . . . that he shall have been rated . . . to all rates made for the relief of the poor. . . .

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XI. That . . . in every borough it shall be lawful for any person occupying any house . . . or shop to claim to be rated to the relief of the poor in respect of such premises.

XIII. That . . . no person shall be enrolled a burgess in respect of any title other than by occupancy and payment of rates. (XIV.-XXIV. Provisions for drawing up and revising "The Burgess List".)

XXV. That in every borough shall be elected . . . one fit person who shall be ... "the mayor". . . and a certain number of fit persons who shall be "aldermen"... and a certain number of other fit persons who shall be ... "the councillors". . . and such mayor, aldermen and councillors shall be . . . "the council of such borough."

(XXVI.-XXVIII. Qualifications of aldermen.)

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XXIX. Every burgess . . . shall be entitled to vote in the election of councillors..

(XXX.-XLVIII. The mode and time of election of councillors, auditors and assessors. The boroughs scheduled in the Act to be divided into wards, each ward to elect councillors as arranged.)

1 Repealed in part 6 & 7 Will. IV. c. 103; 16 & 17 Vict. c. 79; 35 & 36 Vict. c. 33; Stat. Law Rev. Act, 1874.

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