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ference of 10 Western States, attended by State legislators; State commissioners of health, education, welfare, and labor; and civic and church groups. A Bureau consultant also participated in the National Conference to Stabilize Migrant Labor, held in Chicago. The Bureau has continued to carry an active role in the work and deliberations of the President's Committee on Migratory Labor, with consultants serving on various subcommittees and as members of the Committee's Working Group.

Of special significance in improving the working and living conditions of migrant workers are the laws enacted this year in Colorado, Delaware, Massachusetts, and Nevada, referred to elsewhere in this report. All these gains have come through heightened interest and action on the part of State and local groups and, in some instances, have been sparked by State migratory labor committees.

Workmen's Compensation Workmen's compensation continues to be of increasing importance to States, management, labor, and other interested groups and individuals.

Activities in which the Bureau participated and gave assistance included the western regional meeting of the State Fund Association coupled with a discussion of workmen's compensation problems with the administrators from i Western States; the Florida Industrial Commission conference; and the regional meeting of Western States held in Nevada. Bureau personnel gave talks before the U.S. Chamber of Commerce in Washington, D.C., on trends in workmen's compensation and at the Interstate Conference on Labor Statistics in Newport, R.I., on the subject of administrative statistics. On behalf of the President's Committee on Employment of the Physically Handicapped, the Bureau participated in a meeting of the Michigan Commission on Employment of the Physically Handicapped to discuss the Michigan second-injury fund and to consider suggestions for amendment.

Technical assistance was given to the Council of State Governments, on workmen's compensation coverage of public employees; the Federal Association of Epilepsy, concerning second-injury funds; the Advisory Board on Compensation Claims of the United Nations, on heart cases and workmen's compensation generally; the Joint Congressional Committee on Atomic Energy, on the subject of employee radiation hazards; and the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, on workmen's compensation laws of specific States. The Bureau's facilities for providing technical assistance and information on the subject of workmen's compensation laws and procedures were also made available to a number of trade unions, including the national headquarters of the AFL-CIO; United Rubber, Cork, Linoleum and Plastic Workers of America; International Association of Machinists; Communications Workers of America; and a number of State organizations of the AFL CIO.

The technical assistance given to the International Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions in 1960 included, among other things, participation in the 45th annual convention of the IAIABC held September 27October 1, 1959, in Boston and the preparation of the proceedings of the con

vention. Background materials were also prepared for use by the IAIABC Rehabilitation Committee and the Legislation Committee in making their reports to the annual convention.

International Activities During the year, the Bureau actively participated in and contributed to the Department's international program. Various statements were prepared on ILO projects. These included a comprehensive U.S. law and practice report on employment injury benefits, constituting part VI of ILO Convention No. 102 entitled “Minimum Standards of Social Security"; an informational report on welfare facilities for dockworkers for the seventh session of ILO's Inland Transport Committee; and an informational report on hygiene in shops and offices. In addition, the Bureau prepared numerous questionnaires, reports, and position papers on ILO matters. Continuing its practice of previous years, it prepared a statement on labor legislation for inclusion in the United Nations Yearbook on Human Rights. It also participated in preparation for meetings of the Economic and Social Council and furnished the U.N. Advisory Board on Compensation Claims with detailed technical data in the field of workmen's compensation. In addition, it held conferences with numerous individuals or groups of foreign trainees, who were provided with technical information and advice on all phases of labor legislation and administration, with major emphasis on workmen's compensation and industrial relations. In the field of workmen's compensation alone, conferences were held with 25 foreign trainees from 13 different countries.


The substantial increase in the demand for the publications issued in 1960 concerned with labor legislation and administration is reflected in the total of 72,900 copies distributed, as compared with 50,000 last year.

In the field of general labor law, the following bulletins were prepared this year: “State Child Labor Standards,” Bulletin 158; “Hazardous Employment Prohibited for Minors under State Child Labor Laws,” Bulletin 205; "Annual Digest of State and Federal Labor Legislation, 1959," Bulletin 217; "State Laws Regulating Private Employment Agencies,” Bulletin 209; “Time Off for Voting under State Laws,” revised, Bulletin 138; “Status of Agricultural Workers Under State and Federal Labor Laws,” mimeographed; “Labor Laws and Their Administration,” 1959 Proceedings of the 42nd Convention of the International Association of Governmental Labor Officials, Bulletin 214; and “1960 Supplement to Federal Labor Laws and Agencies," revised, Bulletin 123.

In addition, more than 40 reports were prepared to meet special needs for technical information and assistance. Among these reports are a number which have been duplicated and are available upon request, including a summary of State bills on discrimination in employment introduced each year since 1954; an analysis of the administration of fair employment practices laws; a table on laws relating to discrimination because of age; a table showing the school-leaving

age for minors 16 and over; an analysis of weight-lifting provisions in laws and orders; a statement showing developments in 1958 and 1959 on atomic energy legislation and control of radiation hazards; and a statement showing States with laws requiring or authorizing registration of radiation sources.

In addition, a number of articles were prepared for various periodicals, such as the Monthly Labor Review, Migratory Laboi Notes, Aging, and the Encyclopedia Britannica Yearbook. Fifteen papers on a variety of labor laws and their administration were also updated in 1960 for distribution upon request. The most popular of these are the papers on minimum wage, wage payment and wage collection, child labor, State labor relations acts, regulation of private employment agencies, union-restrictive provisions, and the outline of labor law development in the United States.

