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(c) Frequency of tests. At least once § 58.138 Quality testing of milk from each month, at irregular intervals, a new producers. mixed sample of each producer's milk

An examination shall be made on the shall be tested.

first shipment of milk from producers (d) Acceptance of milk. If the sample of milk is classified as No. 1 or No. 2

shipping milk to a plant for the first time

or after a period of nonshipment. The the producer's milk may be accepted

milk shall meet the requirements for without qualification. If the sample is

"acceptable milk” ($ $ 58.134 and 58.135). classified as “Undergrade" (probational)

Thereafter, the milk shall be tested in the producer's milk may be accepted for

accordance with the procedure estaba temporary period of 4 weeks. The

lished for regular shippers. producer of "Undergrade” milk shall be notified immediately.

§ 58.139

Record of tests. (e) Retests. Additional samples shall be tested and classified at least weekly

Accurate records, listing the results of and the producer notified immediately

quality tests of each producer, shall be of the results. This procedure of test

kept on file at the receiving plant where ing at least weekly and accepting “Un

performed and shall be available for dergrade” inilk may be continued for a

examination by the inspector. time period not exceeding 4 weeks. § 58.140 Field service. If at the end of this time the producer's milk does not meet the acceptable bac

A representative of the plant should terial estimate requirements (No. 1 or

arrange to promptly visit each producer No. 2), it shall be excluded from product.

shipping milk which does not meet the

requirements for acceptable milk, for the § 58.136 Rejected milk.

purpose of inspecting the equipment, A plant shall reject specific milk from utensils and facilities at the farm and to a producer if it fails to meet the require- offer constructive assistance for improvements for sight and odor ($ 58.133) or if ment in the quality of the milk. A repit is classified No. 4 for sediment content resentative of the plant should visit each ($ 58.135). All reject milk in cans shall producer as often as practicable to asbe identified with a reject tag.

sist in and encourage the production of § 58.137 Excluded milk.

high quality milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a

$ 58.141 Alternate quality control proproducer for use in products:

gram. (a) If a new producer's milk does not meet the requirements for acceptable

When a plant has in operation an acmilk ($ $ 58.134 and 58.135); or

ceptable quality program, at the pro(b) If the milk has been in a proba

ducer level, which is approved by the Adtional (No. 3) sediment content classifi

ministrator as being effective in obtaincation for more than 10 calendar days

ing results comparable to or higher than ($ 58.134); or

the quality program as outlined above for (c) If the milk has been classified milk or cream, then such a program may "Undergrade" for bacterial estimate for be accepted in lieu of the program herein more than 4 successive weeks ($ 58.135). prescribed.

OPERATIONS AND OPERATING PROCEDURES § 58.142 Product quality and stability.

The receiving, holding and processing of milk and cream and the manufacturing, handling, packaging, storing and delivery of dairy products shall be in accordance with clean and sanitary methods, consistent with good commercial practices to promote the production of the highest quality of finished product and improve product stability. $ 58.143 Raw product storage.

(a) All milk shall be held and processed under conditions and at temperatures that will avoid contamination and rapid deterioration. Drip milk from can washers or any other source shall not be used for the manufacture of dairy products. Bulk milk in storage tanks within the dairy plant shall be handled in such a manner as to minimize bacterial increase and shall be maintained at 45° F. or lower until processing begins. This does not preclude holding milk at higher temperatures for a period of time, where applicable to particular manufacturing or processing practices.

(b) The bacteriological quality of commingled milk in storage tanks should be No. 2 or better. § 58.144 Pasteurization or sterilization.

