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Dolphin and eldest son and apparent heir to passed if the name had come down to us in Henry, King of France."

the form Tidewell. DR. BRUSHFIELD forget “On the twentieth day of April, 1558, the that the old English word for tide wa fiançailles of the young Prince Francis and Marie,

feminine.

COMESTOR OXONIENSIS. Queen-Heritrix of Scotland, took place.

With regard to MR. PEACHEY's question, It is certain that Tides well has nothing to I may inform him that only the spelling do with "an ebbing and flowing well," and 'Stewart,” and not “Stuart," is mentioned the sooner DR. BRUSHFIELD abandons this in M. E. Cumming Bruce's learned work. popular fancy the better. If the word meant

HENRY GERALD HOPE. what he says it means, it would have been 119, Elms Road, Clapham, S.W.

written Tiduuelle, not l'idesuuelle, in DomesTIDESWELL AND TIDESLOW (9th S. xii. 341, The prefix both in Tides well and Tideslow is

day Book, and Tidewell at the present time. 517; 10th S. i. 52): – Is it not a mistake to the genitive case

of a personal name. attempt to explain these names without having any regard to Anglo-Saxon grammar? low, which, as he sees, has no connexion with

Finding himself in a difficulty about TidesThe A.-S. for intermittent well”. might "an ebbing and flowing well,”. DR. BRUSHhave been tīd-well, i.e., tide-well; but it could

FIELD invokes a list of tombs in Bateman's not possibly have been tīdes-well ! . We never "Ten Years

' Diggings. “It is doubtful,” he say tide's waiter, but only tide-waiter. Con

says,

“ whether this list contains a single sequently, Tides is the genitive case of a man's name.

We are told that it is the example of the name of a prehistoric indigenitive " of Tid, or whatever the right form others, the following lows :

vidual.” The list, however, includes, among of the personal name may have been." Well

, others, the following lows :-
Bottes-low

Ravens-low the right form was Tidi in early spelling,

Browns-low

Rains-low snd Tide in later spelling. The gen. of_Tidi

Culverds-low

Swaius-low or T'ide was l'ides, just as the gen. of Ini or Dars-low

Swans-low Ine (in Latin spelling Ina) was Ines. For Hawkes-low

Taylors-low the gen. form Ines, see ‘A.-S. Chron.,' an. 718.

Herns-low

Thirkell-low Mr. Searle's 'Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum

Kens-low

Tids-low
Ladmans-low

Totmans-low gives two examples of Tidi. Besides this,

Larks-low

Wars-low Tid- was very common as a first element in Pars-low

Yarns-low. names, as in Tid-beald, Tid-beorht, Tid-burh,

It is possible that every one of the twenty Tid-cume, Tid-frith, &c. And Tida (occurring tomb-names which I have cited from the list six times) was the form of a pet-name; only in question contains a personal name; it is the gen. case was Tidan. It is surely obvious certain that some of them do so. For instance, that Tides-welle can only mean “Tidi's well”; Totmans - low contains the A.-S. personal and Tides-low, A.-S. Tides-hlāw, can only name Tatmonn or Tatmon, which occurs mean "Tidi's burial-mound."

It is worth three times in the Durham • Liber Vitæ.' while to add that A.-S. tid, time, is feminine, Ladmans-low also contains a personal name, with the genitive tīde !

and it is just possible that it is identical in At the last reference we are told that low meaning with A.-S. lādmann, guide, leader, is “the well-known word for a bill or mound, The modern form, however, of that word having nothing to do with a burial.". Why should be lodeman. Nevertheless, we have has it “nothing to do with” it? If your Stan-low, for Stone-low, in the district. The correspondent will only take the trouble to prefix in Hawkes-low is the personal name look it out in an A.-S. dictionary or in which is familiar to us in Old Norse as

