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THE ATHENÆUM

JOURNAL OF ENGLISH AND FOREIGN LITERATURE, SCIENCE,

THE FINE ARTS, MUSIC, AND THE DRAMA.

Last Week's ATHENÆUM contains Articles on A QUEEN of TEARS.

CAMBRIDGE and its STORY. NELSON and the NEAPOLITAN JACOBINS.

The LIFE of NERO. A SHORT HISTORY of ANCIENT PEOPLES.

ELIZABETHAN LITERATURE.
THEOLOGICAL BOOKS.
QUR LIBRARY TABLE:-The Arguments on Either Side of the Fiscal Question ; The Fields of France;

Sidelights on the Court of France; Labour and other Questions in South Africa ; Toryism ; New
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The Sunday School Union; Burke and Lodge's Peerage.
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The ATHENÆUM for January 16 contains Articles on RECENT BOOKS on JAPAN.

CHAMBERS'S CYCLOPÆDIA of ENGLISH LITERATURE. SIR GEORGE TREVELYAN on the AMERICAN REVOLUTION. The SECOND DUKE of BUCKINGHAM. NEW NOVELS :-General George; Jemima; The Boy, some Horses, and a Girl; Roderick Taliaferro;

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A Versatile Professor; Record of the Upper Norwood Athenæum ; The Hibbert Journal.
LIST OF NEW BOOKS.
MR. W. J. C. MOENS; The CAMBRIDGE STUDIES SYNDICATE; GEORGE GISSING; The

ASSOCIATION of ASSISTANT MASTERS; MISS OTTE; MILTONIC ELISION ; M.
HIPPOLYTE MARINONI.

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Next Week ; Gossip. FINE ARTS :-Roman Archäology; The Old Masters at Burlington House ; Jean Léon Gérôme; Gossip. MUSIC : Ib and Little Christina'; Broadwood Concert; Popular Concerts ; Miniature Series of

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LONDON, SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 6, 1904. was measured by a rood of "messuage,” the

area of the messuage being to the arable CONTENTS.-No. 6.

holding as 1 to 120. Of course a man might NOTES :-The Plougbgang and other Measures, 101—The hold an actual rood and no more, but the

First Edition of Horace, 103. – Carpenters Geography context of surveys usually enables us to diswych, 105–0. Bernard Gibson-Relics of St. Gregory the tinguish between the rood which was the Great, 108.

measure of a larger holding and the rood QUERIES :- J. Turin, French Clockmaker -- " Twenty which was an actual quarter of an acre. I

field History-Court Posts under Stuart Kings -Composer have taken the virgate first because it was and Origin of Air -- Dolores, Musical Composer-Son of the typical holding, and because the equivaNapoleon I -"Gimerro," 107.–Nicholas Ferrar's Harlent word “rood can be more easily underthe Stage-Buckingham Hall, Cambridge, 108—Mortimer stood than “ bovate" or "oxgang." -Christabella Tyrrell-Kipples - Psalter and Latin MS.- I have already, in the form of a table,* *Recommended to Mercy'-Carved Stone-Col. T. Cooper -Torch and Taper, 109.

summarized my theory that every bovate of REPLIES :-Lamb, Coleridge, and Mr. May, 109 —"Chape- fifteen acres was measured by half a rood of

roned by her father"-Shakespeare's “Virtue of neces- messuage; that every virgate of thirty acres sity," 110- Emmet and De Fontenay Letters - Ipswich was measured by a rood of messuage; that Apprentice Books — Memoirs of a Stomach' - Werden wich, 111—John Denman Glowworm or Firefly... All by two roods or half an acre of messuage; Abbey -" Clyse" -" Papers" - The “ Ship" Hotel, Green: every half-hide, or carucate,+ was measured Spencer on Billiards - Downing Family - Ash : Place and that every hide or casatef of a hundred name, 113 - Earliest Playbill --- Nightcaps - Glass Manu- and twenty acres was measured by an acre facture -"Prior to "Before, 114-Frost and its FormsCapsicum-Euchre, 116.

of messuage. If, then, virgate means priNOTES ON BOOKS :- The Works of Thomas Nashe'- marily a rood of land, bovate should mean

Ditchfield's Memorials of Old Oxfordshire' – Kings' half a rood, carucate should mean two roods, Letters' – The British Journal of Psychology: - The and casate should mean an acre. Let us take • Burlington' and other Magazines — Booksellers' Catalogues.

these words in numerical order, and inquire Notices to Correspondents.

whether this supposition is well founded.

1. Seeing that the holder of a virgate was Notes.

called a yardling, and the holder of a bovate

a half-yardling, $ it is probable that if virgate THE PLOUGHGANG AND OTHER

originally meant rood, bovate meant halfMEASURES.

rood. There are indications that it did so. eleventh and twelfth centuries was the yard-oskin, and this quantity of land was loosely The typical holding of English land in the The English term for the late Latin bovata

or bovaga was oxgangll oxegan(g)dale, or land or virgate. It contained thirty acres, and was the fourth part of a hide. Now the regarded in the seventeenth century as a words "yardland” and “ virgate” mean pri- holding not of fifteen acres, but as a piece of marily, a rood or quarter of an acre.

* But * gth S. vi. 304. why should a holding of thirty acres have + Relying on well-known authorities, I have been called a rood ? The answer is that a hitherto regarded the hide and the carucate as rood of land was the area of the “messuage” equivalent terms. The fact that the carucate was which belonged to a holding of thirty acres, really only half a hide in no way affects my tables. and was the measure thereof. When men

It is often described as containing sixty acres. said that X was the holder of a "yard" or

# "Men are beginning to speak of manents,

casates, tributaries of land' much as they would “rood” of land they usually meant that he speak of acres or perches of land” (Maitland, was the possessor of an arable holding which ut supra, p. 359).

§ “Isti subscripti dicuntur half-erdlinges" * This was proved by Prof. Maitland in 'Domes- (Čustomals of Battle Abbey,' p. 77), “Yherdday Book and Beyond,' pp. 384-5. See also ‘Cus. linges......customarii". (ibid., p. 42). The yardling tomals of Battle Abbey' (Camden Soc.), p. 124, is sometimes called virgarius or virgatarius. Hall. where we have "viij acras et dimidiam et una tofts, as well as tofts, are often mentioned in old virgata," and similar entries. MR. NICHOLSON, in surveys :. "in uno tofto et dimidio" ("Coucher an excellent article on Verge and Yard’ (9th S. vii. Book of Selby,' i. 322). We have also“ medietatem 281), says it is “probable that vergée (=virgate) as capitalis mansi,” half a capital measure (ibid., ii. a quarter-acre having acquired the sense of a quar. 274). When a messuage, or a toft, had not been ter, this term latinized would also be applied to the partitioned, but remained in its original condition, quarter of the hide.” Mr. Round ( Feudal England, it was described as a whole messuage or toft, and 1895, p. 108) has also suggested that virgata may it is from this source that we get the word "all" have acquired the sense of “quarter." But if that which usually begins the “parcels" of modern were so the latinized oxgang must also have acquired deeds. The Latin word was totum. the sense of an eighth, and the latinized ploughgang

" boraga, a must have acquired the sense of a half.

norgang" (Wright-Wücker Vocab.).

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