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(c) Nothing in this title shall be construed (1) to affect the validity of any loan or extension of credit (or any extension or renewal thereof) made or of any lien created prior or subsequent to the enactment of this title, unless at the time of the making of such loan or extension of credit (or extension or renewal thereof) or the creating of such lien, the person making such loan or extension of credit (or extension or renewal thereof) or acquiring such lien shall have actual knowledge of facts by reason of which the making of such loan or extension of credit (or extension or renewal thereof) or the acquisition of such lien as a violation of the provisions of this title or any rule or regulation thereunder, or (2) to afford a defense to the collection of any debt or obligation or the enforcement of any lien by any person who shall have acquired such debt, obligation, or lien in good faith for value and without actual knowledge of the violation of any provision of this title or any rule or regulation thereunder affecting the legality of such debt, obligation, or lien. LIABILITY OF CONTROLLING PERSONS; PREVENTING COMPLIANCE WITH

TITLE Sec. 27. [792-1] (a) It shall be unlawful for any person, directly or indirectly, to cause to be done any act or thing through or by means of any other person which it would be unlawful for such person to do under the provisions of this title or any rule, regulation, or order thereunder.

(b) It shall be unlawful for any person without just cause to hinder, delay, or obstruct the making, filing, or keeping of any information, document, report, record, or account required to be made, filed, or kept under any provision of this title or any rule, regulation, or order thereunder.

UNLAWFUL REPRESENTATIONS SEC. 28. [792-2) It shall be unlawful for any person in issuing, selling, or offering for sale any security of a registered holding company or subsidiary company thereof, to represent or imply in any manner whatsoever that such security has been guaranteed, sponsored, or recommended for investment by the United States or any agency or officer thereof.

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Sec. 29. [792-3] Any person who willfully violates any provision of this title or any rule, regulation, or order thereunder (other than an order of the Commission under subsection (b), (d), (e), or (f) of section 11), or any person who willfully makes any statement or entry in an application, report, document, account, or record filed or kept or required to be filed or kept under the provisions of this title or any rule, regulation, or order thereunder, knowing such statement or entry to be false or misleading in any material respect, or any person who willfully destroys (except after such time as may be prescribed under any rules or regulations under this title), mutilates, alters, or by any means, or device falsifies any account, correspondence, memorandum, book, paper, or other record kept or required to be kept under the provisions of this title or any rule, regulation, or order thereunder, shall upon conviction be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both, except that in the case of a violation of a provision of subsection (a) or (b) of section 4 by a holding company which is not an individual, the fine imposed upon such holding company shall be a fine not exceeding $200,000; but no person shall be convicted under this section for the violation of any rule, regulation, or order if he proves that he had no knowledge of such rule, regulation, or order.

3 See also 18 U.S.C. 3623.

STUDY OF PUBLIC-UTILITY AND INVESTMENT COMPANIES Sec. 30. [792-4] The Commission is authorized and directed to make studies and investigations of public-utility companies, the territories served or which can be served by public-utility companies, and the manner in which the same are or can be served, to determine the sizes, types, and locations of public-utility companies which do or can operate most economically and efficiently in the public interest, in the interest of investors and consumers, and in furtherance of a wider and more economical use of gas and electric energy; upon the basis of such investigations and studies the Commission shall make public from time to time its recommendations as to the type and size of geographically and economically integrated public-utility systems which, having regard for the nature and character of the locality served, can best promote and harmonize the interests of the public, the investor, and the consumer. The Commission is authorized and directed to make a study of the functions and activities of investment trusts and investment companies, the corporate structures, and investment policies of such trusts and companies, the influence exerted by such trusts and companies upon companies in which they are interested, and the influence exerted by interests affiliated with the management of such trusts and companies upon their investment policies, and to report the results of its study and its recommendations to the Congress on or before January 4, 1937.

EMPLOYEES OF THE COMMISSION Sec. 31. [792-5] For the purposes of this title, the Commission may select, employ, and fix the compensation of such attorneys, examiners, and other experts as shall be necessary for the transaction of the business of the Commission in respect of this title without regard to the provisions of other laws applicable to the employment and compensation of officers or employees of the United States; and the Commission may, subject to the civil-service laws, appoint such other officers and employees as are necessary in the execution of the functions of the Commission and fix their salaries in accordance with the Classification Act of 1923, as amended.

SEPARABILITY OF PROVISIONS Sec. 32. [792-6) If any provision of this title or the application of such provision to any person or circumstances shall be held invalid, the remainder of the title and the application of such provision to persons or circumstances other than those as to which it is held invalid shall not be affected thereby.

SHORT TITLE

SEC. 33. [79] This title may be cited as the “Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935”.

TITLE II—AMENDMENTS TO FEDERAL WATER POWER ACT

[Title II of the Public Utility Act of 1935 amended the Federal Water Power Act, and added a new Part II to that Act regulating electric utility companies engaged in the interstate transmission of electric energy. Section 318 of that Act, relating to the applicability of that Act and the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 to the same person, is set forth below.]

SEC. 318. If, with respect to the issue, sale, or guaranty of a security, or assumption of obligation or liability in respect of a security, the method of keeping accounts, the filing of reports, or the acquisition or disposition of any security, capital assets, facilities, or any other subject matter, any person is subject both to a requirement of the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 or of a rule, regulation, or order thereunder and to a requirement of this Act or of a rule, regulation, or order thereunder, the requirement of the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 shall apply to such person, and such person shall not be subject to the requirement of this Act, or of any rule, regulation, or order thereunder, with respect to the same subject matter, unless the Securities and Exchange Commission has exempted such person from such requirement of the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935, in which case the requirements of this Act shall apply to such person.

TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939

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