H.E.D.,' he will find that low is applied Hauk-r; and Ravens-low contains the A.-S. both to a natural hill and to an artificial name Rafan, O.N. Hrafn, which also occurs tumulus. Why are these hardy statements in the Liber Vitæ.' Swains-low, and posmade? Low, as a funeral mound, occurs in sibly also Swans-low, is the tomb of Swegn, 'Bēowulf.' The name Tidi occurs in the 'Liber O.N. Sveinn-a very frequent name of a Vitæ' of Durham, and again in Beda, but not man. In Culverds-low it is probable that later. So the mound may be as old as the we have to do with a name which ended in eighth century, or even earlier. The O.N. heard, as did many A.-S. personal names. völlr is not represented in English by -well, In Thirkel-low we may have the well-known but by -wall. WALTER W. SKEAT.

O.N. masculine name Thorkell. I have not There is one difficulty about Dr. BRUSH- found Tid in the “Liber Vitæ,' but it may FIELD's suggestion that Tideswell means the occur elsewhere. Tida and Tidi, however, Well of the Tide, namely, that it does not are there, and also the following names in account for the s. His etymology might have which Tid- occurs as a compound : Tidcume, Tidhild, Tidburg, Tidreda, Tidhere, Tiduald, appears to have been invented by Charles Tidbald, Tiduulf, Tidberct, Tidhelm.

Cotton, for he, in his Wonders of the Peake,' Many other English lows have preserved 1681, mentions " Weeding-wall or Tydes-well, the names of persons buried in them, as, for the third Wonder,” and asks this question :instance, Hounslow. At the second reference For me, who worst can speculate, what hope W.C. B. pointed to Tinsley, near Sheffield,

To find the secret cause of these strange tides, which, he says, was Tanslaw in 1633. I find Which an impenetrable mountain hides ?* that it was Tynneslow in 1451. I believe it

S. O. ADDY. is in Domesday Book, but I have not been

'OXFORD UNIVERSITY CALENDAR' (10th S. able to refer. The Bosworth-Toller ' A.-S. Dic. i. 47). — The list of beads of colleges and halls tionary' mentions local names compounded with hlæw, hlāw, as "Cwicchelmes hlæw" appears for the last time in the Calendar ("Cwicchelm's low"). In Thorpe's Diplo-prefixed the following note :

To the Calendar' for 1863 is matarium' we have Oswaldeslaw, Oswald's tomb, and Wulfereslaw, Wulfhere's tomb. which purchasers of the Oxford University

“The Class Lists and other historical matter These two last-named lows seem to have | Calendar' will miss in the Calendar' for 1863 are been used as moot-hills. There is a barrow now printed in a separate volume called “The at Bolsterstone, near Sheffield, called Walders- Oxford Year. Book,' together with a full Index of low, meaning Waldhere's tomb. We know

Names." much about the urns, weapons, jewels, and

G. F. R. B. other contents of our English prehistoric In the 'Oxford Historical Register, 1220sepulchres. But due attention has not been 1900,' the lists of colleges with their heads given to the personal names which, in so from the foundations are duly given. I many cases, yet cling to these ancient understand that from the latter date the memorials. It is something to know that a Historical Register' as a separate publicaman of note called Tid gave bis name to tion has been discontinued, and that the Tideswell, and that he received the lasting record of distinctions for the future is con, honour of mound-burial on a hill which over- tained, year by year, in the annual Calendar.' looks that town.

It is to be hoped that all beads of houses The suffix -well, or -wall, seems in many after 1900 are, with their dates of office, cases, as here, to be the O.N. völl-r, dat. vell-i, included.