When pasteurization or sterilization is intended or required, or when a product is designated "pasteurized" or "sterilized” every particle of the product shall be subjected to such temperatures and holding periods as will assure proper pasteurization or sterilization of the product. The heat treatment by either process shall be sufficient to insure public health safety and to assure adequate keeping quality, yet retaining the most desirable flavor and body characteristics of the finished product. The phenol value of check test samples of pasteurized finished product shall be no greater than the maximum specified for the particular product as determined and specified by the phosphatase test method prescribed in the latest edition of “Oficial Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists." 8 58.145 Composition and wholesome

or

and ingredients used in the processing or manufacturing of any dairy product shall be subject to inspection and shall be wholesome and practically free from impurities. The finished products shall comply with the requirements of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act as to their composition and wholesomeness. § 58.146 Cleaning and sanitizing treat.

ment. (a) Equipment and utensils. (1) The equipment, sanitary piping and utensils used in receiving and processing of the milk, and manufacturing and handling of the product shall be maintained in a sanitary condition. Sanitary seal assemblies shall be removable on all agitators, pumps, and vats and shall be inspected at regular intervals and kept clean. Unless other provisions are recommended in the following supplement sections, all equipment not designed for C.I.P. cleaning shall be disassembled after each day's use for thorough cleaning. Dairy cleaners, detergents, wetting agents or sanitizing agents, or other similar materials which will not contaminate or adversely affect the products may be used. Steel wool metal sponges shall not be used in the cleaning of any dairy equipment or utensils. All product contact surfaces shall be subjected to an effective sanitizing treatment immediately prior to use, except where dry cleaning is permitted. Utensils and portable equipment used in processing and manufacturing operations shall be stored above the floor in clean, dry locations and in a self-draining position on racks constructed of impervious corrosion-resistant material.

(2) C.I.P. cleaning, including sprayball systems, shall be used only on equipment and pipeline systems which have been designed and engineered for that purpose. When such cleaning is used, careful attention shall be given to the proper procedures to assure satisfactory cleaning. All C.I.P. installations and cleaning procedures shall be in accordance with 3-A Suggested Method for the Installation and Cleaning of CleanedIn-Place Sanitary Milk Pipelines for Milk and Milk Products Plants. Because of the possibilities of corrosion, the recommendations of the cleaning compound manufacturer should be followed with respect to time, temperature and concentration of specific acid or alkaline solutions and bactericides. The established cleaning procedure shall be posted and

ness.

All necessary precautions shall be taken to prevent contamination or adulteration of the milk or dairy products during manufacturing. All substances

followed. Such cleaning operation should person who sanitized the tank. The tag be preceded by a thorough rinse at ap- shall not be removed until the tank is proximately 110–115° F. continuously dis- again washed and sanitized. carding the water. Following the circu- (d) Building. All windows, glass, lation of the cleaning solution the equip- partitions, and skylights shall be washed ment and lines shall be thoroughly as often as necessary to keep them clean. rinsed with lukewarm water and checked Cracked or broken glass shall be replaced for effectiveness of cleaning. All caps, promptly. The walls, ceilings, and doors plugs, special fittings, valve seats, cross shall be washed periodically and kept ends, pumps, plates, and tee ends shall free from soil and unsightly conditions. be opened or removed and brushed clean. The shelves and ledges shall be wiped or Immediately prior to starting the prod- vacuumed as often as necessary to keep uct flow, the product contact surfaces them free from dust and debris. The shall be given bactericidal treatment. material picked up by the vacuum Plates and pumps should be left open cleaners shall be disposed of by burning overnight, assembled and sanitized prior or other proper method to destroy any to use.

insects that might be present. (b) Milk cans and can washers. (1)

$ 58.147 Insect and rodent control proMilk cans and lids shall be cleaned,

gram. sanitized and dried before returning to producers. Inspection, repair, or re

In addition to any commercial pest placement of cans and lids shall be ade- control service, if one is utilized a spequate to substantially exclude from use

cially designated employee shall be cans and lids showing open seams,

made responsible for the performance cracks, rust condition, milkstone, or any

of a regularly scheduled insect and unsanitary condition.

rodent control program. Poisonous sub(2) Washers shall be maintained in a

stances, insecticides and rodenticides clean and satisfactory operating condi

shall be properly labeled, and shall be tion and kept free from accumulation of

handled, stored and used in such a manscale or debris which will adversely affect

ner as not to create a public health the efficiency of the washer. Only wash

hazard. ing compounds which are compatible

§ 58.148 Plant records. with the water, for effective cleaning, should be used. The can washer should