Publications prepared in the field of workmen's compensation in 1960 included “State Workmen's Compensation Laws-A Comparison of Major Provisions with Recommended Standards,” Bulletin 212; “Workmen's Compensation Problems," 1959 Proceedings of the 45th annual convention of the International Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions, Bulletin 213; “State Workmen's Compensation Laws,” revised, Bulletin 161; “Attorneys' Fees in Workmen's Compensation-A Report of the Standards and Procedures in State Legislation,” Bulletin 220; and two ABC Newsletters dated August 1959 and May 1960.

Two significant publications were prepared on the subject of migratory labor; namely, “State Migratory Labor Committees, Their Organization and Programs," Bulletin 215; and a bulletin entitled “The Community Meets the Migrant Worker-Current Programs and Trends,” which is scheduled for publication early in fiscal 1961. In addition, an analysis was prepared of the 1959 State legislation affecting migratory agricultural workers.

Federal-State Cooperation in Labor Law Administration

The development and servicing of Federal-State cooperative agreements to coordinate the administration of labor laws by State and Federal departments of labor, in areas in which both have authority, has continued to reduce duplication of inspection, bring about a closer relationship between Federal and State agencies, and promote a more uniform approach in administration.

Child Labor and Youth Employment

The Bureau's child labor and youth employment program includes developing and promoting sound child labor standards and suitable employment opportunities for youth under 18. Greater numbers of young people will enter the labor market in the next decade-nearly 4 million in 1965 and a continued high level thereafter. Programs will be needed to integrate them properly into the work force. Special attention must be directed to the 7/2 million youths who, it is predicted, will enter the labor market in the next decade handicapped by inadequate education and training.

The Bureau made every effort during the fiscal year to bring to the attention of educators, parents, employers, and the public the plight of these youths in a labor market with ever-increasing demands for educated and skilled workers. This effort followed recommendations by, and had full cooperation from, the Bureau's Advisory Committee on Young Workers, composed of leaders of American management, labor, education, health, church, and youth-serving agencies as well as local, State, and Federal officials.

As guides to all interested groups, public and private, in preventing and assisting school dropouts, the committee urged the Bureau to collect and disseminate information about sound work experience programs throughout the country and assume leadership in improving conditions for employed youth.

Accordingly, a survey of programs for prospective dropouts was conducted in 17 communities in 6 States and techniques of operating sound educational programs were analyzed. In addition the Bureau gave technical assistance on programs for school dropouts, on youth employment programs, and on employment and delinquency to national, State, and local groups.

Work continued on a survey of programs for prospective dropouts requested by the National Vocational Guidance Association's young workers section.

During the year, the Bureau issued several pamphlets on better preparation and employment conditions for tomorrow's workers. Requests for one of these “Stay in School," directed to youth-topped 2 million copies, vastly exceeding the Bureau's capacity to comply. As it was, nearly three-fourths of a million copies of this and related publications were distributed in response to requests.

Among the more popular publications were “Memo to Employers," seeking cooperation in school-supervised work programs as a means of keeping boys and girls in school; “Some Facts For Young Workers About Work and Labor Laws”; and “We're Never Too Young To Learn Safety,” which many employers reprinted.

Some 16 national and State conferences sought partial or full sets of these school and work publications to advance various aspects of their programs. A State superintendent of schools recommended seven Bureau publications to all his county superintendents. One of the military services distributed a Bureau publication stressing youth's need for more education to meet the increasing employment demands for higher skills.

Safety for Minors The Department completed an investigation to determine whether the operation of circular saws, band saws, and guillotine shears is particularly hazardous for minors, therefore warranting the 18-year age minimum for employment as provided under the child labor provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act. Work was started on the preparation of a proposed order based on the report of this investigation.

Investigative work was completed on occupations in wrecking and demolition operations, and a preliminary report of the investigation was prepared and sent to a group of technical advisers for review.

A survey was made of poultry processing plants, which resulted in a decision that a hazardous occupation order was not warranted in this area.

Criteria were developed for the continued exemption from hazardous occupations orders of student-learners who graduate from high school before reaching 18 years of age.

To aid in formulating plans for the hazardous occupations program, all State labor commissioners were requested to submit suggestions on areas which they believe warrant investigation by the Bureau. More than 40 areas were suggested.

At its last meeting during the year, the Advisory Committee on Young Workers urged the Bureau to exercise leadership in improving conditions for youth employed in agriculture, including developing and promoting voluntary safety standards. Initial steps were taken and agreement was obtained from the National Conference for Farm Safety and the Federal Extension Service of the Department of Agriculture to work jointly with the Bureau in the development of sorely needed safety practices for the thousands of minors under 18 employed as paid workers in agriculture.

The Bureau assisted in developing a most successful school-safety session at the 1960 President's Conference on Occupational Safety. As a result, the Office of Education plans to establish a national steering committee to promote the development of school-shop safety programs and to appoint a specialist in safety education to coordinate the committee's activities. The Bureau will be represented on this committee.

Employment Certificates and Child Labor Standards

The cooperative agreements under which State employment certificates are accepted as proof of age under the Fair Labor Standards Act were renewed by the 47 States and jurisdictions where agreements were previously in effect.

Forty-five States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and 29 cities in Massachusetts and Pennsylvania furnished the Bureau reports on the numbers of employment certificates issued for minors going to work under State and Federal child labor laws.

Nearly a million certificates were reported as issued in 1959, a substantial increase (more than 23 percent) over the approximately 735,000 reported issued during the previous year. This increase probably reflects to a large extent the generally improved economic conditions prevailing in 1959.

The Bureau has continued to render technical assistance to States on forms, instructions, and explanatory bulletins dealing with the child labor laws.

A survey was made of jobs in wholesale houses and warehouses to determine which if any were suitable for outside-school-hours employment of youths aged 14 and 15. The Bureau continued work on Regulation 3 to make sure it offered

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