A. R. BAYLEY. a field or paddock. I have already referred

(OLD OXONIAN also thanked for reply.] to New Wall Nook, and I might have men: tioned Swinden Walls, between Sheffield and “MEYNES” AND “RHINES” (10th S. i. 49). — Penistone. Tideswell' is written Tiddeswall River-names are old, and the origins of them and Tidswale in a Derbyshire Poll-Book of are mostly unknown. In my opinion, it is 1734, and the neighbouring Bradwell occurs quite unsafe to mix them up with modern in that book as Bradwall and Bradall. On words. Speed's map, 1610, I find Tiddes wall and As to meyne, I know nothing at present. Bradwall. In 1758 some fields at Heeley, As to the Somersetshire rhine, I am quite near Sheffield, are described as “Semary clear that the less we muddle it up with the (alias St. Mary) Walls," and they also seem river Rhine, the better. Neither is it Dutch. to have been known as Malkin Crofts. Here, It is just provincial English, and duly, then, wall=0.N. völl-r. I often go to Tides- explained in the 'English Dialect Dictionary, well and Bradwell, but I have not yet seen, under the correct spelling rean. The extract or heard of, either the “ebbing and flowing given says: “The wide open drains are all well" or the salt well. Davies, in his Histori. written rhine and pronounced reen." Rhine cal, &c., View of Derbyshire,' 1811, p. 653, says is an absurd misspelling invented by some that Tides well " is supposed to have received very learned man to whom English was its name from an ebbing and flowing well, “all Greek"; and he misspelt it accordingly. situated in a field near the town, but which If English were really studied for its own has now ceased to flow for more than a sake, it would not be mixed up with Greek century." What proof is there that it ever and Dutch.

WALTER W. SKEAT. did flow? Davies say that “the ebbing and

“ CHAPERONED BY HER FATHER" (9th S. xii. flowing well, the last of the Wonders of the 245, 370, 431; 10th S. i. 54). — There can surely, Peak, is about a mile and [a] half from be no objection to the use of chaperon if Chapel-en-le-Frith, on the road to Tides well. I it be remembered that the French seldom, It is situated in Barmoor Clough” (p. 712). if ever, use the word in the English sense. Barmoor Clough is six miles froin Tideswell. The story about the tides of an ebbing well

24, 27.

* Ed. 1699, pp.

They do indeed so use the word chaperonner, 12mo ; 'A Manuell of the Chronicles of but Littré gives no such meaning to the Englande, from the Creacion of the World word chaperon.

to the Yere of our Lorde 1565,' abridged and I have often wondered why morale, in the collected by Richard Grafton, London, 1565, phrase “the morale of the army,” is written with index and a list of the principal fairs; in italics, as if it were French. As a matter and Walford's 'Fairs Past and Present, 1883, of fact, there is no such word in French; pp. 24, 35, 66, &c. In the Evening Post of but there is a word le moral, which means 8 Feb. (? 1721), No. 1956, is the following morality Again, we often see in English announcement :books une guerre à l'outrance,” which is “Whereas K. James I. by his Letters Patent, did not French at all. We write épergne as if it grant to Sir Francis Lacon, Knt., and his Heirs were a French word, which it is not; and for ever, the Privilege of holding Three Fairs others might be added. We have surely the Yearly in the Town of Cleobury alias Cleobury right to annex any words we choose from give Notice, that William Lacon Childe, Esq., any language, and to attach any sense to designs to hold Three Fairs in the said Town such words as we may find convenient; but Yearly, for the Sale of all Manner of Cattle, Goods, why should we not recognize the words as and Merchandize, on the Days following, viz., on frankly English?

H. A. STRONG..

the 21st of April, on Trinity-Eve, and on the 16th of

October. The First Fair to be held on the 21st of University, Liverpool.

April next, and that Care will be taken to provide I have to thank SIMPLICISSIMUS for his proper Accommodations for such as shall resort

thereto." further instructive comments under this head. The rivulet of judgment meanders in Brand's Popular Antiquities,' revised by

A long account of fairs will also be found pleasantly from its original fount. This was merely an inquiry on my part as to the Sir Henry Ellis (Bohn, vol. ii.).

J. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL. correctness, or otherwise, of a phrase connecting the male with duties hitherto only CAPT. DEATH (10th S. i. 48).—He commanded associated with the fair sex. After careful the Terrible, a London privateer, and was search amongst recognized authorities I was killed in action with the Vengeance, a glad to discover that my notion as to the privateer of St. Malo, on or about 28 Dec., inaccuracy of the expression was generally 1756. F. F. L. will find an account of the confirmed. Lest I should stumble more action, which seems to have been a gallant seriously, I will not again venture into the affair, in Beatson's Naval and Military perilous paths of a discussion anent chaperone, Memoirs,' vol. i.

pp.
524-5.

J. K. L. chaperon, or escort. I have said my say ;

[The Rev. J. PICKFORD refers also to the edition abler

pens than mine must finally settle that of Hume and Smollett by the Rev. T. S. Hughes; question-if they can.

MR. G. T. SHERBORN to Tindal's continuation of SIMPLICISSIMUS asks if I would "taboo the Rapin; and MR. J. B. WAINEWRIGHT to Smollett, use of the word author as applied to a lady. vol. xxvii. p. 90.)

book iii. ch. viii. $ 28, and Gentleman's Magazine, To this I am bold enough to reply that assuredly I would. Authoress is, in my humble HOBGOBLIN'S CLAWS (9th S. xii. 189, 333).view, so welcome and certain a guide to Kinouchi Shigeakira's Unkonshi,'., written identification that it should by no means be in the eighteenth century, describes and allowed to drop out of service.

figures what is called by the Japanese

CECIL CLARKE. "Tengu-no-Tsume," or Tengu's claw, which is West-Country FAIR (10th S. i. 48). -Among the fossilized tooth of extinct sharks. It is the records of the Exeter Corporation are reputed to have the power of repulsing evil letters patent concerning Exeter Fair in the spirits and curing demoniacal possession. fourteenth year of Henry IV. (1412) and

The Tengu is a wood-goblin Japanese 1610 (see Notes and Gleanings in Devon and popular mythology, and is represented now Cornwall, ed. by W. Cotton, F.S.A., and

with prominent nose, now with bird's bill, James Dallas, F.L.S., 15 Jan. and 15 Aug, classical Harpy.

as well as bird's wings, strongly recalling the

KÚMAGUSU MINAKATA. 1889, pp. 10 and 124); also Archæologia,

Mount Nachi, Kii, Japan. vol. i. pp. 190-203; the Western Antiquary, vol. i. March, 1881, to March, 1882, pp. 102-3, “COLLECTIONER” (10th S. i. 28).- This word 129, 140; Doidge's 'Western Counties cannot be attributed only to East Anglia. Annual ; Cooke's "Topographical Survey'; A contributor long ago (2nd S. X. 28) reHugh Carew's Survey of Cornwall,' 1811 ; quired similar information, and gave two 'An Account of all the Fairs in England instances of its use from the church register and Wales,' by Wm. Owen, London, 1756, of Great Hampden, Bucks, in which

word is often used," more particularly in the having lively motion was “a grigg," and case of burials :

tad poles were included in the list. Along 1741-42, Jan 234. Sarah Etherop, a Collectioner. the roads after a shower of rain appeared - 1762, July 20th Jno. Apsalon of ye psh of lively insects, which were known as " fishHitchenden, Collectioner."

flies," and these “danced like griggs” in the In the reply given at p. 98 it is explained sun as long as the lanes remained wet. that it applies to a person permanently in

Tuos. RATCLIFFE.

Worksop. receipt of parochial relief. Many legacies have been left to the poor not taking col

GRAMMAR: NINE PARTS OF SPEECH (9th S. lection.

xii. 504).-- Between fifty and sixty years ago I cannot find the word in any of the many these lines were current at å school in dictionaries to which I have referred.

Nottingham, and that they were of TransEVERARD HOME COLEMAN.

atlantic origin was never so much as hinted. 71, Brecknock Road.