Adequate plant records shall be mainbe checked regularly during the run for

tained of all required tests and analyses proper operation. At the end of the day,

performed in the laboratory or throughthe wash and rinse tanks should be

out the plant during processing and drained and cleaned, jets and strainers

manufacturing, on all raw milk receipts cleaned, air filters checked and changed

and dairy products. Such records shall or cleaned if needed, and checks should

be available for examination at all reabe made for proper adjustment and con

sonable times by the inspector. The dition of mechanical parts.

following are the records which shall be (c) Milk transport tanks. A covered

maintained for examination at the plant or enclosed wash dock and cleaning and

or receiving station where performed. sanitizing facilities shall be available to

(a) Sediment and bacterial test re

sults on raw milk from each producer. all plants that receive or ship milk in tanks.

Retain for 12 months. Milk transport tanks, sanitary piping, fittings, and pumps shall be

(1) Routine tests and monthly sumcleaned and sanitized at least once each

mary of all producers showing number day, after use: Provided, That, if they

and percent of total in each class. are not to be used immediately after

(2) Retests, if initial test places milk emptying a load of milk, they shall

in probationary status.

(3) Rejections of raw milk over No. 3 be washed promptly after use and given bactericidal treatment immedi

in quality. ately before use. After being washed

(b) Laboratory and plant quality

control tests of dairy products as reand sanitized, each tank should be

quired in this part. Retain for 12 identified by a tag attached to the

months. outlet valve, bearing the following in

(1) Bacteriological. formation: Plant and specific location (2) Chemical analysis. where cleaned, date and time of day (3) Keeping quality. of washing and sanitizing, and name (c) Pasteurization recorder charts. of person who washed and name of Retain for 6 months.

(d) Water supply test certificate. Retain current copy for 6 months.

(e) Employee health certificate. Retain most recent copy until employee is no longer employed by plant. $ 58.149 Alternate quality control pro

grams for dairy products. (a) When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality control program which is approved by the Administrator as being effective in obtaining results comparable to or higher than the quality control program as outlined in this subpart, then such a program may be accepted in lieu of the program herein prescribed.

(b) Where a minimum number of samples per batch of product, or per unit of time on continuous production runs are not specified, the phrase "as many samples shall be taken as is necessary to assure compliance to specific quality requirements" is used. Acceptable performance of this would be any method approved by the Administrator as meeting sound statistical methods of selecting samples and determining the number of samples to be taken. PACKAGING AND GENERAL IDENTIFICATION 58.150 Containers.

(a) The size, style, and type of packaging used for dairy products shall be commercially acceptable containers and packaging materials which will satisfactorily cover and protect the quality of the contents during storage and regular channels of trade and under normal conditions of handling. The weights and shape within each size or style shall be as nearly uniform as is practical.

(b) Packaging materials for dairy products shall be selected which will provide sufficiently low permeability to air and vapor to prevent the formation of mold growth and surface oxidation. In addition, the wrapper should be resistant to puncturing, tearing, cracking, or breaking under normal conditions of handling, shipping, and storage. When special type packaging is used, the instructions of the manufacturers shall be followed closely as to its application and methods of closure. $ 58.151 Packaging and repackaging.

(a) Packaging dairy products or cutting and repackaging all styles of dairy products shall be conducted under rigid sanitary conditions. The atmosphere

of the packaging rooms, the equipment and packaging material shall be practically free from mold and bacterial contamination. Methods for checking the level of contamination shall be as prescribed by the latest edition of Standard Methods or by other satisfactory methods approved by the Administrator.

(b) When officially graded bulk dairy products are to be repackaged into consumer type packages with official grade labels or other official identification, a supervisor of packaging shall be required, see Subpart A, 88 58.2 and 58.52. If the packaging or repackaging is done in a plant other than the one in which the dairy product is manufactured, the plant, equipment, facilities, and personnel shall meet the same requirements as outlined in this subpart. § 58.152 General identification.

All commercial bulk packages containing dairy products manufactured under the provisions of this subpart shall be adequately and legibly marked with the name of the product, net weight, name and address of processor or manufacturer or other assigned plant identification, lot number, and any other identification as may be required. Consumer packaged product shall be legibly marked with the name of the product, net weight, name and address of packer, manufacturer, or distributor and such other identification as may be required by the regulatory agency in jurisdiction.