Is there a Board-School child in these days See under Collection’in 'N.E.D.'

that would venture to call a, an, and the W. C. B. "articles "?

ST. SWITHIN. “As MERRY AS GRIGGS” (9th S. xii. 506; The rimes sent you by MR. COLEMAN 10th S. i. 36). — The following quotation from I learned when I was eight years old, a poet and accurate observer of nature may and attending Mrs. Attwood's school at be of interest :

Fairfield, Croydon, in 1865. I think they All about the fields you caught were printed in our grammar, but I forget His weary daylong chirping, like the dry what particular book this was. High-elbowed grigs that leap in summer grass.

JOHN HOBSON MATTHEWS. Tennyson, "The Brook.'

Monmouth.

HIPPOCLIDES. If it is remembered that “grigs” are grass- 174, 396). — The Roman correspondent of the

VETO AT PAPAL ELECTIONS (9th S. xii. 89, hoppers the explanation is simple enough.

E. W.

Tablet, in the issue of that paper dated

9 January, says that, out of the twenty-one Dr. Brewer (Phrase and Fable') explains cardinals in Curia, eighteen recently met as this proverb :-

the official councillors of the Pope, and “A grig is the sand-eel, and a cricket. There decided (1) that the veto is abusive in its was also a class of vagabond dancers and tumblers origin, and (2) that it has never become a who visited ale-houses so called......Many think the "consuetudinary right.”. In connexion with expression should be 'Merry as a Greek.'”

the second point they referred to the election Halliwell (“Dict. of Archaic Words') is very of 1555, when Cardinal Caraffa was elected in decided in stating that grig is a corruption spite of the veto of Charles V. They conof Greek.

RICHARD LAWSON.

cluded by recommending the Pope to render Urmston.

the veto impossible in future by inflicting Dickens uses this expression in 'The Old excommunication on any one bearing a veto Curiosity Shop,'ch. l.' In alluding to the to a Conclave from any civil authority. company of rats Quilp says: “I shall be as

JOHN B. WAINEWRIGat. merry as a grig among these gentry.”.

FIELD-NAMES, WEST HADDON, co. NORTHIn Temple Bar for January is an article on AMPTON (10th $. i. 46). — The field-names of Thomas Hearne, the antiquary. The writer, West Haddon which Mr. JOHN T. Page has the Rev. W. E. Crothers, says that Hearne contributed are of much interest. I send in his 'Diary' states "that the phrase “as notes on a few of them; they must be merry as a grig' should perhaps beras merry regarded as suggestions only, not as positive as a Greek,

JOHN T. PAGE. West Haddon, Northamptonshire.

statements of opinion. Many names depend

on local circumstances which a stranger to The saying was in constant use when I the neighbourhood can by no means grapple was a lad in Derbyshire, but here I have not with. It should be borne in mind that when known it used except by myself. It is similar names occur in far separated places indicative of merry dispositions and lively it by no means follows they have been alike antics. “We were all as merry as griggs." in origin, Gnats dancing in the sun were as merry as

Several of the names in MR. PAGE's list seem griggs," and so were “cheese-jumpers " said to be derived from those of former owners or to be as they moved and jumped on the tenants, but this does not always follow as a cheeseboards in provision shops. Anything matter of course. Priestlands at Redburn,