STORAGE OF FINISHED PRODUCT $ 58.153 Dry storage.

The product shall be stored at least 18 inches from the wall in aisles, rows, or sections and lots, in such a manner as to be orderly and easily accessible for inspection. Rooms should be cleaned regularly. It is recommended that dunnage or pallets be used when practical. Care shall be taken in the storage of any other product foreign to dairy products in the same room, in order to prevent impairment or damage to the dairy product from mold, absorbed odors, or vermine or insect infestation. Control of humidity and temperature shall be maintained at all times, consistent with good commercial practices, to prevent conditions detrimental to the product and container.

$ 58.154 Refrigerated storage.

EXPLANATION OF TERMS The finished product shall be placed $ 58.160 Terms. on shelves, dunnage, or pallets and prop

(a) Fresh and sweet. Free from “old erly identified. It shall be stored under

milk" flavor and odor of developed acidtemperatures that will best maintain the

ity or other off-flavors or off-odors. initial quality. The product shall not

(b) Normal feed. Regional feed flabe exposed to anything from which it

vors, such as alfalfa, alover, silage, or might absorb any foreign odors or be

similar feeds or grasses (weed flavors, contaminated from drippage or con

such as peppergrass, French weed, onion, densation.

garlic, or other obnoxious weeds, INSPECTION, GRADING AND OFFICIAL excluded). IDENTIFICATION

(c) Off-flavors or off-odors. Flavors

or odors, such as utensil, bitter, barny, § 58.155 Grading.

or other associated defects when present Dairy products which have been proc

to a degree readily detectable. essed or manufactured in accordance (d) Developed acidity. An apparent with the provisions of this subpart may

increase from the normal acidity of the be graded by the grader in accordance

milk to a degree of flavor and odor which with the U.S. Standards for Grades.

is detectable. Laboratory analyses, when required in

(e) Extraneous-matter. Foreign sub

stances, such as filth, hair, insects and determining the final grade shall be con

fragments thereof, and rodents, and maducted in an approved laboratory.

terials, such as metal, fiber, wood, and § 58.156 Inspection.

glass.

(f) Sediment. Fine particles of maDairy products, which have been proc

terial other than the foreign substances essed or manufactured in an approved and materials defined in paragraph (e) plant, and for which there are no ofi- of this section. cial U.S. Standards for Grades, shall be (g) C.I.P. The abbreviation of an apinspected for quality by the inspector in proved system of cleaning equipment or accordance with contract requirements pipelines called “Cleaned-in-Place." or product specifications established by

SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR PLANTS the U.S. Department of Agriculture or MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING AND PACKother Federal agency or buyer and seller. AGING NONFAT DRY MILK, DRY WHOLE Laboratory analysis when required shall MILK, DRY BUTTERMILK AND DRY WHEY be conducted in an approved laboratory.

DEFINITIONS § 58.157 Inspection or grading certifi.

$ 58.205 Meaning of words. cates.

For the purpose of the regulations in All dairy products which have been

this subpart, words in the singular form processed or manufactured, packaged

shall be deemed to impart the plural and and inspected or graded, in accordance

vice versa, as the case may demand. with the provision of this part may be Unless the context otherwise requires, covered by an inspection or grading cer- the following terms shall have the foltificate issued by the inspector or grader. lowing meaning:

(a) Nonfat dry milk. The pasteurized § 58.158 Official identification.

product resulting from the removal of (a) Application for authority to apply fat and water from milk, and contains official identification to packaging ma- the lactose, milk proteins, and milk terial or containers shall be made in

minerals in the same relative proporaccordance with the provisions of Sub

tions as in the fresh milk from which part A, 88 58.49–58.57.

made. It shall not contain buttermilk, (b) Only dairy products received,

or any added preservative, neutralizing

agent or other chemical. processed, or manufactured in accord

(b) Instant nonfat dry milk. Nonfat ance with the specifications contained

dry milk which has been produced in in this subpart and inspected and/or

such a manner as to substantially imgraded in accordance with the provisions prove its dispersing and reliquification of this part may be identified with of- characteristics over that produced by the ficial identification.

conventional process.

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