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Lincolnshire, may have been, and probably vol. vi. p. 548). It may be that the place was, so called from appertaining to some eccle- took its name from ponds or a stream in siastical endowment; on the other hand, it which the flax was steeped before being may have been the private property of a priest, woven into huckaback. or of some layman who had Priest for a sur- Hell Hole.-In place-names Hell does not name. Smithfield, at Loughton, in Essex necessarily refer to the place of punishment, (8th S. i. 84), may signify land appropriated though in some cases, which I believe are under the old manorial system to the village but few, it may do so. It often means a deep blacksmith, or it may have arisen in recent hollow or a darksome place. There was a days from having been held by some one who Helle Bothe at Spalding (Mon. Angl.,' iii. bore that common patronymic. Bellfield, a 230). There are a Hell Hill and a Hell Wood name I have met with, but failed to make a in Yorkshire, and a Hell Hole in Nottingnote of, was probably land appropriated to hamshire, but I cannot identify the parishes the maintenance of the church's bell-gear to which they belong. There were a Hell and payment of the ringers, or perhaps a Mill in Gloucestershire (Smith’s ‘Hundred place where the church bells had been cast, of Berkeley,' 307) and a Hell Mouth at Camor it may at one time have belonged to a bridge (Gerarde's 'Herbal,' ed. 1636, 1390). man called Bell. Without research among It may be worth noting that there is a barrow old docuinents, which have often been lost or named Hell's Hill in Wexiö, where Odin is are unattainable, it is impossible to come to said to have been buried (Marryat's ‘Year in any definite conclusion. At West Haddon, Sweden,' ii. 376). Other places with hell for as in most other places, the names are of an affix have been mentioned to me by friends various dates; some apparently very old, who were not a little indignant at the names others dating from the nineteenth century. having been changed by imbecile persons

California. - Probably one of a class of who were without reverence for the free names given in recent days, adopted from speech of their forefathers. foreign places which at the time of the name- Hunger Wells.To speculate regarding the giving were attracting popular attention. meaning or origin of Hunger in place-names There is a cottage in the parish of Messing- would be rash. Several solutions occur to ham called St. Helena ; I was told by my me, none of which is wildly improbable, but father it was built during the time that all very far from convincing. The word is Napoleon I. was a captive in the Atlantic widely distributed. Hunger Downs occurs island so named. Some houses in the Frod- at Loughton in Essex (8th S. i. 84), Hunger ingham irón district go by the name of Hill at or near Nottingham (* Records of America ; and I have seen a house near Nottingham,' vol. iv. p. 114), and HungerDoncaster, in what parish I do not know, lands at Aldenham, Herts (7th S. xii. 383). called New Zealand. There is a New Zealand Lord's Piece.- Probably lands belonging to field in the parish of Aldenham, Herts (8th S. the lord of the manor. i. 83).

Lunches. – Query, is not this a form of Castles, Great.- Possibly, an encampment Linch or Lynch? Hlinc, ridge, slope, or entrenchments have existed here. Castle bill” (Skeat, A.-S. Dict.'). In Lincolnshire is not uncommonly employed in speaking linch means a balk in a field dividing one of an entrenchment or earthwork where no man's land from another. It is perhaps castle, in the popular sense of the word, has obsolete now, but was not so in 1787, for ever stood.

in the 'Survey of the Manor of Kirton-inCockle Close.- Probably so called from a Lindsey' of that date it is stated that the handsome plant, bearing reddish - purple lands in the field are called dales, and the flowers, which grows ainong See linches or green strips on each side are called 'H.E.D.'

marfurs or meerfurrows." Copy Moor.—This may have been land old Leys. - Ley or Lay, unenclosed grass held by copyhold tenure. In Lincolnshire land, which at some time or other had been and neighbouring counties copyhold pro- ploughed, but had been laid down to grass. perty is frequently spoken of as Copy or There is a farm at Hibaldstow, Lincolnshire, Copy-lands.

yet spoken of as the Old

Leys. Huckaback. — The word means

Poor Man's Close. — Probably land dedilinen fabric used for sheets and towels. The cated in some way or other to the relief of earliest example given in the 'H.E.D.' is of the poor. Perhaps settled by deed of gift or the year 1690. Huckaback napkins were in will before the passing of the Act known as use at St. John's Coll., Cambridge, in 1698 the Poor Law of Elizabeth. (Rogers's 'Hist. Agriculture and Prices, Toot Hill.-An eminence (7th S. i. 56, 97, 154).

corn.

a

coarse

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